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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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PCDD/PCDF Exposure Estimates from Non-TDS Foods Analyzed in 2001-2003

November 2007

 

Estimates for dietary exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), specifically polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), were calculated using  results of PCDD/PCDF analyses of non-Total Diet Study (non-TDS) foods analyzed in fiscal year (FY) 2001-2003 by FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN).

PCDD/PCDF dietary exposures were estimated using both a standard point estimate approach (Jensen and Bolger 2001) and through Monte Carlo simulation using the @Risk add-on (Palisade Inc., Ithaca, NY) to Microsoft Excel. For both methods, FDA used food consumption data derived from USDA's 1994-1996 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (USDA 2000) and Environ Dietary Exposure Assessment (EDEA) software (Environ, Inc., Arlington, VA) to access primary food consumption data. For estimating PCDD/PCDF exposure from food, PCDD/PCDF concentration data were combined with food consumption data. Exposure estimates at the mean and 90th percentile were determined for individual foods for eaters-only, which for these estimates refers to only those people who consume a specific PCDD/PCDF-containing food, and for per capita consumption by the population of potential consumers. Using the point estimate approach, eaters-only exposure was calculated by multiplying the mean PCDD/PCDF concentration in the food by the consumption at a given centile (mean or 90th percentile, for example) of the food taken from USDA's 1994-96, 1998 CSFII. Per capita exposure from that food was then calculated by multiplying the eaters-only exposure by the percentage of eaters of the food. Exposures were calculated on a body weight basis per day. Daily exposure was then converted to a body weight basis per month by multiplying daily exposure by 30.

FDA used a Monte Carlo simulation to provide distributional estimates of dietary exposure from individual foods and from the diet as a whole. In this Monte Carlo model, iterative individual exposure values result from the multiplication of a food consumption value (sampled from an EDEA-determined cumulative food consumption distribution) with a PCDD/PCDF residue value (sampled from a discrete uniform distribution of PCDD/PCDF residue values, i.e., every PCDD/PCDF concentration value is used in the simulation, with equal probability of occurrence in any given iteration) for each PCDD/PCDF-containing food, taking into consideration the likelihood that a person eats that particular food (percent eaters). A total of 10,000 iterations, enough to provide a stable exposure result (i.e., the change in statistics monitored every 50 iterations is less than 1% after 2300 iterations), were performed for each food. Exposures were again calculated on a body weight basis per day. Daily exposure was then converted to a body weight basis per month by multiplying daily exposure by 30.

Distributions of food consumption were prepared using 2-day survey data from USDA's 1994-1996, 1998 CSFII and EDEA software. It is assumed that the food consumption survey data reflect long-term consumption of these foods for the whole population; this assumption is more plausible for some commonly and regularly consumed foods (e.g., milk) than others (e.g., pecans). For less frequently consumed foods, this assumption provides conservative value for long term consumption. Food consumption based on USDA food commodity codes (ingredient use) was used for those foods primarily consumed as an ingredient in mixed food dishes: eggs, fats/oils except margarine, fruits/vegetables, grains/cereals, and tree nuts/peanuts. Food consumption based on USDA food codes (consumption as a whole food) was used for dairy products (including margarine) and individual fish species. For certain fish species that were analyzed for PCDD/PCDF but not listed in USDA's 1994-1996, 1998 CSFII database, a food code "proxy" was used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Per capita consumption of vegetable shortening was obtained from the USDA Economic Research Service online database of poundage-based per capita food consumption.

Table 1 shows mean PCDD/PCDF concentration determined for each food and dietary supplement. Three mean PCDD/PCDF concentration values were generated for each food reflecting assignment of zero, half the LOD, or LOD for congener non-detects. All results are expressed on a whole weight basis. Estimates of per capita PCDD/PCDF exposure from all foods by persons age 2+ years, children age 2-5, and females age 15-45 years are shown in Table 2. Estimates of per capita PCDD/PCDF exposure from individual foods by persons age 2+ years, based on the point estimate and Monte Carlo approaches, are shown in Tables 3 and Table 5, respectively. Estimates of eaters-only PCDD/PCDF exposure from individual foods by persons age 2+ years, based on the point estimate and Monte Carlo approaches, are shown in Table 4 and Table 6, respectively. Three possible exposure estimates were generated reflecting assignment of zero, half the LOD, or LOD values for congener non-detects, which is the approach commonly used when reporting results for DLCs as well as other contaminants (Tables 2-6).(1) PCDD/PCDF concentration presented in Table 1 and PCDD/PCDF exposure estimates presented in Tables 2-6 include only PCDDs and PCDFs but not DL-PCBs.

PCDD/PCDF exposure estimates for dietary supplements analyzed in FY 2001-2003 were not generated because consumption data was not available. In addition, PCDD/PCDF exposure estimates for vegetable shortening was not generated using Monte Carlo simulation because the distribution of consumption for this food was not available. Where PCDD/PCDF concentration data for various sources (e.g., aquaculture, wild and N/D) are indicated in the FY 2001-2003 dataset (as for salmon except smoked salmon and striped bass), these values were combined for each respective fish type to generate exposure estimates. N/D means that information on fish source (i.e., aquaculture or wild) was not determined. PCDD/PCDF exposure estimates presented do not include meat and poultry because these foods were not analyzed. In addition, exposure estimates do not consider PCDD/PCDF losses which may occur during preparation and/or cooking.

This study provides estimates of dietary exposures using both a standard point estimate approach and through Monte Carlo simulation. A standard point estimate approach was included to be consistent with methods used previously by FDA to estimate PCDD/PCDF exposure from TDS food samples and methods used in past FDA studies (Jensen and Bolger 2001). Exposure estimates were also generated using Monte Carlo simulation because this method is currently used by FDA to estimate exposure for other contaminants.

In this study, many foods were found to contain a large number of congener non-detects. Assignment of non-detects to zero, half the LOD or the LOD will have a large effect on estimates of PCDD/PCDF concentration in foods found to contain a large number of congener non-detects and a smaller effect on estimates of PCDD/PCDF concentration in foods found to contain a small number of congener non-detects. Moreover, assuming that non-detects equal half the LOD or the LOD may overestimate PCDD/PCDF concentration in foods thought to be low in PCDD/PCDFs. Since these foods may be consumed in substantial quantities, such assumptions about non-detects can result in overestimates of PCDD/PCDF exposure.


 

Table 1
Mean PCDD/PCDF Concentration (pg WHO-TEQ/g sample) in Non-TDS Foods and Dietary Supplements Analyzed in FY 2001-20031,2
Food
Category
FoodNumber
of
Samples
Mean PCDD/PCDF Concentration
(pg WHO-TEQ/g sample)
ND=0ND=1/2LODND=LOD
DairyMilk2030.010.020.02
Butter190.360.380.41
Cheese, American100.100.110.11
Cream90.260.280.30
Ice Cream100.030.040.06
Yogurt50.000.020.04
EggsEgg710.040.060.08
Fats/OilsCanola Oil110.010.030.05
Corn Oil80.010.040.06
Cottonseed Oil90.010.020.03
Lard200.120.130.15
Margarine100.000.020.03
Olive Oil200.010.040.07
Safflower Oil190.010.030.04
Soybean Oil170.010.020.03
Vegetable Shortening80.020.040.06
Fruits/VegetablesApple100.000.010.03
Avocado150.000.020.03
Banana100.000.000.01
Carrot90.000.010.01
Coconut100.000.020.04
Cucumber100.000.010.02
Olive90.000.020.05
Onion90.000.010.01
Orange60.000.000.01
Potato100.000.010.02
Pumpkin80.010.020.04
Grains/CerealsCorn Flour50.000.020.03
Corn Meal80.000.010.02
Oatmeal130.000.010.01
Rice100.000.010.02
Wheat Flour190.000.020.03
Seafood-FinfishBasa80.000.050.10
Bluefish280.850.931.01
Catfish1200.600.680.76
Flounder210.040.090.14
Halibut140.010.040.07
Ocean Perch120.070.130.19
Pollock130.000.060.13
Salmon, Aquaculture460.130.270.42
Salmon, Wild200.050.230.42
Salmon, N/D50.050.190.32
Salmon, Smoked180.070.110.15
Sardines, Canned180.530.570.60
Sole270.030.090.16
Striped Bass, Aquaculture190.140.240.33
Striped Bass, Wild260.680.760.84
Striped Bass, N/D80.700.800.90
Swordfish180.050.110.17
Tilapia380.010.170.32
Trout280.240.400.55
Tuna, Canned370.020.100.18
Tuna, Not Canned70.010.040.07
Seafood-ShellfishClam150.080.090.11
Crab610.120.260.40
Mussel240.040.220.40
Oyster500.160.320.48
Scallop200.010.050.09
Shrimp210.030.070.11
Tree nuts/PeanutsAlmond20.000.010.02
Cashew270.010.020.04
Peanut50.000.010.02
Pecan50.000.010.02
Pistachio30.000.010.02
Walnut70.000.010.03
Dietary SupplementsCod Liver Oil111.481.551.62
Fish (Body) Oil470.150.220.28
Vitamin A30.060.070.09
Vitamin D70.030.030.04
Vitamin E210.400.410.42
Vitamin K70.040.050.06
Wheat Germ Oil60.020.030.03

1For salmon (except smoked salmon) and striped bass, PCDD/PCDF concentration from various sources (e.g., aquaculture, wild, and N/D) is indicated. N/D means that information on fish source (i.e., aquaculture or wild) was not determined.
2Abbreviations: PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin; PCDF, polychlorinated dibenzofurans; WHO, World Health Organization; TEQ, Toxicity Equivalents; TDS, Total Diet Study; ND, Non-detects; LOD, Limit of Detection; FY, Fiscal Year.


 

Table 2
Per Capita Dietary PCDD/PCDF Exposure Estimates (pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/month) for Certain Population Groups Based on Non-TDS Foods Analyzed in Fiscal Year 2001-20031
Population GroupTotal Mean PCDD/PCDF Exposure
(pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/month)
ND=0ND=1/2LODND=LOD
Persons age 2+ years: Point estimate approach5.6510.2514.85
Persons age 2+ years: Monte Carlo simulation5.169.3713.57
Children age 2-5 years: Monte Carlo simulation14.3026.0637.82
Females age 15-45 years: Monte Carlo simulation3.806.9310.06

1Abbreviations: PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin; PCDF, polychlorinated dibenzofurans; WHO, World Health Organization; TEQ, Toxicity Equivalents; TDS, Total Diet Study; ND, Non-detects; LOD, Limit of Detection.; FY, Fiscal Year.


 

Table 3
Per Capita Dietary PCDD/PCDF Exposure Estimates (pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/month) for Persons Age 2+ Years Based on Non-TDS Foods Analyzed in FY 2001-2003: Point Estimate Approach1,2
Food
Category
FoodMean PCDD/PCDF Exposure
(pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/month)
ND=0ND=1/2LODND=LOD
DairyMilk1.562.303.04
Butter0.250.270.29
Cheese, American0.780.810.84
Cream0.160.170.19
Ice Cream0.290.430.57
Yogurt0.020.100.19
EggsEgg0.430.630.84
Fats/OilsCanola Oil0.010.020.04
Corn Oil0.000.030.05
Cottonseed Oil0.240.711.19
Lard0.290.340.38
Margarine0.010.020.03
Olive Oil0.000.010.01
Safflower Oil0.000.000.00
Soybean Oil0.150.270.39
Vegetable Shortening0.500.881.26
Fruits/VegetablesApple0.000.370.75
Avocado0.000.000.01
Banana0.000.040.08
Carrot0.000.030.06
Coconut0.000.000.00
Cucumber0.000.020.05
Olive0.000.010.01
Onion0.000.030.07
Orange0.000.150.30
Potato0.010.270.53
Pumpkin0.000.000.01
Grains/CerealsCorn Flour0.010.050.09
Corn Meal0.000.030.06
Oatmeal0.000.020.04
Rice0.010.100.19
Wheat Flour0.100.791.49
Seafood-FinfishBasa0.000.020.05
Bluefish0.200.220.24
Catfish0.290.330.37
Flounder0.010.030.04
Halibut0.010.020.03
Ocean Perch0.010.010.01
Pollock0.000.060.13
Salmon0.030.180.14
Salmon, Smoked0.000.000.00
Sardines, Canned0.020.020.02
Sole0.010.030.04
Striped Bass0.020.030.04
Swordfish0.000.000.01
Tilapia0.010.050.10
Trout0.040.070.10
Tuna, Canned0.020.120.21
Tuna, Not Canned0.000.000.00
Seafood-ShellfishClam0.070.090.10
Crab0.020.040.06
Mussel0.000.010.01
Oyster0.000.010.01
Scallop0.000.000.01
Shrimp0.020.050.08
Tree nuts/PeanutsAlmond0.000.000.00
Cashew0.000.000.00
Peanut0.000.020.03
Pecan0.000.000.00
Pistachio0.000.000.00
Walnut0.000.000.00
Total5.6510.2514.85

1For salmon (except smoked salmon) and striped bass, PCDD/PCDF concentration from various sources (i.e., aquaculture, wild, and N/D) were combined to generate exposure estimates. N/D means that fish source (i.e., aquaculture or wild) was not determined.
2Abbreviations: PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin; PCDF, polychlorinated dibenzofurans; WHO, World Health Organization; TEQ, Toxicity Equivalents; TDS, Total Diet Study; ND, Non-detects; LOD, Limit of Detection; FY, Fiscal Year.


 

Table 4
Eaters-Only Dietary PCDD/PCDF Exposure Estimates (pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/month) for Person Age 2+ Years Based on Non-TDS Foods Analyzed in FY 2001-2003: Point Estimate Approach1,2
Food
Category
FoodPCDD/PCDF Exposure
(pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/month)
ND=0ND=1/2LODND=LOD
Mean90th%Mean90th%Mean90th%
DairyMilk2.295.563.378.194.4610.83
Butter1.353.041.463.281.563.53
Cheese, American1.593.471.653.591.713.72
Cream2.955.743.186.183.406.62
Ice Cream1.452.932.124.272.795.62
Yogurt0.320.601.613.012.895.42
EggsEgg0.501.250.741.850.992.45
Fats/OilsCanola Oil0.010.020.020.050.040.09
Corn Oil0.000.010.030.050.050.10
Cottonseed Oil0.240.470.721.401.192.34
Lard0.400.900.471.040.531.18
Margarine0.020.040.060.130.100.22
Olive Oil0.000.000.010.010.020.02
Safflower Oil0.000.000.000.000.000.00
Soybean Oil0.150.290.270.530.390.76
Vegetable Shortening0.501.010.881.761.262.52
Fruits/VegetablesApple0.010.010.761.881.523.75
Avocado0.010.020.190.440.370.85
Banana0.000.000.080.230.170.46
Carrot0.000.000.060.140.110.28
Coconut0.000.000.030.060.050.12
Cucumber0.010.020.060.130.110.25
Olive0.000.000.050.110.090.23
Onion0.000.000.040.090.080.19
Orange0.010.020.330.770.661.52
Potato0.010.020.420.860.831.69
Pumpkin0.080.140.200.350.320.56
Grains/CerealsCorn Flour0.020.050.120.310.220.57
Corn Meal0.010.020.090.200.170.39
Oatmeal0.010.020.070.170.130.31
Rice0.020.040.230.520.441.01
Wheat Flour0.100.210.791.571.482.93
Seafood-FinfishBasa0.180.392.465.264.7410.13
Bluefish30.6263.5533.5369.5936.4475.62
Catfish28.9361.8232.6369.6936.3377.63
Flounder1.602.963.386.255.159.53
Halibut0.471.041.403.072.325.11
Ocean Perch1.934.173.437.424.9310.67
Pollock0.030.052.314.274.598.49
Salmon2.966.198.0716.8713.1827.54
Salmon, Smoked0.781.331.302.221.823.11
Sardines, Canned8.8713.919.4914.8810.1115.85
Sole1.071.983.446.355.8110.74
Striped Bass15.2022.8819.3829.1723.5635.47
Swordfish1.182.432.625.394.068.34
Tilapia1.653.067.1013.1312.5423.20
Trout7.4712.0912.2419.8117.0027.53
Tuna, Canned0.330.651.613.142.885.62
Tuna, Not Canned0.360.551.121.731.892.91
Seafood-ShellfishClam4.729.135.7411.106.7713.09
Crab3.237.306.8715.5310.5023.76
Mussel0.822.065.0112.639.1923.19
Oyster2.853.815.647.568.4411.31
Scallop0.130.290.861.931.593.57
Shrimp0.711.371.552.982.394.61
Tree nuts/PeanutsAlmond0.000.010.020.040.030.08
Cashew0.030.090.080.240.130.39
Peanut0.000.010.060.160.160.31
Pecan0.000.000.010.030.020.05
Pistachio0.010.020.090.180.160.34
Walnut0.000.000.010.030.020.06

1For salmon (except smoked salmon) and striped bass, PCDD/PCDF concentration from various sources (i.e., aquaculture, wild, and N/D) were combined to generate exposure estimates. N/D means that fish source (i.e., aquaculture or wild) was not determined.
2Abbreviations: PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin; PCDF, polychlorinated dibenzofurans; WHO, World Health Organization; TEQ, Toxicity Equivalents; TDS, Total Diet Study; ND, Non-detects; LOD, Limit of Detection; FY, Fiscal Year.


 

Table 5
Per Capita Dietary PCDD/PCDF Exposure Estimates (pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/month) for Persons Age 2+ Years Based on Non-TDS Foods Analyzed in FY 2001-2003: Monte Carlo Simulation1,2,3
Food
Category
FoodMean PCDD/PCDF Exposure
(pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/month)
ND=0ND=1/2LODND=LOD
DairyMilk1.552.283.01
Butter0.260.280.30
Cheese, American0.780.800.83
Cream0.160.170.18
Ice Cream0.290.430.56
Yogurt0.020.100.18
EggsEgg0.420.630.83
Fats/OilsCanola Oil0.010.030.04
Corn Oil0.010.030.05
Cottonseed Oil0.230.701.16
Lard0.290.340.38
Margarine0.010.020.03
Olive Oil0.000.010.02
Safflower Oil0.000.000.00
Soybean Oil0.150.280.41
Vegetable Shortening---
Fruits/VegetablesApple0.000.360.72
Avocado0.000.000.01
Banana0.000.040.08
Carrot0.000.030.06
Coconut0.000.000.00
Cucumber0.000.020.04
Olive0.000.010.01
Onion0.000.030.07
Orange0.000.150.30
Potato0.010.270.53
Pumpkin0.000.000.01
Grains/CerealsCorn Flour0.010.050.08
Corn Meal0.000.030.06
Oatmeal0.000.020.04
Rice0.010.100.18
Wheat Flour0.110.801.49
Seafood-FinfishBasa0.000.020.05
Bluefish0.220.240.26
Catfish0.290.330.37
Flounder0.010.030.04
Halibut0.010.020.03
Ocean Perch0.010.010.01
Pollock0.000.070.13
Salmon0.030.080.13
Salmon, Smoked0.000.000.00
Sardines, Canned0.020.020.02
Sole0.010.030.05
Striped Bass0.030.040.05
Swordfish0.000.010.01
Tilapia0.010.060.10
Trout0.050.080.11
Tuna, Canned0.020.120.21
Tuna, Not Canned0.000.000.00
Seafood-ShellfishClam0.070.090.10
Crab0.020.040.06
Mussel0.000.010.01
Oyster0.010.020.02
Scallop0.000.000.01
Shrimp0.020.050.08
Tree nuts/PeanutsAlmond0.000.000.00
Cashew0.000.000.00
Peanut0.000.020.03
Pecan0.000.000.00
Pistachio0.000.000.00
Walnut0.000.000.00
Total5.169.3713.57

1For salmon (except smoked salmon) and striped bass, PCDD/PCDF concentration from various sources (i.e., aquaculture, wild, and N/D) were combined to generate exposure estimates. N/D means that fish source (i.e., aquaculture or wild) was not determined.
2Abbreviations: PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin; PCDF, polychlorinated dibenzofurans; WHO, World Health Organization; TEQ, Toxicity Equivalents; TDS, Total Diet Study; ND, Non-detects; LOD, Limit of Detection; FY, Fiscal Year.
3Exposure estimates for vegetable shortening was not generated because the distribution of consumption for this food was not available.


 

Table 6
Eaters-Only Dietary PCDD/PCDF Exposure Estimates (pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/month) for Persons Age 2+ Years Based on Non-TDS Foods Analyzed in Fiscal Year 2001-2003: Monte Carlo Simulation1,2,3
Food
Category
FoodPCDD/PCDF Exposure
(pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/month)
ND=0ND=1/2LODND=LOD
Mean90th%Mean90th%Mean90th%
DairyMilk2.265.743.338.254.4011.06
Butter1.403.191.513.481.623.75
Cheese, American1.583.721.643.851.693.90
Cream2.906.433.126.873.347.21
Ice Cream1.443.282.114.582.786.08
Yogurt0.310.771.583.422.845.93
EggsEgg0.501.200.741.830.982.50
Fats/OilsCanola Oil0.010.020.030.050.040.09
Corn Oil0.010.010.030.060.050.11
Cottonseed Oil0.240.600.701.661.172.80
Lard0.400.950.461.080.531.23
Margarine0.020.040.060.140.100.23
Olive Oil0.010.000.020.020.030.03
Safflower Oil0.000.000.000.000.000.00
Soybean Oil0.150.380.280.590.410.85
Vegetable Shortening------
Fruits/VegetablesApple0.000.010.731.331.472.64
Avocado0.010.030.190.450.370.86
Banana0.000.000.080.230.160.46
Carrot0.000.000.060.140.110.29
Coconut0.000.000.030.070.060.14
Cucumber0.010.010.060.090.110.16
Olive0.000.000.050.090.090.17
Onion0.000.000.040.100.080.21
Orange0.000.010.330.810.641.58
Potato0.010.040.420.960.831.90
Pumpkin0.080.210.200.500.320.84
Grains/CerealsCorn Flour0.020.050.120.320.220.58
Corn Meal0.010.030.090.210.170.40
Oatmeal0.010.030.070.170.130.32
Rice0.020.020.230.540.431.04
Wheat Flour0.110.280.801.861.493.59
Seafood-FinfishBasa0.190.512.505.914.8111.23
Bluefish31.2768.4234.2472.7137.2178.90
Catfish29.3479.9933.0981.5736.8486.29
Flounder1.604.653.377.685.1311.01
Halibut0.471.251.383.002.304.98
Ocean Perch1.954.333.477.774.9910.77
Pollock0.020.102.355.534.6710.88
Salmon2.986.328.1216.4613.2527.45
Salmon, Smoked0.812.121.342.991.884.00
Sardines, Canned8.8524.869.4725.2210.0925.18
Sole1.063.073.427.095.7911.78
Striped Bass15.2237.5319.4145.0223.5952.17
Swordfish1.213.592.675.974.149.78
Tilapia1.612.397.1114.7012.6127.44
Trout7.7115.5712.6423.5017.5632.86
Tuna, Canned0.340.201.623.802.907.31
Tuna, Not Canned0.361.801.123.141.895.37
Seafood-ShellfishClam4.7113.755.7314.796.7617.56
Crab3.309.257.0116.3710.7324.44
Mussel0.841.845.1213.759.4025.79
Oyster2.968.725.8611.818.8115.85
Scallop0.130.330.892.101.644.14
Shrimp0.711.771.543.432.385.41
Tree nuts/PeanutsAlmond0.000.010.020.050.030.09
Cashew0.030.060.080.220.130.35
Peanut0.000.010.070.160.130.32
Pecan0.000.000.010.030.020.05
Pistachio0.010.020.080.200.150.37
Walnut0.000.000.010.030.030.06

1For salmon (except smoked salmon) and striped bass, PCDD/PCDF concentration from various sources (i.e., aquaculture, wild, and N/D) were combined to generate exposure estimates. N/D means that fish source (i.e., aquaculture or wild) was not determined.
2Abbreviations: PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin; PCDF, polychlorinated dibenzofurans; WHO, World Health Organization; TEQ, Toxicity Equivalents; TDS, Total Diet Study; ND, Non-detects; LOD, Limit of Detection; FY, Fiscal Year.
3 Exposure estimates for vegetable shortening was not generated because the distribution of consumption for this food was not available.


To obtain more general information on DLCs, see  Questions and Answers about Dioxin. The Interagency Working Group on Dioxin (IWG) prepared the questions and answers. The Dioxin IWG is composed of U.S. federal agencies that address health, food, the environment and are working together to ensure a coordinated federal approach to issues related to DLCs.


References

(Jensen and Bolger 2001) Jensen E. and Bolger, P.M. (2001) Exposure Assessment of Dioxins/Furans Consumed in Dairy Foods and Fish. Food Addit. Contam. 18(5):395.

(USDA 2000) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96, 1998 [CD-ROM]. NTIS No. PB2000-50027. 2000.

(JECFA 2001) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Summary and Conclusions of the Fifty-seventh Meeting. 2001.


Notes

(1) In 2001, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established a Provisional Tolerable Monthly Intake (PTMI) of 70 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/month for PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) (JECFA 2001). Dietary exposure estimates presented in Tables 2-6 include PCDDs and PCDFs but not DL-PCBs.