Bad Bug Book Symptomatic diagnoses of mushroom poisonings.
Table 2. Symptomatic diagnoses of mushroom poisonings.
Onset Rapid (15 min-2 h after ingestion)
|Nausea and abdominal discomfort,sometimes with diarrhea and vomiting||Unknown toxins from numerous genera||Rapid and complete recovery; serious cases may last 2-3 days and require fluid replacement|
|Excessive sweating, lacrimation,salivation beginning 15-30 min after ingestion||Muscarine from Clitocybe or Inocybe spp.||Complete recovery within approximately 2 h|
|Inebriation or hallucinations without drowsiness or sleep||Psilocybin from Psilocybe, Paneolus, Gymnopilus, Conocybe, or Pluteus spp.||Complete and spontaneous recovery within 5-10 h; may take up to 24 h with large doses|
|Delirium with sleepiness or coma developing within 1 or 2h after ingestion||ibotenic acid/muscimol from Amanita muscaria or A. pantherina||alternating periods of drowsiness and excitement for several h, followed by total recovery|
Onset Delayed (6 h-3 days after ingestion)
|Feeling of abdominal fullness and severe headache about 6 h after ingestion, vomiting, no diarrhea||Gyromitrin and related hydrazones from Gyromitra esculenta and its relatives||Complete recovery within 2-6 days; may require correction of metabolic acidosis; some deaths have occurred due to liver failure|
|Persistent and violent vomiting, abdominal pain, profuse, watery diarrhea beginning around 12 h after ingestion||alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amanitins from Amanita phalloides and its relatives; Galerina autumnalis and its relatives; or Lepiota josserandii and its relatives||Apparent recovery a few hours after onset of symptoms, followed by a symptom-free period of 3-5 days, which precedes a period of jaundice, loss of strength, coma, and often death|
|Intense, burning thirst and frequent urination beginning 3-14 days after ingestion, followed by gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, pain in the limbs, spasms, and loss of consciousness||Orellanine from Cortinarius orellanus||Recovery (including recovery of renal function) may require several months in less severe cases; death from kidney failure may occur in severe cases|
Onset Conditional (within 72 h of ingestion)
|Flushing, palpitations, rapid heartbeat, rapid, labored breathing occur within 1/2 to 2 h after consuming alcohol, if alcohol was consumed within 72 h of mushroom ingestion||Coprine in Coprinus atramentarius||Recovery is spontaneous and complete within a few to several hours after onset of symptoms|
Return to chapter 40, Mushroom Toxins.