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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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Bad Bug Book Symptomatic diagnoses of mushroom poisonings.

Table 2. Symptomatic diagnoses of mushroom poisonings.

Onset Rapid (15 min-2 h after ingestion)

SymptomsCausePrognosis
Nausea and abdominal discomfort,sometimes with diarrhea and vomitingUnknown toxins from numerous generaRapid and complete recovery; serious cases may last 2-3 days and require fluid replacement
Excessive sweating, lacrimation,salivation beginning 15-30 min after ingestionMuscarine from Clitocybe or Inocybe spp.Complete recovery within approximately 2 h
Inebriation or hallucinations without drowsiness or sleepPsilocybin from Psilocybe, Paneolus, Gymnopilus, Conocybe, or Pluteus spp.Complete and spontaneous recovery within 5-10 h; may take up to 24 h with large doses
Delirium with sleepiness or coma developing within 1 or 2h after ingestionibotenic acid/muscimol from Amanita muscaria or A. pantherinaalternating periods of drowsiness and excitement for several h, followed by total recovery

Onset Delayed (6 h-3 days after ingestion)

SymptomsCausePrognosis
Feeling of abdominal fullness and severe headache about 6 h after ingestion, vomiting, no diarrheaGyromitrin and related hydrazones from Gyromitra esculenta and its relativesComplete recovery within 2-6 days; may require correction of metabolic acidosis; some deaths have occurred due to liver failure
Persistent and violent vomiting, abdominal pain, profuse, watery diarrhea beginning around 12 h after ingestionalpha-, beta-, and gamma-amanitins from Amanita phalloides and its relatives; Galerina autumnalis and its relatives; or Lepiota josserandii and its relativesApparent recovery a few hours after onset of symptoms, followed by a symptom-free period of 3-5 days, which precedes a period of jaundice, loss of strength, coma, and often death
Intense, burning thirst and frequent urination beginning 3-14 days after ingestion, followed by gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, pain in the limbs, spasms, and loss of consciousnessOrellanine from Cortinarius orellanusRecovery (including recovery of renal function) may require several months in less severe cases; death from kidney failure may occur in severe cases

Onset Conditional (within 72 h of ingestion)

SymptomsCausePrognosis
Flushing, palpitations, rapid heartbeat, rapid, labored breathing occur within 1/2 to 2 h after consuming alcohol, if alcohol was consumed within 72 h of mushroom ingestionCoprine in Coprinus atramentariusRecovery is spontaneous and complete within a few to several hours after onset of symptoms

January 1992


Return to chapter 40, Mushroom Toxins.