Bad Bug Book:
Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook
Foodborne Disease Outbreak Articles and Databases of Interest
"Impact of Changing Consumer Lifestyles on the Emergence and Reemergence of Foodborne Pathogens", Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(4)1997.
Foodborne illness of microbial origin is the most serious food safety problem in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 79% of outbreaks between 1987 and 1992 were bacterial; improper holding temperature and poor personal hygiene of food handlers contributed most to disease incidence. Some microbes have demonstrated resistance to standard methods of preparation and storage of foods. Nonetheless, food safety and public health officials attribute a rise in incidence of foodborne illness to changes in demographics and consumer lifestyles that affect the way food is prepared and stored. Food editors report that fewer than 50% of consumers are concerned about food safety. An American Meat Institute (1996) study details lifestyle changes affecting food behavior, including an increasing number of women in the workforce, limited commitment to food preparation, and a greater number of single heads of households. Consumers appear to be more interested in convenience and saving time than in proper food handling and preparation.
"Quantitative Risk Assessment: An Emerging Tool for Emerging Foodborne Pathogens", Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(4)1997.
New challenges to the safety of the food supply require new strategies for evaluating and managing food safety risks. Changes in pathogens, food preparation, distribution, and consumption, and population immunity have the potential to adversely affect human health. Risk assessment offers a framework for predicting the impact of changes and trends on the provision of safe food. Risk assessment models facilitate the evaluation of active or passive changes in how foods are produced, processed, distributed, and consumed.
"Outbreak Investigations: A Perspective", Emerging Infectious Diseases 4(1)1998.
Outbreak investigations, an important and challenging component of epidemiology and public health, can help identify the source of ongoing outbreaks and prevent additional cases. Even when an outbreak is over, a thorough epidemiologic and environmental investigation often can increase our knowledge of a given disease and prevent future outbreaks. Finally, outbreak investigations provide epidemiologic training and foster cooperation between the clinical and public health communities.
National Center for Environmental Health, Diseases Transmitted through the Food Supply
The objective of Environmental Health Services (EHS) is to strengthen the role of state, local, and national environmental public health programs and professionals to better anticipate, identify, and respond to adverse environmental exposures and the consequences of these exposures to human health. Section 103(d) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Public Law 101-336, requires Secretary the Department of Health and Human Services to:
- 1. Review all infectious and communicable diseases which may be transmitted through handling the food supply;
- 2. Publish a list of infectious and communicable diseases which are transmitted through handling the food supply;
- 3. Publish the methods by which such diseases are transmitted;
- 4. Widely disseminate such information regarding the list of diseases and their modes of transmissibility to the general public;
- 5. Additionally, update the list annually.
Food Safety and Inspection Service Pathogen Reduction/HACCP & HACCP Implementation
FSIS links to federal documents concerning "Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points" implementation.
Food Safety and Inspection Service Active Recall Information Center
This page contains summary data on active recall cases. When a recall is completed, it will be removed from this listing, but will be included in the Recall Case Archive.
Food Safety and Inspection Service Office of Public Health and Science Publications
The Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS) provides expert scientific analysis, advice, data, and recommendations on all matters involving public health and science that are of concern to FSIS.
Food Safety and Inspection Service Food Safety Publications
Disaster Assistance, Fact Sheets, Food Safety Features, Food Safety Focus (Background), Seasonal Features (Press Kits) from the Meat and Poultry Hotline, Consumer Information From USDA, some available as one-page reproducibles), Brochures, Graphics, For Children, News Feature Stories and Technical Information From FSIS.