BBB - Gempylotoxin
Bad Bug Book:
Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook
Gempylotoxism or Gempylid Fish Poisoning or Keriorrhea (Keriorrhoea)
Nature of Disease:
An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness associated with the consumption of escolar fish, K Yohannes, CB Dalton, L Halliday, LE Unicomb, M Kirk, Commun Dis Intell 2002; 26:441-445.
See Nature of Disease (above)
Additionally, there has been a report of scombrotoxin poisoning (also known as scombroid poisoning and histamine fish poisoning) associated with the consumption of Escolar fish (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum): Feldman KA, Werner SB, Cronan S, Hernandez M, Horvath AR, Lea CS. A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating escolar fish (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum). Epidemiol Infect. Feb 2005;133(1):29-33.
Symptoms are associated with the ingestion of Escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) or Oilfish (Ruvettus pretiosus). Other species (including Butterfish, Rudderfish, Cod, and Taiwanese Seabass have been implicated, but these may be due to species substitution or misbranding.
Images and other information from the Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia:
Oilfish Photos of Commercial Product and Packaging
Gempylotoxin poisoning reports are sporadatic.
See Nature of Disease, above.
Anyone ingesting these fish species may be affected.
The oils contain of high levels of indigesible wax esters.
Review Article on Fish-induced Keriorrhea: Ling, K. H.; Nichols, P. D.; But, P. P. H. (2009). "Fish-induced Keriorrhea". In: Taylor, S. L. (Ed.), Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 57: 1–52. Academic Press, San Diego.
"Rapid detection of oilfish and escolar in fish steaks: A tool to prevent keriorrhea episodes", Ka Ho Ling, Chun Wai Cheung, Sau Wan Cheng, Ling Cheng, Song-Lin Li, Peter D. Nichols, Robert D. Ward, Alastair Graham, Paul Pui-Hay But, Food Chemistry, 110 (2008), 538-546.
"Unusually high levels of non-saponifiable lipids in the fishes escolar and rudderfish: Identification by gas and thin-layer chromatography", PD Nichols, BD Mooney, NG Elliott, Journal of Chromatography A, 936 (2001) 183-191 [CSIRO Marine Research, GPO Box 1538, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org] | PubMed
"Keriorrhoea - the passage of oil per rectum - after ingestion of marine wax esters", Berman P, Harley EH, Spark AA, S. Afr. Med. J. 1981 May 23; 59(22), 791-2 | PubMed
"B.W. Halstead, "Poisonous and Venomous Marine Animals of the World", Vol. II, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1967
"The lipids of Ruvettus pretiosus muscle and liver", Nevenzel JC, Rodegker W, Mead JF, Biochemistry. 1965 Aug; 4(8):1589-94 | PubMed
[Wax components of escolar (Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and its application to base of medicine and cosmetics], Ukishima Y, Masui T, Matsubara S, Goto R, Okada S, Tsuji K, Kosuge T., Yakugaku Zasshi. 1987 Nov; 107(11):883-90 [Article in Japanese] | PubMed
- CDC/MMWR: Gempylotoxin
- Provides a list of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports at CDC relating to this organism or toxin. The date shown is the date the item was posted on the Web, not the date of the MMWR. The summary statement shown are the initial words of the overall document. The specific article of interest may be just one article or item within the overall report.
- NIH/PubMed: Gempylotoxin
- Provides a list of research abstracts contained in the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database for this organism or toxin.
- Agricola: Gempylotoxin
- Provides a list of research abstracts contained in the National Agricultural Library database for this organism or toxin.
For more information on recent outbreaks see the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports from CDC.
Wax composed of C32, C34, C36 and C38 fatty acid esters; the main component was C34H66O2 (Ukishima, et al.)