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> Listeria monocytogenes
Sources: Listeria monocytogenes is often found in refrigerated, ready-to-eat foods.
Incubation: Most symptoms have been reported 48 to 72 hours after consumption of contaminated food, but can develop from 7 to 30 days after ingestion.
Symptoms: Fever, headache, fatigue, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, meningitis (a bacterial disease in which any of the 3 membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord become inflamed), and miscarriages, resulting in a 20% mortality rate in fetuses.
Duration: 1 to 4 days.
> Log Reduction
Food Safety Implication: The 5-log reduction is the value used for some food safety standards. It is an estimate of the potential number of organisms that would contaminate an 8 oz. juice serving and the level of reduction that it would take to render the product safe.
The 5 log refers to 10 to the 5th power or reduction in the number of microorganisms by 100,000-fold. For example, if a juice product contained 100,000 pertinent microorganisms, a 5-log reduction would reduce the number of pertinent microorganisms to 1. (See the Log Reduction Chart below.) While the 5 log is specific to unpasteurized juice, the value has been used by the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) as a performance standard in roast beef.
Two Practical Ways of Looking at 5-Log Reduction: