Adegoke, G. O., Iwahashi, H. and Komatsu, Y. 1997. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by combination of hydrostatic pressure and monoterpenes. J Food Sci. 62(2): 404-405.
Akiyama, H. 2000. Otsuka Chemical Co., Ltd., 463 Kagasuno Kawauchi. CHO, Tokushima 771-0193 Japan (contact: Phone 0886-65-6672; Email: email@example.com).
Alderton, G. and Snell, N. 1969. Bacterial spores: Chemical sensitization to heat. Science. 163:1212
Alderton, G., Ito, K. A. and Chen, J. K. 1976. Chemical manipulation of the heat resistance of Clostridium botulinum spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 31:492-498
Aleman, G. D., Farkas, D. F., McIntyre, S., Torres, J. A. and Wilhelmsen, E. 1994. Ultra-high pressure pasteurization of fresh cut pineapple. J Food Protect. 57(10):931-934
Aleman, G. D., Ting, E. Y., Mordre, S. C., Hawes, A. C. O., Walker, M., Farkas, D. F. and Torres, J. A. 1996. Pulsed ultra high pressure treatments for pasteurization of pineapple juice. J Food Sci. 61(2):388-390
Allen, M. 1969. Electrohydraulic process for producing antigens. U.S. Patent 3,445,566.
Alpas, H., Kalchayandand, N., Sikes, T., Dunne, C. P. and Ray, B. 1994. Hydrostatic pressure among strains of foodborne pathogens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65(9):4248-4251
Ananth, V., Dickson, J. S., Olson, D. G. and Murano, E. A. 1998. Shelf-life extension, safety and quality of fresh pork loin treated with high hydrostatic pressure. J Food Protect. 61(12):1649-1656
Anantheswaran, R. C. and Liu, L. Z. 1994a. Effect of viscosity and salt concentration on microwave heating of model non-Newtonian liquid foods in cylindrical containers. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 29:127
Anantheswaran, R. C. and Liu, L. Z. 1994b. Effect of shielding on flow profiles in water in a cylindrical container during microwave heating. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 29(4):220
Anderson, W. A., McClure, P. J., Baird-Parker, A. C. and Cole, M. B. 1996. The application of a log-logistic model to describe the thermal inactivation of clostridium botulinum at 213B at temperatures below 121-1 degrees C0. J Appl Bacteriol. 80:283-290
Anonymous. 1980. The potential of Bach. Food Manuf. 55(10):53
Anonymous. 1989. Canned Foods: principles of thermal process control, acidification and container closure evaluation. Washington, DC. The Food Processors Institute. Fifth Edition.
Anonymous. 1996. Sterilization surfaces by irradiation with microwaves. NASA Tech Briefs. 140
Anonymous. 1996. Thermal processes for low-acid foods in metal containers. Washington, DC. National Food Processors Association. Bulletin 26-L 72-85.
Anonymous. 1999. Micro Denshi Co., Ltd., No. 8-25, 2-Chrome Yoshinodai, Kawagoeshi, Saitama 350, Japan.
Anonymous. 1999. U.S. food & drug administration center for food safety and & applied nutrition foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins handbook [Bad Bug Book]. 2000. http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/list.html
Anonymous. 1999. UV light provides alternative to heat pasteurization of juices. Food Technol. 53(9):144
Arabshahi, A. and Lund, D. B. 1985. Considerations in calculating kinetic parameters from experimental data. J Food Process Eng. 7:239-251
Arroyo, G., Sanz, P. D. and Prestamo, G. 1997. Effect of high pressure on the reduction of microbial populations in vegetables. J Appl Microbiol. 82:735-742
Ball, C. O. and Olson, F. C. W. 1957. Sterilization in Food Technology. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.
Ballestra, P., Da Silva, A. A. and Cuq, J. L. 1996. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by carbon dioxide under pressure. J Food Sci. 61(4):829-836
Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., Pothakamury, U.R., and Barry, G.S. 1994. State of the art technologies for the stabilization of foods by non-thermal processes: physical methods. In: Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., and Welti-Chanes, J.(eds.), Food Preservation by Moisture control. Lancaster, Technomic Publishing.pp. 423-532.
Barbosa-Canovas, G. V., Palou, E., Pothakamury, U. R. and Swanson, B. G. 1997. Application of light pulses in the sterilization of foods and packaging materials. Nonthermal Preservation of Foods. Chapter 6-139-161. Marcel Dekker. New York.
Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., Gongora-Nieto, M.M., and Swanson, B.G. 1998. Nonthermal electrical methods in food preservation. Food Sci. Int. 4(5):363-370.
Barbosa-Canovas, G. V., Gongora-Nieto, M. M., Pothakamury, U. R. and Swanson, B. G. 1999. Preservation of foods with pulsed electric fields. 1-9, 76-107, 108-155. Academic Press Ltd. London.
Bassani, M. 1999. Personal communication. Micromac Systems.
Beattie, M. and Lewis, F. C. 1925. The electric current (apart from the heat generated) A bacteriological agent in the sterilization of milk and other fluids. J Hyg. 24:123
Bengtsson, N. E. and Green, W. 1970. Radio-frequency pasteurization of cured hams. J Food Sci. 35:681-687
Benito, A., Ventoura, G., Casadei, M., Robinson, T. and Mackey, B. 1999. Variation in resistance of natural isolates of Escherichia coli O157 to high hydrostatic pressure, mild heat, and other stresses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 65(4):1564-1569
Berlin, D. L., Herson, D. S., Hicks, D. T. and Hoover, D. G. 1999. Response of pathogenic vibrio species to high hydrostatic pressure. Appl Environ Microbiol. 65(6):2776-2780
Bernhardt, H. 1994. Desinfektion aufbereiteter oberflachenwasser mit UV-Strahlen. Wasser-Abwasser. 135(12):677-689
Bolton, J. R. 1999. Ultraviolet Applications Handbook. Bolton Photosciences, Inc. Ayr, ON, CA N0B 1E0.
Brauch, G., Haensler, U. and Ludwig, H. 1990. The effect of pressure on bacteriophages. High Pressure Res. 5:767-769
Bridgman, P. W. 1912. Watern in the liquid and five sloid forms under pressure. Proc Amer Acad Art Sci. 47:441-558
Brynjolfsson, A. 1979. Food irradiation and nutrition. The Professional Nutritionist. 11(4):7-10
Buchanan, R. L. 1997. Identifying and controlling emerging foodborne pathogens: research needs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3(4):517-521
Buffler, C. R. 1993. Microwave cooking and processing: Engineering fundamentals for the food scientist. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.
Burfoot, D., Griffin, W. J. and James, S. J. 1988. Microwave pasteurization of prepared meals. Journal of Food Engineering. 8:145-156
Burfoot, D., Railton, C. J., Foster, A. M. and Reavell, R. 1996. Modeling the pasteurization of prepared meal with microwaves at 896 MHz. J Food Eng. 30:117-133
Burton, H. 1949. A survey of literature on bacterial effects of short electromagnetic waves. Shinfield, England. National Institute for Research in Dairying Shinfield. N. I. R. D. Paper No. 1041.
Butz, P., Trangott, V., Ludwig, H., Ries, J. and Weber, H. 1990. The high pressure inactivation of bacteria and bacterial spores. Die Pharm Ind. 52:487-491
Butz, P., Habison, G. and Ludwig, H. 1992. Influence of high pressure on a lipid-coated virus. R. Hayashi, K. Heremans and P. Masson(eds.). High Pressure and Biotechnology. London. John Libby & Co., Ltd. 61-64.
Butz, P., Funtenberger, S., Haberditzl, T. and Tauscher, B. 1996. High pressure inactivation of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores and other heat-resistant moulds. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 29:404-410
Calderon-Miranda, M. L. 1998. Inactivation of listeria inocua by pulsed electric fields and nisin. Pullman, WA. Washington State University.
Carlez, A., Cheftel, J. C., Rosec, J. P., Richard, N., Saldana, J. L. and Balny, C. 1992. Effects of high pressure and bacteriostatic agents on the destruction of citrobacter freundii in minced beef muscle. C. Balny, R. Hayashi, K. Heremans and P. Masson(eds.). High Pressure and Biotechnology. London, U.K. John Libby & Co., Ltd. 365-368.
Carlez, A., Rosec, J. P., Richard, N. and Cheftel, J. C. 1994. Bacterial growth during chilled storage of pressure-treated minced meat. Lebens Wiss Technol. 27:48-54
Carpi, G., Buzzoni, M., Gola, S., Maggi, A. and Rovere, P. 1995. Microbial and chemical shelf-life of high-pressure treated salmon cream at refrigeration temperatures. Industria Conserve. 70:386 - 397
Carsberg, H. 1999. Sanitation: It's a small world. Food Quality. Jan/Feb:61-62
Casasnovas, J., Anantheswaran, R. C., Shenk, J. and Puri, V. M. 1994. Thermal processing of food packaging waste using microwave heating. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 29:171
Castro, A. J. 1994. Pulsed electrical field modification of activity and denaturation of alkaline phosphatase. Food Science and Human Nutrition. Pullman, WA. Washington State University.
Castro, A. J., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1993. Microbial inactivation of foods by pulsed electric fields. J Food Process Pres. 17:47-73
CDC. 1998. Update: Multistate outbreak of listeriosis-United States, 1998-1999. MMWR. 47:1117-1118
CDC. 1999. Incidence of foodborne illnesses: preliminary data from the foodborne diseases active surveillance network [Foodnet]-United States, 1998. MMWR. 48:189-194
CDC. 2000. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks-United States, 1993-1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports. 49:1-51
Chang, J. C. H., Ossoff, S. F., Lobe, D. C., Dorfman, M. H., Dumais, C. M., Qualis, R. G. and Johnson, J. D. 1985. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms. Appl Environl Microbiol. 49:1361-1365
Cheftel, J. C. 1992. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on food constituents: An overview. C. Balny, Hayashi, R., Heremans, K., Masson, P. High Pressure Biotechnol. 224. 195-209.
Cheftel, J. C. 1995. Review: high pressure, microbial inactivation and food preservation. Food Sci Technol Int. 1(2/3):75-90
Chen, C. and Tseng, C. W. 1997. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the temperature dependence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Proc Biochem. 32(4):337-343
Chipley, J. R. 1980. Effects of microwave irradiation on microorganisms. Adv Appl Microbiol. Academic Press Inc. 26. 129-145.
Chiu, C. P., Tateishi, K., Kosikowski, F. V. and Armbruster, G. 1984. Microwave treatment of pasteurized milk. J Microwave Power. 19(4):269-272
Cho, H.-Y., Sastry, S. K. and Yousef, A. E. 1996. Growth kinetics of Lactobacillus acidophilus under ohmic heating. Biotechnol Bioeng. 49(3):334-340
Cho, H.-Y., Sastry, S. K. and Yousef, A. E. 1999. Kinetics of inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by continuous or intermittent ohmic and conventional heating. Biotechnol Bioeng. 62(3):368-372
Clouston, J. G. and Wills, P. A. 1969. Initiation of germination and inactivation of Bacilluspumilus spores by hydrostatic pressure. J Bacteriol. 97:684-690
Coughlan, A., Hall, N. 1990. How magnetic field can influence your ions? New Scientist. 8(4):30
Crawford, Y. J., Murano, E. A., Olson, D. G. and Shenoy, K. 1996. Use of high hydrostatic pressure and irradiation to eliminate Clostridium sporogenes in chicken breast. J Food Protect. 59:711-715
Cross, G. A. and Fung, D. Y. C. 1982. The effect of microwaves on nutrient value of foods. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 16:355-381
Culkin, K. A. and Fung, D. Y. C. 1975. Destruction of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in microwave-cooked soups. J Milk Food Technol. 38(1):8-15
Curry, R., Unklesbay, N., Clevenger, T., Brazos, B., Mesyats, G. and Filatov, A. 1999. The effect of high doses rate X-rays on E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. IEEE on Plasma Science. in print.:
Datta, A. K. 1991. Mathematical modeling of microwave processing as a tool to study safety. American Society for Agricultural Engineers Paper 91-6614.
Datta, A. K. 1992. Error estimates for approximate kinetic parameters used in food literature. J Food Eng. 18:181-199
Datta, A. K. and Hu, W. 1992. Quality optimization of dielectric heating processes. Food Technol. 46(12):53-56
Datta, A. K. and Liu, J. 1992. Thermal time distributions for microwave and conventional heating of food. Trans I Chem E. 70(C):83-90
Datta, A. K., Sun, E. and Solis, A. 1994. Food dielectric property data and its composition-based prediction. M. A. Rao and S. S. H. Rizvi(eds.). Engineering Properties of Food. New York. Marcel Dekker. 457-494.
Datta, A. K. 2000. Fundamentals of heat and moisture transport for microwaveable food product and process development. A. K. Datta and R. C. Anatheswaran. (eds.). Handbook of Microwave Technology for Food Applications. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
Davidson, P. M. 1999. Potential for emergence of resistance to antimicrobials used in the food industry. Proceeding Symposium on Food Microbiology. International Institute Life Science North America Tech Committe on Food Microbiology. p.19-21. Dearborn, MI
Davies, L. J., Kemp, M. R. and Fryer, P. J. 1999. The geometry of shadows: effects of inhomogeneities in electrical field processing. J Food Eng. 40:245-258
de Alwis, A. A. P., Halden, K. and Fryer, P. J. 1989. Shape and conductivity effects in ohmic heating of foods. Chem Eng Res Des. 67:159-168
de Alwis, A. A. P. and Fryer, P. J. 1990a. A finite element analysis of heat generation and transfer during ohmic heating of food. Chem Eng Sci. 45(6):1547-1559
de Alwis, A. A. P. and Fryer, P. J. 1990b. The use of direct resistance heating in the food industry. J Food Eng. 11:3-27
Decareau, R. V. 1985. Pasteurization and sterilization. Microwaves in the food processing industry. Academic Press.
DVGW Arbeitsblatt W 294, 1997. Desinfektionsanlagen fur die Trinkwasserversorgung -- Anforderungen und Prufung. Bonn.
Dibben, D. 2000. Electromagnetics: fundamental aspects and numerical modeling. A. K. Datta and Anatheswaran. Handbook of Microwave Technology For Food. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
Doyle, M. P. and Schoeni, J. L. 1984. Survival and growth characteristics of escherichia coli associated with hemorrhagic colitis. Appl Env Microbiology. 48:855-856
Dring, G. J. 1976. Some aspects of the effects of hydrostatic pressure on microorganisms. S. A. Skinner and V. Hugo(eds.). Inhibition and inactivation of vegetative microbes. New York. Academic Press Inc.
Dunn, J. E. and Pearlman, J. S. 1987. Methods and apparatus for extending the shelf-life of fluid food products. Maxwell Laboratories, Inc. U. S. Patent 4,695,472.
Dunn, J., Clark, R. W., Asmus, J. F., Pearlman, J. S., Boyer, K., Pairchaud, F. and Hofmann, G. 1988. Methods and apparatus for preservation of foodstuffs. US Int. Pat. Appl. No. WO 88/03369.
Dunn, J., Clark, R. W., Asmus, J. F., Pearlman, J. S., Boyer, K., Pairchaud, F. and Hofmann, G. A. 1991. Methods for preservation of foodstuffs. Maxwell Laboratories, Inc. US Patent 5,034,235.
Dunn, J., Clark, W. and Ott, T. 1995. Pulsed-light treatment of food and packaging. Food Technol. 49(9):95-98
Dunn, J. 1996. Pulsed light and pulsed electric field for foods and eggs. Poul Sci. 75(9):1133-1136
Dunn, J.E., Ott, T.M., Clark, R.W. 1996 Prolongation of shelf-life in perishable pod products. U.S. Patent 5,489,442
Dunne, C. P., Dunn, J., Clark, W., Ott, T. and Bushnell, A. H. 1996. Application of high energy electric field pulses to preservation of foods for combat rations. Science and Technology for Force XXI. Department of the Army. Norfolk, Virginia. June 24-27. 7.
Edebo, L., Selin, I. 1968. The effect of pressure shock-wave and some electrical quantities in the microbicidal effect of transient electric arcs in aqueous systems. J Gen Microbiol. 50:253-259
El Moueffak, A. C., Antoine, M., Cruz, C., Demazeau, G., Largeteau, A., Montury, M., Roy, B. and Zuber, F. 1995. High pressure and pasteurization effect on duck foie gras. Int J Food Sci Technol. 30(6):737-743
Enomoto, A., Nakamura, K., Hakoda, M. and Amaya, N. 1997. Lethal effect of high-pressure carbon dioxide on a bacterial spore. J Ferment Bioeng. 83(3):305-307
EPRI. 1998. Pulsed electric field processing in the food industry: a status report on PEF. Palo Alto, CA. Industrial and Agricultural Technologies and Services. CR-109742.
Estiaghi, M. N., Stute, R. and Knorr, D. 1994. High pressure and freezing pretreatment effects on drying, rehydration, texture and color of greenbeans, carrots and potatoes. J Food Sci. 59:1168-1170
FABCO Technologies. 1998. PulsePower disinfects fresh juices, extends shelf-life. Food Eng. 10:47-50
Fakhouri, M. O. and Ramaswamy, H. S. 1993. Temperature uniformity of microwave heated foods as influenced by product type and composition. Food Res Int. 26:89-95
Farkas, J. 1997. Physical methods of food preservation. Food Microbiology. Fundamentals and Frontiers. M.P. Doyle, L.R. Beauchat, T.J. Montville(eds.). Washington, D.C. ASM Press. 497-519.
Fedorov, N. E. and Rogov, I. A. 1960. Bactericidal effects of electrical impulses of high voltage in milk. Dairy Sci Abstract. 25(8):312-318
Fernandez-Molina, J. J., Barkstrom, E., Torstensson, P., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1999. Shelf-life extension of raw skim milk by combining heat and pulsed electric fields. Food Res Int.
Fleischman, G. J. 1996. Predicting temperature range in food slabs undergoing long term low power microwave heating. J Food Eng. 27(4):337-351
Floros, J. D. and Liang, H. 1994. Acoustically assisted diffusion through membranes and biomaterials. Food Technol. 48(12):79-84
Frankel, R. B. and Liburdy, R. P. 1995. Biological effects of static magnetic fields. In Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Polk, C. and Postow, E. (Ed). 2nd Ed. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL
Fryer, P. J., de Alwis, A. A. P., Koury, E., Stapley, A. G. F. and Zhang, L. 1992. Ohmic processing of solid-liquid mixtures: heat generation and convection effects. J Food Eng. 18:101-125
Fu, W.-R. and Hsieh, C.-C. 1999. Simulation and verification of two-dimensional ohmic heating in static system. J Food Sci. 64(6):946-949
Fujii, T., Satomi, M., Nakatsuka, G., Yamaguchi, T. and Okuzumi, M. 1994. Changes in freshness indexes and bacterial flora during storage of pressurized mackerel. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi (J Food Hyg Soc Japan). 35(2):195-200
Fujii, T., Satomi, M., Nakatsuka, G. and Yamaguchi, T. 1995. Effect of media on the detection rate of pressure-injured bacteria. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi (J Food Hyg Soc Japan). 36(1):17-21
Fujikawa, H., Ushioda, H. and Kudo?, Y. 1992. Kinetics of Escherichia coli destruction by microwave irradiation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 58(3):920-924
Fung, D. Y. C. and Cunningham, F. E. 1980. Effect of microwaves on microorganisms in foods. J Food Protect. 43(8):641-650
Garcia, M. L., Burgos, J., Sanz, B. and Ordonez, J. A. 1989. Effect of heat and ultrasonic waves on the survival of two strains of Bacillus subtilis. J Appl Bacteriol. 67:619-628
Garcia-Graells, V., Hauben, E. J. A. and Michiels, C. W. 1998. High-pressure inactivation and sublethal injury of pressure-resistant Escherichia coli mutants in fruit juices. Appl Environ Microbiol. 64:1566-1568
Gaskova, D., Sigler, K., Janderova, B. and Plasek, J. 1996. Effeck of high-voltage electric pulses on yeast cells: Factors influencing the killing efficiency. Bioelectrochem Bioenergetics. 39:195-202
Gerencser, V.F., Barnothy, M.F., and Barnothy, J.M. 1962. Inhibition of bacterial growth by magnetic fields. Nature, 196:539-541.
Gersdorf, R., deBoer, F.R., Wolfrat, J.C., Muller, F.A., Roeland, L.W. 1983. The high magnetic facility of the University of Amsterdam, high field magnetism. Proceedings International symposium on High Field Magnetism. Osaka, Japan. 277-287
Gervilla, R., Capellas, M., Ferragut, V. and Guamis, B. 1997a. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Listeria innocua 910 CECT inoculated into ewes' milk. J Food Protect. 60(1):33-37
Gervilla, R., Felipe, X., Ferragut, V. and Guamis, B. 1997b. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens strains in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci. 80:2297-2303
Giddings, N. J., Allard, H. A. and Hite, B. H. 1929. Inactivation of the tobacco mosaic virus by high pressure. Phytopatology. 19:749-750
Gilliland, S. E. and Speck, M. L. 1967a. Inactivation of microorganisms by electrohydraulic shock. Appl Microbiol. 15(5):1031-1037
Gilliland, S. E. and Speck, M. L. 1967b. Mechanism of the bactericidal action produced by electrohydraulic shock. Appl Microbiol. 15(5):1038-1044
Gola, S., Foman, C., Carpi, G., Maggi, A., Cassara, A. and Rovere, P. 1996. Inactivation of bacterial spores in phosphate buffer and in vegetable cream treated at high pressures. R. Hayashi and C. Balny(eds.). High Pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology. Amsterdam. 253-259. Elsevier Science B. V.
Goldblith, S. A. and Wang, D. I. C. 1967. Effect of microwaves on Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Appl Microbiol. 15(6):1371-1375
Gould, G. W. and Sale, A. J. H. 1970. Initiation of germination of bacterial spores by hydrostatic pressure. J Gen Microbiol. 60:335-346
Grahl, T., Sitzmann, W. and Markl, H. 1992. Killing of microorganisms in fluid media by high-voltage pulses. DECHEMA Biotechnology Conferences. 675-679.
Grahl, T. and Maerkl, H. 1996. Killing of microorganisms by pulsed electric fields. Applied MicrobiolBiotechnol. 45(1/2):148-157
Granum, P. E. 1997. Bacillus cereus. M. P. Doyle, L. R. Beauchat and T. J. Montville(eds.). Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington, DC. American Society for Microbiology. 327-336.
Gunasekaran, S. and Chiyung, A., 1994. Evaluating milk coagulation with ultrasonics. Food Technol. 48(12):74-78
Gupta, R. P. and Murray, W. 1988. Pulsed high electric field sterilization. IEEE Pulsed Power Conf. Record. National Research Council. 58-64.
Haas, G. J., Prescott, H. E., Dudley, E., Dik, R., Hintlan, C. and Keane, L. 1989. Inactivation of microorganisms by carbon dioxide under pressure. J Food Safety. 9:253-265
Halden, K., de Alwis, A. A. P. and Fryer, P. J. 1990. Changes in the electrical conductivity of foods during ohmic heating. Int J Food Sci Technol. 25:9-25
Hamid, M. A. K., Boulanger, R. J., Tong, S. C., Gallop, R. A. and Pereira, R. R. 1969. Microwave pasteurization of raw milk. J Microwave Power. 4(4):272-275
Hara, A., Nagahama, G., Ohbayashi, A. and Hayashi, R. 1990. Effects of high pressure on inactivation of enzymes and microorganisms in nonpasteurized rice wine (Namazake). Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. 64(5):1025-1030
Harlfinger, L. 1992. Microwave sterilization. Food Technol. 46(12):57-61
Hayakawa, I., Kanno, T., Tomita, M. and Fujio, Y. 1994a. Application of high pressure for spore inactivation and protein denaturation. J Food Sci. 59(1):159-163
Hayakawa, I., Kanno, T., Yoshiyama, K. and Fujio, Y. 1994b. Oscillatory compared with continuous high pressure sterilization on Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. J Food Sci. 59(1):164-167
Hayashi and Balny, C. High Pressure Science and Biotechnology. Hayashi and C. Balny. Amsterdam. Elsevier Science, B.V. 171-174, 253-259.
Hayashi, R. 1991. Pressure-processed food: Research and development. San-Ei Publishing. Kyoto, Japan.
Heddleson, R. A. and Doores, S. 1994. Factors affecting microwave heating of foods and microwave induced destruction of foodborne pathogens - a review. J Food Protect. 57(11):1025-1037
Heddleson, R. A., Doores, S. and Anantheswaran, R. C. 1994. Parameters affecting destruction of Salmonella spp. by microwave heating. J Food Sci. 59(2):447-451
Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. 1998. High pressure germination and inactivation kinetics of bacterial spores. N. S. Isaacs(ed.). High Pressure Food Science, Bioscience and Chemistry. Cambridge, UK. The Royal Society of Chemistry. 436-441
Heinz, V. and Knorr, D. 1999. The effects of high pressure on microbial spores. European Conference on Emerging Food Science and Technology. Tempere, Finland. November 22-24, 1999.
Hendrickx, M., Maesmans, G., De Cordt, S., Van Loey, A., Noronha, J. and Tobback, P. 1995. Evaluation of the integrated time-temperature effect in thermal processing of foods. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 35(3):231-262
Heredia, N. L., Garcia, G. A., Luevanos, R., Labbe, R. G. and Garcia-Alvarado, J. S. 1997. Elevation of the heat resistance of vegetative cells and spores of Clostridium perfringens type A by sublethal heat shock. J Food Prot. 60(8):998
Heremans, K. 1995. High pressure effects on biomolecules. D. A. Ledward, D. E. Johnston, R. G. Earnshaw and A. P. M.
Hasting (eds.). High Pressure Processing of Foods. Leicestershire, UK. Nottingham University Press.
Hite, B. H. 1899. The effects of pressure in the preservation of milk. Morgantown. Bull WV Univ Agric Exp Sta Morgantown. 58. 15-35.
Hite, B. H., Giddings, N. J. and Weakly, C. E. 1914. The effects of pressure on certain microorganisms encountered in the preservation of fruits and vegetables. Morgantown. Bull WV Univ Agric Exp Sta Morgantown. 146. 1-67.
Ho, S. Y., G.S., M., Cross, J. D. and Griffiths, M. W. 1995. Inactivation of pseudomonas fluorescens by high voltage electric pulses. J Food Sci. 60(6):1337-1343
Ho, S. Y. and Mittal, G. S. 1997. Analysis of 2 high voltage electric pulse systems for batch and continuous pasteurization of selected food products. Universty of Guelph. confidential.
Ho, S. Y., Mittal, G. S. and Cross, J. D. 1997. Effects of high field electric pulses on the activity of selected enzymes. J Food Eng. 31(1):69-84
Hofmann, G.A. 1985. Deactivation of microorganisms by an oscillating magnetic field. U.S. Patent 4,524,079.
Hong, S. I., Park, W. S. and Pyun, Y. R. 1997. Inactivation of Lactobacillus sp. from kimchi by high pressure carbon dioxide. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 30:681-685
Hoover, D. G., Metrick, C., Papineau, A. M., Farkas, D. F. and Knorr, D. 1989. Biological effects of high hydrostatic pressure on food microorganisms. Food Technol. 43(3):99-107
Hoover, D. G. 1993. Pressure effects on biological systems. Food Technol. 47(6):150-155
Hoover, D. G. 1997. Minimally processed fruits and vegetables: Reducing microbial load by nonthermal physical treatments. Food Technol. 51(6):66-69, 71
Horie, Y., Kimura, K., Ida, M., Yosida, Y. and Ohki, K. 1991. Jam preparation by pressurization. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. 65(6):975-980
Houben, J., Schoenmakers, L., van Putten, E., van Roon, P. and Krol, B. 1991. Radio-frequency pasteurization of sausage emulsions as a continuous process. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 26(4):202-205
Hoyer, O. 1998. Testing performance and monitoring of UV systems for drinking water disinfection. Water Supply. 16(1/2):419-442
Hughes, D. E. and Nyborg, W. L. 1962. Cell disruption by ultrasound. Science. 38:108-114s
Hülsheger, H. and Nieman, E. G. 1980. Lethal effect of high-voltage pulses on e. coli K12. Radiat Environ Biophys 18(4):281-8
Hülsheger, H., Pottel, J. and Niemann, E. G. 1981. Killing of bacteria with electric pulses of high field strength. Radiat Environ Biophys. 20:53-65
Hülsheger, H., Pottel, J. and Niemann, E. G. 1983. Electric field effects on bacteria and yeast cells. Radiat Environ Biophys. 22:149-162
ICMSF. 1996. Microorganisms in foods. Microbiological Specifications of Food Pathogens. Book 5. Blackie Academic and Professional Publ. London.
Imai, T., Uemura, K., Ishida, N., Yoshizaki, S. and Noguchi, A. 1995. Ohmic heating of japanese white radish Rhaphanus sativus. Int J Food Sci Technol. 30:461-472
Ishiguro, Y., Sato, T., Okamoto, T., Okamoto, K., Sakamoto, H., Inakuma, T. and Sonoda, Y. 1993. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and antimicrobial substances on the sterilization of tomato juice. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. 67(12):1707-1711
IUVA. 2000. IUVA Website [International UltraViolet Association]. 2000. http://www.iuva.org
Iwahashi, H., Fujii, S., Obuchi, K., Kaul, S. C., Sato, A. and Komatsu, Y. 1993. Hydrostatic pressure is like high temperature and oxidative stress in the damage it causes to yeast. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 108:53-58
Jackson, G. J., Leclerc, J. E., Bier, J. W. and Madden, J. M. 1997. Cyclospora - still another new foodborne pathogen. Food Technol. 51(1):120
Jacob, H. E., Forster, W. and Berg, H. 1981. Microbial implications of electric field effects. II. Inactivation of yeast cells and repair of their cell envelope. Z Allg Microbial 21(3):225-232
Jaenicke, R. 1981. Enzymes under extremes of physical conditions. Ann Rev Biophys Bioeng. 10:1-67
Jay, J. J. 1996. Modern food microbiology. Chapman Hall. New York.
Jayaram, S., Castle, G. S. P. and Margaritis, A. 1991. Effects of high electric field pulses on Lactobacillus brevis at elevated temperatures. IEEE Industry Appl Society Annual Meeting. 5:674-681
Jayaram, S., Castle, G. S. P. and Margaritis, A. 1992. Kinetics of sterilization of Lactobacillus brevis cells by the application of high voltage pulses. Biotechnol Bioeng. 40(11):1412-1420
Jeng, D. K. H., Balasky, G., Kaczmarek, K. A. and Woodworth, A. G. 1987. Mechanism of microwave sterilization in the dry state. Appl Environ Microbiol. 53(9):2133-2137
Jeppson, M. R. and Harper, J. C. 1967. Microwave heating substances under hydrostatic pressure. Cryodry Corporation. US Patent 3,335,253.
Jeyamkondan, S., Jayas, D. S. and Holley, R. A. 1999. Pulsed electric field processing of foods: a review. J Food Protect. 62(9):1088-1096.
Johnson, F. H. and Campbell, D. H. 1945. The retardation of protein denaturation by hydrostatic pressure. Journal of Cell Comp Physiol. 26:43-46
Johnson ,F. H., Eyring, H., and Jones-Stover, B. 1974. The theory of rate processes in biology and medicine. p. 82. Wiley, New York.
Josephson, E.S. and Peterson, M.S.(Eds.) 1982. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation. I, II, III. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL
Kakugawa, K., Okazaki, T., Yamauchi, S., Morimoto, K., Yoneda, T. and Suzuki, K. 1996. Thermal inactivating behavior of Bacillus stearothermophilus under high pressure. R. Hayashi and C. Balny. High Pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology. Amsterdam. Elsevier Science B. V. 171-174.
Kalchayanand, N., Sikes, T., Dunne, C. P. and Ray, B. 1994. Hydrostatic pressure and electroporation have increase bactericidal efficiency in combination with bacteriocins. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 60:4174-4177
Kalchayanand, N., Sikes, A., Dunne, C. P. and Ray, B. 1998. Interaction of hydrostatic pressure, time and temperature of pressurization and pediocin AcH on inactivation of foodborne bacteria. J Food Protect. 61(4):425-431
Kasevich, R. S. 1998. Understand the potential of radiofrequency energy. Chem Eng Progress. 75-81
Katsuyama, A. M. 1993. The microbiology of sanitation. A. M. Katsuyama. Principles of Food Processing Sanitation. Washington, DC. The Food Processors Institute. 72-84. 2nd Edition.
Kazbekov, E. N. and Vyacheslavov, L. G. 1978. Effects of microwave irradiation on some membrane-related process in bacteria. Gen Physiol Biophys. 6:57-64
Keith, W. D., Harris, L. J., Hudson, L. and Griffiths, M. 1997. Pulsed electric fields as a processing alternative for microbial reduction in spice. Food Res Int. 30(3/4):185-191
Kenyon, E. M., Westcott, D. E., LaCasse, P. and Gould, J. 1971. A system for continuous processing of food pouches using microwave energy. J Food Science. 36(2):289-293
Khalaf, W. G. and Sastry, S. K. 1996. Effect of fluid viscosity on the ohmic heating rate of solid-liquid mixtures. J Food Eng. 27:145-158
Khalil, H. and Villota, R. 1988. Comparative study on injury and recovery of Staphylococcus aureus using microwaves and conventional heating. J Food Protection. 51(3):181-186
Khalil, H. and Villota, R. 1989a. A comparative study of the thermal inactivation of B. stearothermophilus spores in microwave and conventional heating. Food Engineering and Process Applications. New York, NY. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. 1. 583-594
Khalil, H. and Villota, R. 1989b. The effect of microwave sublethal heating on the ribonucleic acids of Staphylococcus aureus. J Food Protect. 52(8):544-548
Kim, H.-J. and Taub, I. A. 1993. Intrinsic chemical markers for aseptic processing of particulate foods. Food Technol. 47(1):91-97, 99
Kim, H. J., Choi, Y.-M., Yang, T. C. S., Taub, I. A., Tempest, P., Tucker, G. and Parrott, D. L. 1996. Validation of ohmic heating for quality enhancement of foods products. Food Technol. 50(5):253-261
Kimball, G.C. 1937. The growth of yeast on a magnetic fields. J. Bacteriol. 35:109-122.
Kinosita, K. J. and Tsong, T. Y. 1977. Voltage induced pore formation and haemolysis erythrocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 471:227-242
Kinosita, K. J. and Tsong, T. Y. 1979. Voltage-induced conductance in human erythrocyte membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 554:479-497
Kinugasa, H., Takeo, T., Fukumoto, K. and Ishihara, M. 1992. Changes in tea components during processing and preservation of tea extract by hydrostatic pressure sterilization. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. 66(4):707-712
Knorr, D., Geulen, M., Grahl, T. and Sitzmann, W. 1994. Food application of high electric field pulses. Trends Food Sci Technol. 5:71-75
Knutson, K. M., Marth, E. H. and Wagner, M. K. 1987. Microwave Heating of Food. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 20:101-110
Knutson, K. M., Marth, E. H. and Wagner, M. K. 1988. Use of microwave ovens to pasteurize milk. J Food Protect. 51(9):715-719
Kozempel, M. F., Annous, B. A., Cook, R. D., Scullen, O. J. and Whiting, R. C. 1998. Inactivation of microorganisms with microwaves at reduced temperatures. J Food Protect. 61(5):582-585
Kozempel, M., Cook, R. D., Scullen, O. J. and Annous, B. A. 2000. Development of a process for detecting non-thermal effects of a microwave energy on microorganisms at low temperature. J Food Processing. In print.
KSU. 1999. KSU microbiologist uses microwave, acid treatments to kill pathogens, maintain color in meat. KSU Press Release. June 15, 1999
Kudra, T., Van De Voort, F. R., Raghavan, G. S. V. and Ramaswamy, H. S. 1991. Heating characteristics of milk constituents in a microwave pasteurization system. J Food Sci. 56(4):931-934
Kulshrestha, S. A. and Sastry, S. K. 1999. Low-frequency dielectric changes in vegetable tissue from ohmic heating. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts. p. 211. Chicago, IL.
Lagunas-Solar, M. C. 1997. Method of controlling insects and mites with pulsed ultraviolet light. Regents of the University of California. The Regents of the University of California. US Patent 5,607,711.
Laidler, K. J. 1951. The Influence of pressure on rates of biological reaction. Arch Biochem. 30:226-240
Larkin, J. and Reddy, N. R. 1999. Personal communication.
Larsen, W. P., Hartzell, T. B. and Diehl, H. S. 1918. The effects of high pressure on bacteria. J Inf Diseases. 22:271-279
Lau, M. H., Tang, J., Taub, I. A., Yang, T. C. S., Edwards, C. G. and Younce, F. L. 1998. Microwave heating uniformity of food during 915 MHz microwave sterilization process. Proceedings of the 33rd Microwave Power Symposium. 78-81
Lau, M.H., Tang, J., Taub, I. A., Yang, T. C. S., Edwards, C. G. and Yang, A. P. P. 1999a. Application of chemical markers in assessing heating patterns produced by 915 and 2450 MHz microwaves. 1-19
Lau, M. H., Tang, J., Taub, I. A., Yang, T. C. S., Edwards, C. G. and Younce, F. L. 1999b. HTST processing of food in microwave pouch using 915 MHz microwaves. AIChE Annual Meeting.
Ledward, D. A., Johnston, D. E., Earnshaw, R. G. and Hasting, A. P. M. 1995. High Pressure Processing of Foods. Nottingham University Press. Leiscestershire, UK.
Lee, B. H., Kermasha, S. and Baker, B. E. 1989. Thermal, ultrasonic and ultraviolet inactivation of Salmonella in thin films of aqueous media and chocolate. Food Microbiol. 6:143-152
Lee, C. H. and Yoon, S. W. 1999. Effect of ohmic heating on the structure and permeability of the cell membrane of saccharomyces cerevisiae. 1999 IFT Annual Meeting. Chicago. July 24-28 1999.
Leistner, L. and Gorris, L. G. M. 1995. Food preservation by hurdle technology. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 6(2):41-46
Lillard, H. S. 1993. Bactericidal effect of chlorine on attached salmonellae with and without sonification. J Food Protect. 56(8):716-717
Lillard, H. S. 1994. Decontamination of poultry skin by sonication. Food Technol. 48(12):72-73
Lin, W. and Sawyer, C. 1988. Bacterial survival and thermal responses of beef loaf after microwave processing. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 23(3):183-194
Line, J. E., Fain, A. R., Moran, A. B., Martin, L. M., Lechowich, R. V., Carosella, J. M. and Brown, W. L. 1991. Lethality of heat to escherichia coli O157:H7: D-value and z-value determinations in ground beef. J Food Protect. 54:762-766
Linton, M., McClements, J. M. J. and Patterson, M. F. 1999. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in orange juice using a combination of high pressure and mild heat. J Food Protect. 62(3):277-279
Liu, X., Yousef, A. E. and Chism, G. W. 1997. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by the combination of organic acids and pulsed electric field. J Food Safety. 16(4):287-299
Lou, Y. and Yousef, A. E. 1997. Adaptation to sublethal environmental stresses protects listeria monocytogenes against lethal preservation factors. Appl Environ Microbiol. 63(4):1252-1255
Love, P. 1998. Correlation of fourier transforms of pulsed electric field waveform and microorganism inactivation. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 5(1):142-147
Lubicki, P. and Jayaram, S. 1997. High voltage pulse application for the destruction of the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics. 43:135-141
Lüdemann, H.-D. 1992. Water and aqueous solutions under high pressure. C. Balny, R. Hayashi, K. Heremans and P. Masson. High Pressure and Biotechnology. London. Colloque INSERM/John Libby Eurotext Ltd. 224. 25-32.
Ludwig, H., Bieler, D., Hallbauer, K. and Scigalla, W. 1992. Inactivation of microorganisms by hydrostatic pressure. C. Balny, R. Hayashi, K. Heremans and P. Masson. High Pressure and Biotechnology. London. Colloque INSERM/John Libby Eurotext Ltd. 224. 25-32.
Ludwig, H., Van Almsick, G. and Sojka, B. 1996. High pressure inactivation of microorganisms. R. Hayashi and C. Balny. High pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology. Amsterdam. Elsevier Science B. V. 237.
Ma, L., Chang, F. J. and Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. 1997. Inactivation of E. coli in liquid whole eggs using pulsed electric fields technologies. New frontiers in food engineering. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of Food Engineering. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 216-221.
MacGregor, S. J., Anderson, J. G., Fouracre, R. A., Farish, O., McIlvaney, L. and Rowan, N. J. 1998. Light Inactivation of food-related pathogenic bacteria using a pulsed power source. Lett Appl Microbiol. 27:67-70
Mackey, B. M., Forestiere, K. and Isaacs, N. 1995. Factors affecting the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to high hydrostatic pressure. Food Biotechnol. 9:1-11
Marquez, V. O., Mittal, G. S. and Griffiths, M. W. 1997. Destruction and inhibition of bacterial spores by high voltage pulsed electric field. J Food Sci. 62(2):399-401,409
Marquis, R. E. and Bender, G. R. 1987. Barophysiology of prokaryotes and proton-translocating ATPases. H. W. Jannisch, R. E. Marquis and A. M. Zimmermann. Current Perspectives in High Pressure Biology. London. Academic Press, Ltd. 65-73.
Martens, B. and Knorr, D. 1992. Developments of nonthermal processes for food preservation. Food Technol. 46(5):124, 126-133
Martin-Belloso, O., Vega-Mercado, H., Qin, B.-L., Chang, F.-J., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1997a. Inactivation of Escherichia coli suspended in liquid egg using pulsed electric fields. J Food Process Preserv. 21(3):193-208
Martin-Belloso, O., Qin, B. L., Chang, F. J., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. 1997b. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in skim milk by high intensity pulsed electric fields. J Food Process Eng. 20:317-336
Masuda, M., Saito, Y., Iwanami, T. and Hirai, Y. 1992. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on packaging materials for food. High Pressure and Biotechnology. London. Colloque INSERM/John Libby Eurotext Ltd. 224. 545-547.
Matsumoto, Y., Satake, T., Shioji, N. and Sakuma, A. 1991. Inactivation of microorganisms by pulsed high voltage applications. Conference Record of IEEE Industrial Applications Society Annual Meeting. 652-659.
Mazotta, A. S. 1999. Problems and solutions to development of pathogen resistance to thermal processing. ISSI Meeting.
McKinley, G. M. 1936. Short electric wave radiation in biology. B. M. Duggar. Biological Effects of Radiation. New York. McGraw-Hill. I. 541-558.
McLane, B. A. 1997. Clostridium perfringens. M. P. Doyle, L. R. Beauchat and T. J. Montville (Eds.). Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington, DC. American Society for Microbiology.
Mead, P. S., Slutsker, L., Dietz, V., McCaig, L. F., Breese, J. S., Shapiro, C., Griffin, P. M. and Tauxe, R. V. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5:607-625
Metaxas, R. and Meredith, R. J. 1988. Industrial microwave heating. Peter Peregrinus. London. UK.
Metaxas, R. 1996. Foundations of electroheat: a unified approach. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester, UK.
Metrick, C., Hoover, D. G. and Farkas, D. F. 1989. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on heat-resistant and heat-sensitive strains of Salmonella. J Food Sci. 54:1547-1564
Meyer, P. 2000. Ultra high pressure, high temperature, food preservation process. US 6,017,572.
Miller, J. F., Dower, W. J. and Tompkins, L. S. 1988. High-voltage electroporation of bacteria: Genetic transformation of Camylobacter jejuni with plasmid DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 85:856-860
Miller, R., Jeffrey, W., Mitchell, D. and Elasri, M. 1999. Bacterial responses to ultraviolet light. Am Soc Microbiol. 65(8):535-541
Minett, P. J. and Witt, J. A. 1976. Radio frequency and microwaves. Food Processing Industry. 36-37, 41
Mittal, G. S. and Choundry, M. 1997. Pulsed electric field sterilization of waste brine solution. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Engineering and Food. Brighton Center, UK. C13-C16.
Miyakawa, H., Anjitsu, K., Ishibashi, N. and Shimanura, S. 1994. Effects of pressure on enzyme activities of Lactobacillus helveticus LHE-511. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 58(3):606-607
Miyao, S., Shindoh, T., Miyamori, K. and Arita, T. 1993. Effects of high pressurization on the growth of bacteria derived from surimi (fish paste). Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi (Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology). 40(7):478-484
Mizrach, A., Galilli, N. and Rosenhouse, G. 1994. Determining quality of fresh products by ultrasonic excitation. Food Technol. 48(12):68-71
Mizuno, A. and Hori, Y. 1991. Destruction of living cells by pulsed high-voltage application. IEEE Trans Ind Appl. 24(3):387-394
Mizuno, A. and Hori, Y. 1998. Destruction of living cells by pulsed high-voltage application. IEEE Trans Ind Appl. 24(3):387-394
Moore, R.L. 1979. Biological effects of magnetic fields. Studies with microorganisms. Can. J. Microbiol., 25:1145-1151.
Moorman, J. E., Toledo, R. T. and Schmidt, K. 1996. High-pressure throttling (HPT) reduces microbial population, improves yogurt consistency and modifies rheological properties of ultrafiltered milk. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts. 49.
Mudgett, R. E. and Schwartzberg, H. G. 1982. Microwave food processing: Pasteurization and sterilization: A review. AIChE Symposium Series. 78(218):1-11
Mudgett, R. E. 1994. Electrical Properties of Foods. M. A. Rao and S. S. H. Rizvi(eds.). Engineering Properties of Foods. New York. Marcel Dekker. 389-455.
Mussa, D. M., Ramaswamy, H. S. and Smith, J. P. 1999. High-pressure destruction kinetics of listeria monocytogenes on pork. J Food Protect. 62(1):40-45
Nakayama, A., Yano, Y., Kobayashi, S., Ishikawa, M. and Sakai, K. 1996. Comparison of pressure resistances of spores of six Bacillus strains with their heat resistances. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62(10):3897-3900
National Canners Association 1968. Laboratory manual for food canners and processors. AVI Publishing Company. 1. 1-8, 94-100.
Ng, H., Bayne, G. G. and Garibaldi, J. A. 1969. Heat resistance of Salmonella, the uniqueness of Salmonella senftenberg 775W. Appl Microbiol. 17:78-82
Nishi, K., Kato, R. and Tomita, M. 1994. Activation of Bacillus spp. spores by hydrostatic pressure. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi (Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology). 41(8):542-548
Ohlsson, T. and Risman, P. O. 1978. Temperature distribution of microwave heating-spheres and cylinders. J Microwave Power. 13(4):303
Ohlsson, T. 1991. Development and evaluation of a microwave sterilization process for plastic pouches. 8th World Congress of Food Science and Technology. Toronto, CA. Sept. 29-Oct. 4.
Ohnishi, 1993. Pressurization of Trichinella spiralis. Japanese-only book of Japanese pressure consortium proceedings. Chapter 17.
Okazaki, T., Yoneda, T. and Suzuki, K. 1994. Combined effects of temperature and pressure on sterilization of Bacillus subtilis spores. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi (Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology ). 41(8):536
Okazaki, T., Kakugawa, K., Yamauchi, S., Yoneda, T. and Suzuki, K. 1996. Combined effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of heat-resistant bacteria. R. Hayashi and C. Balny. High Pressure Bioscience and Biotechnology. Amsterdam. Elsevier Science B. V. 415-418.
O'Meara, J. P., Farkas, D. F. and Wadsworth, C. K. 1977. Flexible pouch sterilization using a combined microwave-hot water hold simulator. Natick, MA. US Army Natick Reseach & Development Lab, Unpublish Report. (PN) DRYNM 77-120.
Ordoñez, J. A., Sanz, B., Hernandez, P. E. and Lopez-Lorenzo, P. 1984. A note on the effect of combined ultrasonic and heat treatments on the survival of thermoduric streptococci. J Appl Bacteriol. 56:175-177
Ordoñez, J. A., Aguilera, M. A., Garcia, M. L. and Sanz, B. 1987. Effect of combined ultrasonic and heat treatment (thermoultrasonication) on the survival of a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. J Dairy Res. 54:61-67
Otake, T., Mori, H., Kawahata, T., Izumoto, Y., Nishimura, H., Oishi, I., Shigehisa, T. and Ohno, H. 1997. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment of HIV infectivity. K. Heremans. High Pressure Research in the Biosciences and Biotechnology. Leuven. Leuven University Press. 223-236.
Oxen, P. and Knorr, D. 1993. Baroprotective effects of high solute concentrations against inactivation of Rhodotorula rubra. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie. 26:220-223
Pagan, R., Esplugas, S., Gongora-Nieto, M. M., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1998. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores using high intensity pulsed electric fields in combination with other food conservation technologies. Food Scie Technol Int. 4(1):33-44
Pagan, R. and Mackey, B. 1999. Membrane damage in pressure-treated cells of escherichia coli. European Conference on Emerging Food Science and Technology, European Federation of Food Science and Technology. Tempere, Finland. November 22-24, 1999.
Pagan, R., Jordan, S., Benito, A. and Mackey, B. 1999. Enhanced acid sensitivity of pressure-damaged escherichia coli. European Conference on Emerging Food Science and Technology, European Federation of Food Science and technology. Tempere, Finland. November 22-24, 1999.
Palaniappan, S., Richter, E. R. and Sastry, S. K. 1990. Effects of electricity on microorganisms: A review. J Food Process Preserv. 14:393-414
Palaniappan, S. and Sastry, S. K. 1991a. Electrical conductivity of selected solid foods during ohmic heating. J Food Process Eng. 14:221-236
Palaniappan, S. and Sastry, S. K. 1991b. Electrical conductivity of selected juices: influences of temperature, solids contact, applied voltage and particle size. J Food Process Eng. 14:247-260
Palaniappan, S. and Sastry, S. K. 1992. Effects of electroconductive heat treatment and electrical pretreatment on thermal death Kinetics of selected microorganisms. Biotechnol Bioeng. 39(2):225-232
Palou, E., Lopez-Malo, A., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V., Welti-Chanes, J. and Swanson, B. G. 1998. Oscillatory high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. J Food Protect. 61(9):1213-1215
Papineau, A. M., Hoover, D. G., Knorr, D. and Farkas, D. F. 1991. Antimicrobial effect of water-soluble chitosans with high hydrostatic pressure. Food Biotechnol. 5:45-47
Parish, M. E. 1998. High pressure inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, endogenous microflora and pectinmethylesterase in orange juice. J Food Protect. 18(1):57-65
Patterson, M. F., Quinn, M., Simpson, R. and Gilmour, A. 1995. Sensitivity of vegetative pathogens to high hydrostatic pressure treatment in phosphate buffered saline and foods. J Food Protect. 58(5):524-529
Patterson, M. F. and Kilpatrick, D. J. 1998. The combined effect of high hydrostatic pressure and mild heat on inactivation of pathogens in milk and poultry. J Food Protect. 61(4):432-436
Paul, P. L. and Morita, R. Y. 1971. Effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the uptake and respiration of amino acids by a faculttively psychrophilic marine bacterium. J Bacteriol. 108:835-843
Paul, P., Chawala, S. P., Thomas, P. and Kesavan, P. C. 1997. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure, gamma-irradiation and combined treatments on the microbiological quality of lamb meat during chilled storage. J Food Safety. 16(4):263-271
Peleg, M. 1995. A model of microbial survival after exposure to pulse electric fields. J Sci Food Agric. 67(1):93-99
Peleg, M. and Cole, M. B. 1998. Reinterpretation of Microbial Survival Curves. Crit Rev in Food Science. 38(5):353-380
Perrier-Cornet, J. M., Marechal, P. A. and Gervais, P. 1995. A new design intended to relate high pressure treatment to yeast cell mass transfer. J Biotechnol. 41:49-58
Pierson, M. D. and Corlett, D. A. J. 1992. HACCP principles and applications. Van Nostrand Reinhold Publishing. New York.
Ponce, E., Pla, R., Mor-Mur, M., Gervilla, R. and Guamis, B. 1998. Inactivation of Listeria innocua inoculated in liquid whole egg by high hydrostatic pressure. J Food Protect. 61(1):119-122
Popper, L. and Knorr, D. 1990. Applications of high-pressure homogenization for food preservation. Food Technol. 44:84-89
Pothakamury, U.R., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., and Swanson, B.G. (1993). Magnetic-field inactivation of microorganisms and generation of biological changes. Food Technol. 47(12):85-93.
Pothakamury, U. R. 1995. High voltage pulsed electric field inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Rev Esp C T. 35(1):101-107
Pothakamury, U. R., Monsalve-Gonzalez, A., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1995. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in model foods by pulsed electric field technology. Food Res Int. 28(2):167-171
Pothakamury, U. R., Vega, H., Zhang, Q. H., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1996. Effect of growth stage and processing temperature on the inactivation of E. coli by pulsed electric fields. J Food Protect. 59(11):1167-1171
Prakash, A., Kim, H.-J. and Taub, I. A. 1997. Assessment of microwave sterilization of foods using intrinsic chemical markers. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 32(1):50-57
Proctor, B. E. and Goldblith, S. A. 1951. Electromagnetic radiation fundamentals and their applications in food technology. Advances in Food Research. 3:120-196
Prosetya, H. and Datta, A. K. 1991. Batch microwave heating of liquids: an experimental study. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 26(4):215-226
PurePulse Technologies. 1999. PureBright®CoolPure® advanced sterilization, decontamination and preservation technology for the food and food packaging industry. San Diego, CA. PurePulseTechnologies Inc. Brochure. http://www.packaging2000.com/purepulse/Purepulse.html
Qin, B. L., Zhang, Q., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Swanson, B. G. and Pedrow, P. D. 1994. Inactivation of microorganisms by pulsed electric fields with different voltage waveforms. IEEE Trans Dielec Insul. 1(6):1047-1057
Qin, B.-L. 1995. Nonthermal inactivation Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple juice using pulsed electric fields. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 28(6):564-568
Qin, B.-L., Chang, F.-J., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1995a. Nonthermal inactivation of S. cerevisiae in apple juice using pulsed electric fields. LebensmWiss Technol. 28(6):564-568
Qin, B., Pothakamury, U. R., Vega, H., Martin, O., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1995b. Food pasteurization using high intensity pulsed electric fields. J Food Technol. 49(12):55-60
Qin, B.-L., Zhang, Q. H., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Swanson, B. G. and Pedrow, P. D. 1995c. Pulsed electric field treatment chamber design for liquid food pasteurization using a finite element method. Transactions of the ASAE. 38(2):557-565
Qin, B.-L., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Swanson, B. G. and Pedrow, P. D. 1998. Inactivating microorganism using a pulsed electric field continuous treatment system. IEEE Trans Indus Applic. 34(1):43-49
Quass, D. W. 1997. Pulsed electric field processing in the food industry. A status report on PEF. Palo Alto, CA. Electric Power Research Institute. CR-109742.
Qui, X., Jia, M., Sharma, S., Tuhela, L. and Zhang, Q. H. 1998. An integrated PEF pilot plant for continuous nonthermal pasteurization of fresh orange juice. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 41(4):1069-1074
Rahman, M. S. 1999. Handbook of Food Preservation. New York. Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Ramaswamy, H. S. and Pilletwill, T. 1992. Temperature distribution in microwave-heated food models. J Food Quality. 15(6):435-448
Ramaswamy, H., Koutchma, T. and Tajchakavit, S. 2000. Enhanced thermal effects under microwave heating conditions. International Conference of Engineering and Food [ICEF-8]. Puebla, MX.
Raso, J., Calderon, M. L., Gongora, M., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1998. Inactivation of Zygosaccharomyces Bailii in fruit juices by heat, high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields. J Food Sci. 63(6):1042-1044
Raso, J., Pagan, R., Condon, S. and Sala, F. J. 1998a. Influence of temperature and pressure on the lethality of ultrasound. Appl Environ Microbiol. 64(2):465-471
Raso, J., Palop, A., Pagan, R. and Condon, S. 1998b. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by combining ultrasonic waves under pressure and mild heat treatment. J Appl Microbiol. 85:849-854
Raso, J., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1998c. Initiation of germination and inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure of Bacillus cereus sporulated at different temperatures. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts. Atlanta, GA. 154.
Raso, J., Gongora, M., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1998d. Effect of pH and water activity on the initiation of germination and inactivation of Bacillus cereus by high hydrostatic pressure. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts. Atlanta, GA. 153.
Reddy, N. R., Solomon, H. M., Fingerhut, G., Balasubramaniam, V. M. and Rhodehamel, E. J. 1999. Inactivation of Clostridium botulinum types A and B spores by high-pressure processing. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts. National Center for Food Safety and Technology, Illinois Inst of Technology. p. 33 Chicago, IL.
Reina, L. D., Jin, Z. T., Yousef, A. E. and Zhang, Q. H. 1998. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in milk by pulsed electric field. J Food Protect. 61(9):1203-1206
Reznik, D. L. 1999. Personal communication. Raztek Corp, Sunnyvale, CA.
Roberts, C. M. and Hoover, D. G. 1996. Sensitivity of Bacillus coagulans spores to combinations of high hydrostatic pressure, heat acidity, and nisin. J Applied Bacteriol. 81:363-368
Rocourt, J. and Cossart, P. 1997. Listeria monocytogenes. M. P. Doyle, L. R. Beauchat and T. J. Montville(eds.). Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Washington, D.C. American Society for Microbiology. 337-352.
Romine, A. and Barringer, S. A. 1998. Dielectric properties of ham as a function of temperature, moisture, and salt. Atlanta, GA.
Rose, J. B. and Slifko, T. R. 1999. Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora and their impact on foods, a review. J Food Protect. 62:1059-1070
Rosen, C.-G. 1972. Effects of microwaves on food and related materials. Food Technol. 26(7):36-40, 55
Rosenbauer, G. 1997. Continuous induction heating of liquids. Research Institute for Food Technology and Utilization, Technical University of Munich. Unpublished.
Rosenberg, U. and Bögl, W. 1987. Microwave pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, and pest control in the food industry. Food Technol. 41(6):92-99
Roussy, G. and Pearce, J. 1995. Foundations and industrial applications of microwaves and radio frequency fields. New York. Wiley.
Rovere, P., Tosoratti, D. and Maggi, A. 1996a. Prove di sterilizzazione a 15.000 bar per ottenere la stabilita microbiologica ed enzimatica. Industrie Alimentari. XXXV:1062-1065
Rovere, P., Carpi, G., Dall'Aglio, G., Gola, S., Maggi, A., Miglioli, L. and Scaramuzza, N. 1996b. High-pressure heat treatments: Evaluation of the sterilizing effect and of thermal damage. Industria Conserve. 71:473-483
Ruan, R., Chen, P., Chang, K., Kim, H.-J. and Taub, I. A. 1999. Rapid food particle temperature mapping during ohmic heating using FLASH MRI. J Food Sci. 64(6):1024-1026
Russell, N. J., Evans, R. I., ter Steeg, P. F., Hellemons, J., Verheul, A. and Abee, T. 1995. Membranes as a target for stress adaptation. Int J Food Microbiol. 28:255-261
Ryynanen, S. and Ohlsson, T. 1996. Microwave heating uniformity of ready meals as affected by placement, composition, and geometry. J Food Sci. 61(3):620-624
Sale, A. J. H. and Hamilton, W. A. 1967. Effects of high electric fields on microorganisms I. Killing of bacteria and yeast. Biochimt Biophys Acta. 148:781-788
Sale, A. J. H., Gould, G. W. and Hamilton, W. A. 1970. Inactivation of bacterial spores by hydrostatic pressure. J Gen Microbiol. 60:323-334
Sale, A. J. H. 1976. A review of microwave for food processing. J Food Technol. 11:319-329
Salengke, S. and Sastry, S. K. 1999. Comparative modeling study of ohmic heating of solid-liquid mixtures. 1999 IFT Annual Meeting. Chicago. July 24-28 1999.
Saltiel, C. and Datta, A. K. 1998. Heat and mass transfer in microwave processing. Adv Heat Transfer. 33:1-94
Sams, A. R. and Feria, R. 1991. Microbial effects of ultrasonication of broiler drumstick skin. J Food Sci. 56(1):247-248
San-Martin, M.F., Harte, F.M., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., and Swanson, B.G. 1999. Magnetic field as a potential non-thermal technology for the inactivation of microorganisms. Washington State University, Biological Systems Engineering, Pullman, WA., USA. (Unpublished).
Sastry, S. K. 1992. A model for heating of liquid-particle mixtures in a continuous flow ohmic heater. J Food Process Eng. 15:263-278
Sastry, S. K. and Palaniappan, S. 1992. Mathematical modeling and experimental studies on ohmic heating of liquid-particle mixtures in a static heater. J Food Process Eng. 15:241-261
Sastry, S. K. 1994. Ohmic heating. R. P. Singh and F. A. R. Oliveira. Minimal Processing of Foods and Process Optimization: an Interface. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press, Inc. 17-33.
Sastry, S. K. and Li, Q. 1996. Modeling the ohmic heating of foods. Food Technol. 50(5):246-248
Sastry, S. K. and Salengke, S. 1998. Ohmic heating of solid-liquid mixtures: a comparison of mathematical models under worst-case heating conditions. J Food Process Eng. 21:441-458
Satomi, M., Yamaguchi, T., Okuzumi, M. and Fujii, T. 1995a. Effect of conditions on the barotolerance of Escherichia coli. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi (J of Food Hyg Soc Japan). 36(1):29-34
Satomi, M., Yamaguchi, T., Okuzumi, M. and Fujii, T. 1995b. Effect of several conditions on the recovery of pressure-injured bacteria. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi (J of Food Hyg Soc Japan). 36(3):344-351
Schlegel, W. 1992. Commercial pasteurization and sterilization of food products using microwave technology. Food Technol. 46(12):62-63
Schnepf, M. and Barbeau, W. E. 1989. Survival of Salmonella typhimurium in roasting chickens cooked in a microwave, convention microwave and conventional electric oven. J Food Safety. 9:245-252
Schoenbach, K. H., Peterkin, F. E., Alden, R. W. and Beebe, S. J. 1997. The effect of pulsed electric fields on biological cells: Experiments and applications. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci. 25(2):284-292
Sensoy, I., Zhang, Q. H. and Sastry, S. K. 1997. Inactivation kinetics of Salmonella dublin by pulsed electric field. J Food Process Eng. 20:367-381
Seyderhelm, I. and Knorr, D. 1992. Reduction of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores by combined high pressure and temperature treatments. ZFL Eur Food Sci. 43:17
Shigehisa, T., Ohmori, T., Saito, A., Taji, S. and Hayashi, R. 1991. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on characteristics of pork slurries and inactivation of microorganisms associated with meat and meat products. Int J Microbiol. 12:207-216
Shigehisa, T., Nakagami, H., Ohno, H., Okate, T., Mori, H., Kawahata, T., Morimoto, M. and Ueba, N. 1996. Inactivation of HIV in bloodplasma by high hydrostatic pressure. R. Hayashi and C. Balny. High pressure bioscience and biotechnology. Elsevier Science B. V. 273-278.
Simpson, M. V., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1995. The Combined inhibitory effect of lysozyme and high voltage pulsed electric fields on the growth of Bacillus subtilis spores. IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts. 267.
Simpson, R. K. and Gilmour, A. 1997a. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Listeria monocytogenes in phosphate-buffered saline and model food systems. J Appl Microbiol. 83:181-188
Simpson, R. K. and Gilmour, A. 1997b. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the activity of intracellular enzymes of Listeria monocytogenes. Let Appl Microbiol. 25:48-53
Sitzmann, V. 1995. High voltage pulse techniques for food preservation. G. W. Gould. New methods for food preservation. London, UK. Blackie Academic and Professional. 236-252.
Skauen, D. 1976. A comparison of heat production and cavitation intensity in several ultrasonic cell disrupters. Ultrasonics. 14:173-176
Smelt, J. P. P. M., Rijke, A. G. F. and Hayhurst, A. 1994. Possible mechanism of high pressure inactivation of microorganisms. High Press Res. 12:199-203
Smelt, J. P. P. 1998. Recent advances in the microbiology of high pressure processing. Trends Food Sci Technol. 9:152-158
Smelt, J. P. P. M. and Hellemons, J. C. 1998. High pressure treatment in relation to quantitative risk assessment. VTT Symposium. Espoo: Technical Research Centre of Finland. 27-38.
Sonoike, K., Setoyama, K. and Kobayashi, S. 1992. Effect of pressure and temperature on the death rates of lactobacillus casei and escherichia coli. C. Balny, R. Hayashi, K. Heremans and P. Masson. High Pressure and Biotechnology. 224:297-301
Standsted. 2000. Personal communication. Standsted Fluid Power, Ltd. Standsted, Essex CM24 8HT, UK.
Stenstrom, L. A. 1974. Method and apparatus for treating heat-sensitive products. Alfa-Laval AB. US Patent 3,809,844.
Stewart, C. M., Jewett Jr., F. F., Dunne, C. P. and Hoover, D. G. 1997. Effect of concurrent high hydrostatic pressure, acidity and heat on the injury and destruction of Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Safety. 17:23-36
Stumpf, P. K., Green, D. E. and Smith, F. W. J. 1946. Ultrasonic disintegration as a method of extracting bacterial enzymes. J Bacteriol. 51:487-493
Styles, M. F., Hoover, D. G. and Farkas, D. F. 1991. Response of Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus to high hydrostatic pressure. J Food Sci. 56(5):1404-1407
Suzuki, C. and Suzuki, K. 1962. The protein denaturation by high pressure. J Biochem. 52:67-71
Suzuki, K. and Taniguchi, T. 1972. Effect of pressure on biopolymers and model systems. M. A. Sleigh and A. G. Macdonald. The Effect of Pressure on Living Organisms. New York. Academic Press Inc. 103.
Sytnik, I. A. and Sytnik, I. A. 1967. The influence of electrohydraulic effect on microorganisms. Tr Stavropolskogo sx in-ta. 13:514-522.
Tajchakavit, S. and Ramaswamy, H. S. 1995. Continuous-flow microwave heating of orange juice: evidence of nonthermal effects. International Microwave Power Institute. 30(3):141-148
Tanaka, T. and Hatanaka, K. 1992. Application of hydrostatic pressure to yoghurt to prevent its after-acidification. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi (J Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology). 39(2):173-177
Taub, I. A., Kaprielian, R. A., Halliday, J. W., Walker, J. E., Angelini, P. and Merrit Jr, C. 1979. Factors affecting radiolytic effects in food. Radiated Physical Chemistry. 14:639-653
Tauscher, B. K. 1998. Effect of high pressure treatment to nutritive substances and natural pigments. Fresh Novel Foods by High Pressure. VTT Symposium 186. Technical Research Centre of Finland. Helsinki, Finland.
Tauscher, B. 1999. High pressure and chemical reactions: effects on nutrients and pigments. Emerging Food Science and Technology. Tempere, Finland. November 22-24, 1999. 58.
Teotia, J. S. and Miller, B. F. 1975. Destruction of salmonellae on poultry meat with lysozyme, EDTA, X-ray, microwave and chlorine. Poul Sci. 54:1388-1394
Thompson, J. S. and Thompson, A. 1990. In-home pasteurization of raw goat's milk by microwave treatment. International J Food Microbiol. 10:59-64
Thorne, S.(Ed.) 1991. Food Irradiation. Elsevier Applied Science. London.
Timson, W. J. and Short, A. J. 1965. Resistance of microorganisms to hydrostatic pressure. Biotechnol and Bioeng. VII:139-159
Ting, E. 1999. Personal Communication. Flow International, Kent, WA.
Tops, R. 2000. Managing Director, Tops Foods, Lammerides 26, Olen, Belgium Phone:00-32-(0)18.104.22.168 Fax: 00-32-(0)22.214.171.124.
Tsong, T. Y. 1990. Electrical modulation of membrane proteins: Enforced conformational oscillations and biological energy signals. Annu Rev Biophys Chem. 19:83-106
Tsuchiya, K., Nakamura, K., Okuno, K., Ano, T. and Shoda, M. 1996. Effect of homogeneous and inhomogeneous high magnetic fields on the growth of Escherichia coli. J Ferment Bioeng 81(4):343-346.
van Boekel, M. A. J. S. 1996. Stastical aspects of kinetic modeling for food science problems. J Food Sci. 61:477-485
Van Loey, A., Hendrickx, M., De Cordt, S., Haentjens, T. and Tobback, P. 1996. Quantative evaluation of thermal process using time temperature integrators. Trends Food Sci Technol. 7(1):16-26
Van Nostran, F.E., Reynolds, R.J. and Hedrick, H.G. 1967. Effects of a high magnetic field at different osmotic pressures and temperatures on multiplication of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol. 15: 561-563.
Varnam, A. H. and Evans, M. G. 1991. Foodborne Pathogens: An Illustrated Text. London. Wolfe Publishing, Ltd. 51-377.
Vega-Mercado, H., Powers, J. R., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1995. Plasmin inactivation with pulsed electric fields. J Food Sci. 60(5):1143-1146
Vega-Mercado, H., Martin-Belloso, O., Chang, F.-J., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1996a. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis suspended in pea soup using pulsed electric fields. J Food Process Pres. 20(6):501-510
Vega-Mercado, H., Pothakamury, U. R., Chang, F.-J., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1996b. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by combining pH, ionic strength and pulsed electric fields hurdles. Food Res Int. 29(2):117-121
Vega-Mercado, H. 1996c. Inactivation of proteolytic enzymes and selected microorganisms in foods using pulsed electric fields. Biological Systems Engineering. Pullman, WA. Washington State University.
Vega-Mercado, H., Martin-Belloso, O., Qin, B.-L., Chang, F.-J., Gongora-Nieto, M. M., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1997. Non-thermal food preservation: pulsed electric fields. Trends Food Sci Technol. 8(5):151-157
Vega-Mercado, H., Gongora-Nieto, M. M., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1999. Nonthermal preservation of liquid foods using pulsed electric fields. Handbook of Food Preservation. M. S. Rahman. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
Vela, G. R. and Wu, J. F. 1979. Mechanism of lethal action of 2,450-MHz radiation on microorganism. Appl Environ Microbiol. 37(3):550-553
Villamiel, M., LopezFandino, R. and Olano, A. 1997. Microwave pasteurization of milk in a continuous flow unit. Effects on the cheese-making properties of goat's milk. Milchwissenschaft. 52(1):29-32
Vollmer, A. C., Everbach, E. C., Halpern, M. and Kwakye, S. 1998. Bacterial stress responses to 1-megahertz pulsed ultrasound in the presence of microbubbles. Appl Environl Microbiol. 64(10):3927-3931
Wang, W.-C. 1995. Ohmic heating of foods: physical properties and applications. Columbus, OH. The Ohio State University.
Weemaes, C., Ooms, V., Indrawati, L., Ludikhuyze, I., Van den Broeck, A., van Loey, A. and Hendrickx, M. 1999. Pressure-temperature degridation of green color in broccoli juice. J Food Sci. 64:504-508
Wei, C. I., Balaban, M. O., Fernando, S. Y. and Peplow, A. J. 1991. Bacterial effect of high pressure CO2 treatment of foods spiked with Listeria or Salmonella. J Food Protect. 54(3):189-193
Weiss, K. F. and Strong, D. H. 1967. Some properties of heat-resistant and heat-sensitive strains of clostridium perfringens. I. Heat resistance and toxigenicity. J Bacteriol. 93:21-26
Welt, B. A. and Tong, C. H. 1993. Effect of microwave radiation on thiamin degradation kinetics. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 28(4):187-195
Welt, B. A., Street, J. A., Tong, C. H., Rossen, J. L. and Lund, D. B. 1993. Utilization of microwaves in the study of reaction kinetics in liquid and semi-solid media. Biotechnol Prog. 9:481-487
Wesley, R. H. 1971. Bacteria destruction methods. USA 3,594,115.
Wig, T., Tang, J., Younce, F., Hallberg, L., Dunne, C. P. and Koral, T. 1999. Radio frequency sterilization of military group rations. AIChE Annual Meeting.
Wilson, D. C. 1974. High pressure sterilization. 34th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists. New Orleans, LA. May 12-15.
Worobo, R. W., Churey, J. J. and Padilla-Zakour, O. 1998. Apple cider: treatment options to comply with new regulations. J Assoc Food Drug Officials. December:19-25
Worobo, R. W. 2000. Efficacy of the CiderSure 3500 ultraviolet light unit in apple cider. Ithaca, NY. Cornell University, Department of Food Science and Technology. 1-6.
Wouters, P. C., Glaasker, E. and Smelt, J. P. P. M. 1998. Effects of high pressure on inactivation kinetics and events related to proton efflux in Lactobacillus plantarum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 64(2):509-514
Wuytack, E. Y., Boven, S. and Michiels, C. W. 1998. Comparative study of pressure-induced germination of Bacillus subtilis spores at low and high pressure. A Environ Microbiol. 64:3220-3224
Wyslouzil, W. and Kashyap, S. C. 1976. Microwave sterilization of pea flour and pea protein concentrate. J Microwave Power. 11(2):212-213
Yano, Y., Nakayama, A., Kishihara, S. and Saito, H. 1998. Adaptive changes in membrane lipids of barophilic bacteria in response to changes in growth pressure. Appl Environ Microbiol. 64:479-485
Yin, Y., Zhang, Q. H. and Sastry, S. K. 1997. High voltage pulsed electric field treatment chambers for the preservation of liquid food products. Ohio State University. US Patent 5,690,978.
Yoshimura, N. 1989. Application of magnetic action for sterilization of food. Shokukin Kihatsu 24(3):46-48.
Zhang, L. and Fryer, P. J. 1993. Models for the electrical heating of solid-liquid mixtures. Chem Eng Sci. 48:633-643
Zhang, Q. H., Monsalve-Gonzalez, A., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1994a. Inactivation of E. coli and S. cerevisiae by pulsed electric fields under controlled temperature conditions. Transactions of the ASAE. 37(2):581-587
Zhang, Q. H., Chang, F.-J. and Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. 1994b. Inactivation of microorganisms in a semisolid model food using high voltage pulsed electric fields. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 27(6):538-543
Zhang, Q. H., Qin, B.-L., Barbosa-Canovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1995a. Inactivation of E. coli for food pasteurization by high-strength pulsed electric fields. J Food Process Pres. 19(2):103-118
Zhang, Q. H., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. and Swanson, B. G. 1995b. Engineering aspects of pulsed electric field pasteurization. J Food Eng. 25(2):261-281
Zhang, Q. H., Qiu, X. and Sharma, S. K. 1997. Recent development in pulsed electric field processing. Washington, DC. National Food Processors Association. New Technologies Yearbook. 31-42.
Zhang, H. and Datta, A. K. 1999. Coupled electromagnetic and thermal modeling of microwave oven heating of foods. J Microwave Power Electromagnetic Energy. 43
Zhang, H., Datta, A. K., Taub, I. and Doona, C. 1999. Experimental and numerical investigation of microwave sterilization of solid foods. Accepted pending revision in AIChE Journal.
Zhang, H. and Datta, A. K. 2000. Electromagnetics of Microwave Heating: Magnitude and Uniformity of Energy Absorption in an Oven. A. K. Datta and R.C. Anatheswaran(eds.). Handbook of Microwave Technology For Food Applications. New York. Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Zimmermann, U. and Benz, R. 1980. Dependence of the electrical breakdown voltage on the charging time in Valonia utricularis. J Membrane Biol. 53:33-43
Zimmermann, U. 1986. Electrical breakdown, electropermeabilization and electrofusion. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 105:175-256
Zimmermann, W. J. 1983. Evaluation of microwave cooking procedures and ovens for devitalizing trichinae in pork roasts. J Food Sci. 48:856-860, 899
ZoBell, C. E. 1970. Pressure effects on morphology and life process of bacteria. A. M. Zimmermann(Ed.). High pressure effects on cellular processes. New York. Academic Press Inc. 85-130.
Zook, C. D., Parish, M. E., Braddock, R. J. and Balaban, M. O. 1999. High pressure inactivation kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ascospores in orange and apple juice. J Food Sci. 64(3):533-535