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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies

Table of Contents


Preface
Executive Summary
Overarching Principles: Kinetics and Pathogens of Concern for all Technologies
1.KINETIC PARAMETERS FOR INACTIVATION OF MICROBIAL POPULATIONS
1.1.Models and Parameters
1.2.Kinetic Parameters for Inactivation of Microbial Pathogens
1.3.Future Research Needs
2.MICROBIOLOGICAL CRITICAL FACTORS
3.PATHOGENS OF PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN
4.SURROGATE ORGANISMS TO VALIDATE PROCESSING PARAMETERS
Microwave and Radio Frequency
1.Introduction
1.1.Definition, Description and Applications
1.2.Summary of Mechanisms of Inactivation
1.3.Summary of Microbial Inactivation Kinetics
1.4.Summary of Critical Process Factors
1.5.Synergistic Effects
1.6.Current Limitations/Status
2.Pathogens of Public Health Concern Most Resistant to the Technology
3.Mechanisms of Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
References
Ohmic and Inductive Heating
1.Introduction
1.1.Definition, Description and Applications
1.2.Summary of Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
1.3.Summary of Microbial Inactivation Kinetics
1.4.Summary of Critical Process Factors
1.5.Other Considerations
2.Pathogens of Public Health Concern Most Resistant to the Technology
3.Mechanisms of Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
References
High Pressure Processing
1.Introduction
1.1.Description of Technology
1.2.Equipment for HPP Treatment
1.3.Summary of Critical Process Factors
2.Pathogens of Public Health Concern Most Resistant to HPP
3.Mechanisms of Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
Pressure Units Conversion Factors
Suggestions for standardized microbial cultures
References
Appendix
Pulsed Electric Field
1.Introduction
1.1.Definition, Description and Applications
1.2.Applications of PEF Technology in Food Preservation
1.3.Current Limitations
1.4.Summary of Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
1.5.Summary of Microbial Inactivation Kinetics
1.6.Summary of Critical Process Factors
2.Critical Process Factors and How they Impact Microbial Inactivation
3.Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
References
Appendix
High Voltage Arc Discharge
1.Definition, Description and Applications
2.Inactivation of Microorganisms
3.Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Research Needs
Glossary
References
Pulsed Light
1.Definition, Description and Applications
2.Inactivation of Microorganisms
3.Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
References
Oscillating Magnetic Fields
1.Definition, Description and Applications
2.Inactivation of Microorganisms
3.Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
References
Ultraviolet Light
1.Definition, Description, and Applications
2.Pathogens of Public Health Concern
3.Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
References
Ultrasound
1.Introduction
1.1.Definition, Description and Applications
1.2.Summary of Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
1.3.Summary of Microbial Inactivation Kinetics
1.4.Summary of Critical Process Factors
2.Pathogens of Public Health Concern Most Resistant to the Technology
3.Mechanisms of Inactivation
4.Validation/Critical Process Factors
5.Process Deviations
6.Research Needs
Glossary
References
X-Rays
1.Definition, Description and Applications
2.Pathogens of Public Health Concern
3.Mechanisms of Microbial Inactivation
4.Research Needs
Glossary
References
Research Needs
Glossary
Bibliography

A report of the Institute of Food Technologists for the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

submitted March 29, 2000
revised June 2, 2000

IFT/FDA Contract No. 223-98-2333
Task Order 1
How to Quantify the Destruction Kinetics of Alternative Processing Technologies