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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

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Processing Parameters Needed to Control Pathogens in Cold Smoked Fish

 

Table of Contents


Preface
Science Advisory Board
Scientific and Technical Panel
Reviewers
Additional Acknowledgements
Background
Scope of Work
Executive Summary

Chapter I. Description of the Situation
1. Introduction
2. Cold-smoked fish
2.1 Definition
2.2 Generalized description of the process
2.3 Microbiology of products
3. Potential health hazards
4. The dilemma
5. Summary
References

Chapter II. Potential Hazards in Cold-Smoked Fish: Listeria monocytogenes
Scope
1. Introduction
2. Prevalence in water, raw fish, and smoked fish
3. Effect of various processing steps
3.1 Freezing
3.2 Salting/drying
3.3 Smoking process
4. Growth in refrigerated smoked fish
5. Source of contamination
6. Control of Listeria monocytogenes
6.1 Control in the processing environment
6.1.1 Training of staff
6.1.2 Reduction or elimination
6.1.3 Monitoring contamination
6.2 Prevention of growth in the product
6.2.1 Frozen storage
6.2.2 Carbon dioxide
6.2.3 Nitrite
6.2.4 Lactate
6.2.5 Sorbate
6.2.6 Bacteriocins
6.2.7 Background microflora
7. Conclusions
8. Research needs
References

Chapter III. Potential Hazards in Cold-Smoked Fish: Clostridium botulinum type E
Scope
1. Introduction
2. Prevalence in water, raw fish, and smoked fish
3. Growth in refrigerated smoked fish
4. Effect of processing steps and preservation parameters
4.1 Freezing
4.2 Cold smoking
4.3 Combinations of salt and low temperature
4.4 Atmosphere
4.5 Nitrite
4.6 Lactate
4.7 Sorbate
4.8 Role of background microflora
5. Conclusions
6. Research needs
References

Chapter IV. Potential Hazards in Cold-Smoked Fish: Biogenic Amines
Scope
1. Introduction
1.1 Safety aspects
2. Toxicity
2.1 Histamine toxicity
2.2 Toxicity potentiators
3. Prevalence in fish
3.1 Muscle type
3.2 Microflora
4. Effect of processing steps
4.1 Gutted versus ungutted fish
4.2 Effect of post-harvest handling
4.3 Freezing
4.4 Salting
4.5 Smoked product
4.6 Packaging
4.7 Other miscellaneous considerations
5. Conclusions
6. Research needs
References

Chapter V. Potential Hazards in Cold Smoked Fish: Parasites
Scope
1. Introduction
2. Prevalence of parasites in raw, frozen, and smoked fish
3. Incidence
4. Effects of processing steps and their use in controlling parasites
4.1 Salting and cold-smoking
4.2 Freezing
4.3 Irradiation
5. Conclusions
6. Research needs
References

Chapter VI. Control of Food Safety Hazards during Cold-Smoked Fish Processing
Scope
1. Receiving
2. Fresh or frozen storage
3. Thawing, washing, and rinsing
4. Butchering and evisceration
5. Washing and rinsing
6. Sorting, sizing, and salting
7. Rinsing, draining, and preparation
8. Drying and cold-smoking
9. Cooling
10. Slicing and cutting
11. Packaging and labeling
12. Storage and distribution
13. Retail
14. Consumer
References

Conclusions and Research Needs
Glossary
References
Appendix A: Summary of Cold-Smoked Process
Appendix B: On-Board and Aquaculture Post-Harvest Handling of Fish
Appendix C: Verification Procedures and Corrective Actions during Cold-Smoked Processing
Appendix D: Industry Survey

A report of the Institute of Food Technologists for the Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

submitted March 29, 2001

IFT/FDA Contract No. 223-98-2333
Task Order 2
Processing Parameters Needed to Control Pathogens in Cold Smoked Fish