Food

Analysis and Evaluation of Preventive Control Measures for the Control and Reduction/Elimination of Microbial Hazards on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce: Chapter IV: Incidence Tables

Table of Contents

Incidence Tables   |   Outbreaks Tables   |   Growth/Survival Tables

Outbreaks Associated with Fresh Produce: Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce

Table I-1: Examination of Raw Fruits for the Presence of Pathogens

Pathogen Type Countrya Place of Sampling Incidence Percentage % Comments Reference
L. monocytogenes Various juices US Retail 2/50 0.04 Various unpasteurized fruit and vegetable juices were sampled. L. monocytogenes isolated from apple juice and an apple raspberry blend. Juices were also tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Sample tested negative for the organisms. Sado and others 1998
Salmonella Cantaloupe Various NRb 8/151 5.3 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 9 countries. FDA 2001
Salmonella Orange US Various (orchard through juice plant) 0/375 0 Fruit surface and juice were analyzed. 1/3 oranges were graded hulls, 1/3 oranges were washed and graded, and 1/3 oranges were ungraded. Parish; personal communication; unreferenced
Salmonella Orange/tangerine US Citrus packinghouses 0/336 0   Pao and Brown 1998
Salmonella Strawberries Various NR 1/143 0.7 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected and analyzed from 5 countries. FDA 2001
Salmonella (8 serovars) Cantaloupe Mexico - 11/1440 0.76 FDA import study between March and April 1990. Madden 1992
Salmonella (12 serovars) Cantaloupe Mexico - 24/2220 1.1 FDA import study between November 1990 through January 1991. Melons came from the same harvest area associated with 1989-90 outbreak. Madden 1992
Shigella Cantaloupe Various NR 3/151 2.0 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 9 countries. FDA 2001
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported

Table I-2: Examination of Seed Sprouts for the Presence of Pathogens

Pathogen Type Countrya Place of Sampling Incidence Percentage % Comments Reference
Bacillus cereus Alfalfa US Health food stores 13/14 92.9 Seeds were sprouted in the lab using a home sprouting kit. Harmon and others 1987
B. cereus Mung bean US Health food stores 33/40 83 Seeds were sprouted in the lab using a home sprouting kit. Harmon and others 1987
B. cereus Mung bean US At production 2/16 12 Ten surveys were conducted over a six-month period. Splittstoesser and others 1983
B. cereus Wheat US Health food stores 15/24 63 Seeds were sprouted in the lab using a home sprouting kit. Harmon and others 1987
Listeria monocytogenes Mung bean France At production 1/31 3.1   See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
L. monocytogenes Mung bean France Retail 19/102 19   See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
L. monocytogenes Mung bean Malaysia Retail 6/7 86 Samples were taken from refrigerated supermarkets and open wet markets. Arumugaswarmy and others 1994
Salmonella Mung bean US At production 0/13 0 Ten surveys were conducted over a six month period. Splittstoesser and others 1983
Salmonella Mung bean Sweden NRb NR NR   See Beuchat 1996b
Salmonella Mung bean Thailand Open markets 30/344 8.7 Samples were collected monthly for seven months. Jerngklinchan and Saitanu 1993
Staphylococcus aureus Alfalfa Canada Retail 4/18 22 Sprouts produced by a single processor. Samples obtained from three retail outlets. Prokopowich and Blank 1991
S. aureus Mixed sprouts Canada Retail 5/18 28 Sprouts produced by a single processor. Samples obtained from three retail outlets. Prokopowich and Blank 1991
S. aureus Onion Canada Retail 4/18 22 Sprouts produced by a single processor. Samples obtained from three retail outlets. Prokopowich and Blank 1991
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported

Table I-3: Examination of Unsprouted Seeds for the Presence of Salmonella

Type Countrya Place of Sampling Incidence Percentage % Comments Reference
Alfalfa US Production 0/4 0 Seeds obtained from a local processor. Prokopowich and Blank 1991
Alfalfa US Health food stores 1/10 10 Seeds were labelled as organic. Andrews and others 1979
Mixed seeds US Production 0/4 0 Seeds obtained from a local processor. Prokopowich and Blank 1991
Onion US Production 0/4 0 Seeds obtained from a local processor. Prokopowich and Blank 1991
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested

Table I-4: Examination of Lettuce or Salad Greens for the Presence of Pathogens

Pathogen Type Countrya Place of Sampling Incidence Percentage % Comments Reference
Aeromonas hydrophila Chicory salads Italy Retail 12/12 100 Presumptive A. hydrophila. Marchetti and others 1992
A. hydrophila or A. caviae Lettuce, cut Australia Retail or production 66/120 55 Cut and packaged lettuce samples obtained over an 8-month period. Szabo and others 2000
A. hydrophila Salad mix (various) Italy Retail 12/12 100 Presumptive A. hydrophila. Marchetti and others 1992
Clostridium botulinum Salad mix (various) US Retail 2/350 0.6 MAP samples were obtained from three different producers. Lilly and others 1996
Campylobacter Lettuce Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 2/165 1.2 Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets. Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Lettuce UK Retail 0/151 0 Imported whole lettuce. Little and others 1999
Cryptosporidium Lettuce Costa Rica Open markets 2/80 2.5 Samples were taken from eight open markets during the dry and rainy season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Escherichia coli O157:H7 Lettuce UK Retail 0/151 0 Imported whole lettuce. Little and others 1999
E. coli O157:H7 Salad mix (various) US Retail and food service 0/63 0 Samples were taken from 31 retail and food service facilities. Lin and others 1996
Listeria monocytogenes Chopped lettuce Canada Hospitals 5/39 13 Samples were stored at 4oC or 10oC for up to 11 days. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Lettuce Canada Retail 0/50 0 Samples were either grown in the US or Canada. Outer leaves were tested. Farber and others 1989.
L. monocytogenes Lettuce France Production 0/35 0 Lettuce samples were from the packing plant before they were cleaned and packaged. Gras and others 1994
L. monocytogenes Lettuce Malaysia NRb 1/28 3.6   Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenes Lettuce Sri Lanka NR 10/20 50   Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenes Lettuce UK Retail 0/151 0 Imported whole lettuce. Little and others 1999
L. monocytogenes Lettuce US Retail 1/92 1.1 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Lettuce, cut Australia Retail or production 3/120 2.5 Cut and packaged lettuce samples obtained over an 8-month period. Szabo and others 2000
L. monocytogenes Lettuce, iceberg US - 1/297 0.3 Sample collection from December 1992 to February 1993. Industry data, unpublished but reviewed
L. monocytogenes Lettuce, Romaine US - 0/320 0 Sample collection from December 1992 to February 1993. Industry data, unpublished but reviewed
L. monocytogenes Prepacked salads Northern Ireland From processor 3/40 7.5 Samples were collected from 2 food processors. Harvey and Gilmore 1993
L. monocytogenes Prepacked salads UK Retail 4/60 6.7 Listeria was isolated from two salad varieties. Serotype 1/2 (4 isolates) and serotype 4b (1 isolate). Ten salad varieties were sampled. Sizmur and Walker1988
L. monocytogenes Salad mix (various) Germany NR 6/263 2.3   See Beuchat 1996b
L. monocytogenes Salad mix (various) Netherlands NR 11/25 44   See Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenes Salad mix (various) Northern Ireland At production 4/45 9.0 Samples were collected from 12 food processors at 6-week intervals. Harvey and Gilmore 1993
L. monocytogenes Salad mix (various) UK NR 2/108 1.8   Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenes Salad mix (various) Canada Hospitals 9/39 23 Samples were stored at 4oC or 10oC for up to 11 days. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Salad mix (various) US Retail and food service 1/63 1.6 Samples were taken from 31 retail and food service facilities. Lin and others 1996
Staphylococcus aureus Salad greens UK NR 13/256 5.1   See Beuchat 1996b
S. aureus Salad mix (various) Egypt Retail / food service 3/36 8.3   Saddik and others 1985
Salmonella Lettuce Various - 1/116 0.9 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 11 countries. FDA 2001
Salmonella Lettuce Italy Retail 82/120 68 Samples were taken from five retail outlets and sampled at monthly intervals for 1 year. Ercolani 1976
Salmonella Lettuce Netherlands Various 2/28 7.1 Salmonella tested only when E. coli present. Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Lettuce UK Retail 0/151 0 Imported whole lettuce. Little and others 1999
Salmonella Salad greens Egypt Retail / food service 2/57 3.5   Saddik and others 1985
Salmonella Salad mix (various) Egypt Retail / food service 1/159 0.6   Saddik and others 1985
Salmonella Salad mix (various) US Retail and food service 0/63 0 Samples were taken from 31 retail and food service facilities. Lin and others 1996
Salmonella Lettuce Spain Farms, wholesale markets, and retail 5/80 6.3 Samples were collected during the four seasons and from different sources. Possible use of contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Cueto, Espinar and others 1987
Shigella Lettuce Various - 1/116 1.0 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected and analyzed from 11 countries. FDA 2001
Shigella Lettuce UK Retail 0/151 0 Imported whole lettuce. Little and others 1999
Shigella Salad greens Egypt Retail / food service 1/57 1.8   Saddik and others 1985
Shigella Salad mix (various) Egypt Retail / food service 3/159 1.9   Saddik and others 1985
Vibrio cholerae Lettuce UK Retail 0/151 0 Imported whole lettuce. Little and others 1999
Yersinia enterocolitica Lettuce, cut Australia Retail or production 71/120 59 Cut and packaged lettuce samples obtained over an 8-month period. Szabo and others 2000
Yersinia Prepacked salads UK Retail 3/3 100 Subsamples from same batch. Predominantly environmental strains of Y. enterocolitica. Brocklehurst and others 1987
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported

Table I-5: Examination of Mixed Raw Vegetables for the Presence of Pathogens

Pathogen Countrya Place of Sampling Incidence Percentage % Comments Reference
Aeromonas spp. Brazil Retail 43/90 48 Samples contained vegetables like lettuce, watercress, and endive. See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Clostridium botulinum US Retail 1/144 0.7 MAP samples were obtained from three different producers. Lilly and others 1996
C. perfringens UK Retail 34/100 34   See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Escherichia coli (enteropathogenic) US Retail 0/49 0 Samples were taken from various chain stores. Raw and frozen vegetables. Hall and others 1967
E. coli O157:H7 Mexico   17/89 19   See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Giardia spp. Brazil Gardens NRb 13   See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Listeria monocytogenes Germany Retail 2/103 1.9   See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
L. monocytogenes Italy   7/102 6.9   See Beuchat 1996b
L. monocytogenes Spain Markets 8/103 7.8 Samples included a variety of vegetables. de Simon and others 1992
L. monocytogenes Taiwan Markets 6/49 12 Organism was isolated from lettuce, Chinese cabbage, and green onions. Wong and others 1990
L. monocytogenes UK Retail 4/64 6.3 Samples were taken year round from 4 supermarkets. MacGowan and others 1994
L. monocytogenes UK Unknown 8/42 19 Prepared mixed vegetables. See Francis and others 1999
Salmonella US Wholesale and retail 4/50 8.0 Samples were obtained over a 2-year survey. Various vegetables were evaluated. Rude and others 1984
Salmonella Iraq Various 3/43 7.0   Al-Hindawi and Rished 1979
Salmonella Spain Various 46/849 5.4 Irrigation water samples were also taken. Results indicate a close relationship between isolates obtained from water and produce samples. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez-Vargas and others 1987
Yersinia enterocolitica Brazil Retail 1/30 3.3 Samples included lettuce, spinach, watercress, and chicory. dos Reis Tassinari and others 1994
Y. enterocolitica France NR 4/58 7.0   Catteau and others 1985; See Beuchat 1996b
Y. enterocolitica France NR 15/30 50   Darbas and others 1985; See Beuchat 1996b
Y. enterocolitica Italy NR 1/102 1.0   See Beuchat 1996b
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported

Table I-6: Examination of Raw Herbs or Spices for the Presence of Pathogens

Pathogen Type Countrya Place of Sampling Incidence Percentage % Comments Reference
Campylobacter Parsley Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 1/177 0.6 Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets. Park and Sanders 1992
Cryptosporidium Cilantro (leaves) Costa Rica Open markets 4/80 5.0 Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Cryptosporidium Cilantro (roots) Costa Rica Open markets 7/80 8.7 Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cilantro Mexico NRb 8/41 20   See Beuchat 1996b
E. coli O157:H7 Coriander Mexico NR 2/10 20   See Beuchat 1996b
Salmonella Parsley Spain Farm, wholesale, and retail 1/23 4.3 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Cueto Espinar, and others 1987
Salmonella Chili Netherlands Various 5/16 31   Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Chili Surinam NR 5/16 31   Tauxe and others 1997
Salmonella Cilantro Various Various 16/177 9.0 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 6 countries. FDA 2001
Salmonella Culantro Various Various 6/12 50 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 2 countries. FDA 2001
Salmonella Parsley Various Various 1/84 1.2 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 7 countries. FDA 2001
Shigella Cilantro Various Various 0/177 0 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 6 countries. FDA 2001
Shigella Culantro Various Various 0/12 0 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 7 countries. FDA 2001
Shigella Parsley Various Various 1/84 1.2 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 6 countries. FDA 2001
Staphylococcus Parsley Lebanon NR NR 7.7   See Beuchat 1996b
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported

Table I-7: Examination of Raw Vegetables other than Lettuce and Salad Greens for the Presence of Pathogens

Pathogen Type Countrya Place of Sampling Incidence Percentage % Comments Reference
Aeromonas hydrophila Carrots Italy Retail 12/12 100 Presumptive A. hydrophila. Marchetti and others 1992
Clostridium botulinum Cabbage US Retail 1/337 0.3 MAPb samples of shredded cabbage were obtained from three different companies. Lilly and others 1996
C. botulinum Coleslaw US Retail 0/72 0 MAPb samples of shredded cabbage were obtained from three different companies. Lilly and others 1996
C. botulinum Green pepper US Retail 1/201 0.5 MAPb samples of shredded cabbage were obtained from three different companies. Lilly and others 1996
C. botulinum Mushrooms Netherlands Farm auctions 0/5 0 Samples were obtained from 5 different auctions. At least 10 different production farms were sampled from each auction. Notermans and others 1989
Campylobacter jejuni Mushrooms US Retail 3/200 1.5 Samples were obtained from local grocery stores between March and August 1985. Doyle and Schoeni 1986
Campylobacter Cabbage Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 0/130 0   Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Carrots Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 0/149 0   Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Celery Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 0/150 0   Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Cucumber Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 0/123 0   Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Green onion Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 1/180 0.6 Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets. Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Potatoes Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 1/153 0.7 Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets. Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Spinach Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 2/183 1.1 Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets. Park and Sanders 1992
Campylobacter Radish Canada Outdoor markets and supermarkets 2/174 1.1 Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets. Park and Sanders 1992
Cryptosporidium Cabbage Costa Rica Open markets 0/80 0 Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Cryptosporidium Carrots Costa Rica Open markets 1/80 1.3 Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Cryptosporidium Cucumber Costa Rica Open markets 1/80 1.3 Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainiy and dry season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Cryptosporidium Radish Costa Rica Open markets 1/80 1.3 Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Cryptosporidium Tomato Costa Rica Open markets 1/80 1.3 Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the dry and rainy season. Monge and Chinchilla 1996
E. coli O157:H7 Celery Mexico NRc 6/34 18   See Beuchat 1996b
Listeria monocytogenes Broccoli Canada Hospital 2/35 5.7 Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Broccoli US Retail 0/92 0 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Cabbage US Retail 1/92 1.1 Samples were obtained for two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Cabbage, green US Processing facility 73/1016 7.2 Samples collected between December 1992 and February 1993. Industry data, unpublished but reviewed; unreferencd
L. monocytogenes Cabbage, red US Processing facility 10/399 2.5 Samples collected between December 1992 and February 1993. Industry data, unpublished but reviewed; unreferencd
L. monocytogenes Carrots Canada Hospital 0/35 0 Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Carrots US Retail 1/92 0 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Cauliflower Canada Hospital 0/39 0 Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Cauliflower US Retail 0/92 0 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Celery Canada Retail 0/30 0 Produce were grown either in the US or Canada. Farber and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Celery Canada Hospital 0/39 0 Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Coleslaw Canada Hospital 1/35 2.9 Samples were obtained from stored conditions of 10oC. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Coleslaw Singapore NR 2/50 4.0   See Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenes Coleslaw UK Retail 3/39 7.7 Samples were taken year round from four supermarkets. MacGowan and others 1994
L. monocytogenes Cucumber Malaysia Restaurants 4/5 80 Samples taken from street vendors. Samples were sliced. Arumugaswarmy and others 1994
L. monocytogenes Cucumber Pakistan Retail 1/15 6.7   See Beuchat 1996b
L. monocytogenes Cucumber US Retail 2/92 2.2 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Green pepper Canada Hospital 1/35 2.9 Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing. Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Leafy vegetables Malaysia Retail 5/22 23 Samples were taken from refrigerated supermarkets and open wet markets. Arumugaswarmy and others 1994
L. monocytogenes Mushrooms US Retail 10/92 11 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Potatoes US Retail 21/132 16 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Raddiccio US Processing facility 0/180 0 Samples collected between December 1992 and February 1993. Industry data, unpublished but reviewed; unreferencd
L. monocytogenes Radish Canada Retail 0/10 0 Produce were grown either in the US or Canada. Farber and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Radish US Retail 19/132 14 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Tomato Canada Retail 0/20 0 Produce were grown either in the US or Canada. Farber and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Tomato Pakistan NR 2/15 13   See Beuchat 1996a
L. monocytogenes Tomato US Retail 0/92 0 Samples were obtained from two supermarkets. Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenes Unspecified vegetables UK Retail 5/90 5.6 Samples were taken year round from four supermarkets. MacGowan and others 1994
Salmonella Artichoke Spain Farm, wholesale, and retail 3/25 12 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Salmonella Cabbage Netherlands Various 0/18 0   Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Cabbage Spain Various 7/41 17 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Salmonella Cardoon Spain Farm, wholesale, and retail 1/4 20 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Salmonella Cauliflower Netherlands Various 1/13 7.7 Salmonella tested only when E. coli present. Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Cauliflower Spain Farm, wholesale, and retail 1/23 4.3 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Salmonella Celery Netherlands Various 0/20 0   Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Celery Various Various 1/84 1.2 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 2 countries. FDA 2001
Salmonella Eggplant Netherlands Various 2/13 1.5 Salmonella tested only when E. coli present. Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Endive Netherlands Various 2/26 7.7 Samples were either locally grown or imported from Italy. Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Fennel Italy Retail 64/89 72 Samples were taken from five retail outlets and sampled monthly for 1 year. Ercolani 1976
Salmonella Fennel Netherlands Various 0/15 0 Samples were either locally grown or imported from Italy. Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Green onion Various Various 1/180 0.6 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 5 countries. FDA 2001
Salmonella Pepper Netherlands Various 0/20 0   Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Spinach Spain Various 2/38 5.2 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Salmonella Zuchini Netherlands Various 0/11 0   Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Beet leaves Spain Various 4/52 7.7 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Salmonella Celery Spain Farm, wholesale, and retail 2/26 7.7 Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water. Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Shigella Celery Various Various 2/84 2.4 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 2 countries. FDA 2001
Shigella Green onion Various Various 2/180 1.1 Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 5 countries. FDA 2001
Staphylococcus Carrots Lebanon NR NR 14   See Beuchat 1996b
Staphylococcus Radish Lebanon NR NR 6.3   See Beuchat 1996b
Yersinia enterolitica Watercress Brazil Retail 1/5 20   Tassinari and others 1994
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bModified atmosphere packaging
cNot Reported

Table of Contents

Page Last Updated: 08/10/2015
Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players.