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Chapter IV: Incidence Tables

Analysis and Evaluation of Preventive Control Measures for the Control and Reduction/Elimination of Microbial Hazards on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce

Table of Contents

Chapter IV

Incidence Tables   |   Outbreaks Tables   |   Growth/Survival Tables

Outbreaks Associated with Fresh Produce: Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce


 

Table I-1: Examination of Raw Fruits for the Presence of Pathogens

PathogenTypeCountryaPlace of SamplingIncidencePercentage %CommentsReference
L. monocytogenesVarious juicesUSRetail2/500.04Various unpasteurized fruit and vegetable juices were sampled. L. monocytogenes isolated from apple juice and an apple raspberry blend. Juices were also tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Sample tested negative for the organisms.Sado and others 1998
SalmonellaCantaloupeVariousNRb8/1515.3Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 9 countries.FDA 2001
SalmonellaOrangeUSVarious (orchard through juice plant)0/3750Fruit surface and juice were analyzed. 1/3 oranges were graded hulls, 1/3 oranges were washed and graded, and 1/3 oranges were ungraded.Parish; personal communication; unreferenced
SalmonellaOrange/tangerineUSCitrus packinghouses0/3360 Pao and Brown 1998
SalmonellaStrawberriesVariousNR1/1430.7Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected and analyzed from 5 countries.FDA 2001
Salmonella (8 serovars)CantaloupeMexico-11/14400.76FDA import study between March and April 1990.Madden 1992
Salmonella (12 serovars)CantaloupeMexico-24/22201.1FDA import study between November 1990 through January 1991. Melons came from the same harvest area associated with 1989-90 outbreak.Madden 1992
ShigellaCantaloupeVariousNR3/1512.0Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 9 countries.FDA 2001
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported


 

Table I-2: Examination of Seed Sprouts for the Presence of Pathogens

PathogenTypeCountryaPlace of SamplingIncidencePercentage %CommentsReference
Bacillus cereusAlfalfaUSHealth food stores13/1492.9Seeds were sprouted in the lab using a home sprouting kit.Harmon and others 1987
B. cereusMung beanUSHealth food stores33/4083Seeds were sprouted in the lab using a home sprouting kit.Harmon and others 1987
B. cereusMung beanUSAt production2/1612Ten surveys were conducted over a six-month period.Splittstoesser and others 1983
B. cereusWheatUSHealth food stores15/2463Seeds were sprouted in the lab using a home sprouting kit.Harmon and others 1987
Listeria monocytogenesMung beanFranceAt production1/313.1 See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
L. monocytogenesMung beanFranceRetail19/10219 See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
L. monocytogenesMung beanMalaysiaRetail6/786Samples were taken from refrigerated supermarkets and open wet markets.Arumugaswarmy and others 1994
SalmonellaMung beanUSAt production0/130Ten surveys were conducted over a six month period.Splittstoesser and others 1983
SalmonellaMung beanSwedenNRbNRNR See Beuchat 1996b
SalmonellaMung beanThailandOpen markets30/3448.7Samples were collected monthly for seven months.Jerngklinchan and Saitanu 1993
Staphylococcus aureusAlfalfaCanadaRetail4/1822Sprouts produced by a single processor. Samples obtained from three retail outlets.Prokopowich and Blank 1991
S. aureusMixed sproutsCanadaRetail5/1828Sprouts produced by a single processor. Samples obtained from three retail outlets.Prokopowich and Blank 1991
S. aureusOnionCanadaRetail4/1822Sprouts produced by a single processor. Samples obtained from three retail outlets.Prokopowich and Blank 1991
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported


 

Table I-3: Examination of Unsprouted Seeds for the Presence of Salmonella

TypeCountryaPlace of SamplingIncidencePercentage %CommentsReference
AlfalfaUSProduction0/40Seeds obtained from a local processor.Prokopowich and Blank 1991
AlfalfaUSHealth food stores1/1010Seeds were labelled as organic.Andrews and others 1979
Mixed seedsUSProduction0/40Seeds obtained from a local processor.Prokopowich and Blank 1991
OnionUSProduction0/40Seeds obtained from a local processor.Prokopowich and Blank 1991
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested


 

Table I-4: Examination of Lettuce or Salad Greens for the Presence of Pathogens

PathogenTypeCountryaPlace of SamplingIncidencePercentage %CommentsReference
Aeromonas hydrophilaChicory saladsItalyRetail12/12100Presumptive A. hydrophila.Marchetti and others 1992
A. hydrophila or A. caviaeLettuce, cutAustraliaRetail or production66/12055Cut and packaged lettuce samples obtained over an 8-month period.Szabo and others 2000
A. hydrophilaSalad mix (various)ItalyRetail12/12100Presumptive A. hydrophila.Marchetti and others 1992
Clostridium botulinumSalad mix (various)USRetail2/3500.6MAP samples were obtained from three different producers.Lilly and others 1996
CampylobacterLettuceCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets2/1651.2Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets.Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterLettuceUKRetail0/1510Imported whole lettuce.Little and others 1999
CryptosporidiumLettuceCosta RicaOpen markets2/802.5Samples were taken from eight open markets during the dry and rainy season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Escherichia coli O157:H7LettuceUKRetail0/1510Imported whole lettuce.Little and others 1999
E. coli O157:H7Salad mix (various)USRetail and food service0/630Samples were taken from 31 retail and food service facilities.Lin and others 1996
Listeria monocytogenesChopped lettuceCanadaHospitals5/3913Samples were stored at 4oC or 10oC for up to 11 days.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenesLettuceCanadaRetail0/500Samples were either grown in the US or Canada. Outer leaves were tested.Farber and others 1989.
L. monocytogenesLettuceFranceProduction0/350Lettuce samples were from the packing plant before they were cleaned and packaged.Gras and others 1994
L. monocytogenesLettuceMalaysiaNRb1/283.6 Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenesLettuceSri LankaNR10/2050 Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenesLettuceUKRetail0/1510Imported whole lettuce.Little and others 1999
L. monocytogenesLettuceUSRetail1/921.1Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesLettuce, cutAustraliaRetail or production3/1202.5Cut and packaged lettuce samples obtained over an 8-month period.Szabo and others 2000
L. monocytogenesLettuce, icebergUS-1/2970.3Sample collection from December 1992 to February 1993.Industry data, unpublished but reviewed
L. monocytogenesLettuce, RomaineUS-0/3200Sample collection from December 1992 to February 1993.Industry data, unpublished but reviewed
L. monocytogenesPrepacked saladsNorthern IrelandFrom processor3/407.5Samples were collected from 2 food processors.Harvey and Gilmore 1993
L. monocytogenesPrepacked saladsUKRetail4/606.7Listeria was isolated from two salad varieties. Serotype 1/2 (4 isolates) and serotype 4b (1 isolate). Ten salad varieties were sampled.Sizmur and Walker1988
L. monocytogenesSalad mix (various)GermanyNR6/2632.3 See Beuchat 1996b
L. monocytogenesSalad mix (various)NetherlandsNR11/2544 See Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenesSalad mix (various)Northern IrelandAt production4/459.0Samples were collected from 12 food processors at 6-week intervals.Harvey and Gilmore 1993
L. monocytogenesSalad mix (various)UKNR2/1081.8 Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenesSalad mix (various)CanadaHospitals9/3923Samples were stored at 4oC or 10oC for up to 11 days.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenes Salad mix (various)USRetail and food service1/631.6Samples were taken from 31 retail and food service facilities.Lin and others 1996
Staphylococcus aureusSalad greensUKNR13/2565.1 See Beuchat 1996b
S. aureusSalad mix (various)EgyptRetail / food service3/368.3 Saddik and others 1985
SalmonellaLettuceVarious-1/1160.9Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 11 countries.FDA 2001
SalmonellaLettuceItalyRetail82/12068Samples were taken from five retail outlets and sampled at monthly intervals for 1 year.Ercolani 1976
SalmonellaLettuceNetherlandsVarious2/287.1Salmonella tested only when E. coli present.Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaLettuceUKRetail0/1510Imported whole lettuce.Little and others 1999
SalmonellaSalad greensEgyptRetail / food service2/573.5 Saddik and others 1985
SalmonellaSalad mix (various)EgyptRetail / food service1/1590.6 Saddik and others 1985
SalmonellaSalad mix (various)USRetail and food service0/630Samples were taken from 31 retail and food service facilities.Lin and others 1996
Salmonella LettuceSpainFarms, wholesale markets, and retail5/806.3Samples were collected during the four seasons and from different sources. Possible use of contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Cueto, Espinar and others 1987
ShigellaLettuceVarious-1/1161.0Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected and analyzed from 11 countries.FDA 2001
ShigellaLettuceUKRetail0/1510Imported whole lettuce.Little and others 1999
ShigellaSalad greensEgyptRetail / food service1/571.8 Saddik and others 1985
ShigellaSalad mix (various)EgyptRetail / food service3/1591.9 Saddik and others 1985
Vibrio choleraeLettuceUKRetail0/1510Imported whole lettuce.Little and others 1999
Yersinia enterocoliticaLettuce, cutAustraliaRetail or production71/12059Cut and packaged lettuce samples obtained over an 8-month period.Szabo and others 2000
YersiniaPrepacked saladsUKRetail3/3100Subsamples from same batch. Predominantly environmental strains of Y. enterocolitica.Brocklehurst and others 1987
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported


 

Table I-5: Examination of Mixed Raw Vegetables for the Presence of Pathogens

PathogenCountryaPlace of SamplingIncidencePercentage %CommentsReference
Aeromonas spp.BrazilRetail43/9048Samples contained vegetables like lettuce, watercress, and endive.See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Clostridium botulinumUSRetail1/1440.7MAP samples were obtained from three different producers.Lilly and others 1996
C. perfringensUKRetail34/10034 See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Escherichia coli (enteropathogenic)USRetail0/490Samples were taken from various chain stores. Raw and frozen vegetables.Hall and others 1967
E. coli O157:H7Mexico 17/8919 See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Giardia spp.BrazilGardensNRb13 See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
Listeria monocytogenesGermanyRetail2/1031.9 See Nguyen-the and Carlin 2000
L. monocytogenesItaly 7/1026.9 See Beuchat 1996b
L. monocytogenesSpainMarkets8/1037.8Samples included a variety of vegetables.de Simon and others 1992
L. monocytogenesTaiwanMarkets6/4912Organism was isolated from lettuce, Chinese cabbage, and green onions.Wong and others 1990
L. monocytogenesUKRetail4/646.3Samples were taken year round from 4 supermarkets.MacGowan and others 1994
L. monocytogenesUKUnknown8/4219Prepared mixed vegetables.See Francis and others 1999
SalmonellaUSWholesale and retail4/508.0Samples were obtained over a 2-year survey. Various vegetables were evaluated.Rude and others 1984
Salmonella IraqVarious3/437.0 Al-Hindawi and Rished 1979
Salmonella SpainVarious46/8495.4Irrigation water samples were also taken. Results indicate a close relationship between isolates obtained from water and produce samples.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez-Vargas and others 1987
Yersinia enterocoliticaBrazilRetail1/303.3Samples included lettuce, spinach, watercress, and chicory.dos Reis Tassinari and others 1994
Y. enterocoliticaFranceNR4/587.0 Catteau and others 1985; See Beuchat 1996b
Y. enterocoliticaFranceNR15/3050 Darbas and others 1985; See Beuchat 1996b
Y. enterocoliticaItalyNR1/1021.0 See Beuchat 1996b
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported


 

Table I-6: Examination of Raw Herbs or Spices for the Presence of Pathogens

PathogenTypeCountryaPlace of SamplingIncidencePercentage %CommentsReference
CampylobacterParsleyCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets1/1770.6Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets.Park and Sanders 1992
CryptosporidiumCilantro (leaves)Costa RicaOpen markets4/805.0Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
CryptosporidiumCilantro (roots)Costa RicaOpen markets7/808.7Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
Escherichia coli O157:H7CilantroMexicoNRb8/4120 See Beuchat 1996b
E. coli O157:H7CorianderMexicoNR2/1020 See Beuchat 1996b
SalmonellaParsleySpainFarm, wholesale, and retail1/234.3Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Cueto Espinar, and others 1987
Salmonella ChiliNetherlandsVarious5/1631 Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella ChiliSurinamNR5/1631 Tauxe and others 1997
SalmonellaCilantroVariousVarious16/1779.0Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 6 countries.FDA 2001
SalmonellaCulantroVariousVarious6/1250Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 2 countries.FDA 2001
SalmonellaParsleyVariousVarious1/841.2Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 7 countries.FDA 2001
ShigellaCilantroVariousVarious0/1770Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 6 countries.FDA 2001
ShigellaCulantroVariousVarious0/120Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 7 countries.FDA 2001
ShigellaParsleyVariousVarious1/841.2Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 6 countries.FDA 2001
StaphylococcusParsleyLebanonNRNR7.7 See Beuchat 1996b
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bNot Reported


 

Table I-7: Examination of Raw Vegetables other than Lettuce and Salad Greens for the Presence of Pathogens

PathogenTypeCountryaPlace of SamplingIncidencePercentage %CommentsReference
Aeromonas hydrophilaCarrotsItalyRetail12/12100Presumptive A. hydrophila.Marchetti and others 1992
Clostridium botulinumCabbageUSRetail1/3370.3MAPb samples of shredded cabbage were obtained from three different companies.Lilly and others 1996
C. botulinumColeslawUSRetail0/720MAPb samples of shredded cabbage were obtained from three different companies.Lilly and others 1996
C. botulinumGreen pepperUSRetail1/2010.5MAPb samples of shredded cabbage were obtained from three different companies.Lilly and others 1996
C. botulinumMushroomsNetherlandsFarm auctions0/50Samples were obtained from 5 different auctions. At least 10 different production farms were sampled from each auction.Notermans and others 1989
Campylobacter jejuniMushroomsUSRetail3/2001.5Samples were obtained from local grocery stores between March and August 1985.Doyle and Schoeni 1986
CampylobacterCabbageCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets0/1300 Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterCarrotsCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets0/1490 Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterCeleryCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets0/1500 Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterCucumberCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets0/1230 Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterGreen onionCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets1/1800.6Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets.Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterPotatoesCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets1/1530.7Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets.Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterSpinachCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets2/1831.1Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets.Park and Sanders 1992
CampylobacterRadishCanadaOutdoor markets and supermarkets2/1741.1Samples from farmers markets and supermarkets. Positives only from farmers markets.Park and Sanders 1992
CryptosporidiumCabbageCosta RicaOpen markets0/800Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
CryptosporidiumCarrotsCosta RicaOpen markets1/801.3Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
CryptosporidiumCucumberCosta RicaOpen markets1/801.3Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainiy and dry season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
CryptosporidiumRadishCosta RicaOpen markets1/801.3Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the rainy and dry season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
CryptosporidiumTomatoCosta RicaOpen markets1/801.3Samples were obtained from eight open markets during the dry and rainy season.Monge and Chinchilla 1996
E. coli O157:H7CeleryMexicoNRc6/3418 See Beuchat 1996b
Listeria monocytogenesBroccoliCanadaHospital2/355.7Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenesBroccoliUSRetail0/920Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesCabbageUSRetail1/921.1Samples were obtained for two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesCabbage, greenUSProcessing facility73/10167.2Samples collected between December 1992 and February 1993.Industry data, unpublished but reviewed; unreferencd
L. monocytogenesCabbage, redUSProcessing facility10/3992.5Samples collected between December 1992 and February 1993.Industry data, unpublished but reviewed; unreferencd
L. monocytogenesCarrotsCanadaHospital0/350Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenesCarrotsUSRetail1/920Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesCauliflowerCanadaHospital0/390Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenesCauliflowerUSRetail0/920Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesCeleryCanadaRetail0/300Produce were grown either in the US or Canada.Farber and others 1989
L. monocytogenesCeleryCanadaHospital0/390Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenesColeslawCanadaHospital1/352.9Samples were obtained from stored conditions of 10oC.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenesColeslawSingaporeNR2/504.0 See Francis and others 1999
L. monocytogenesColeslawUKRetail3/397.7Samples were taken year round from four supermarkets.MacGowan and others 1994
L. monocytogenesCucumberMalaysiaRestaurants4/580Samples taken from street vendors. Samples were sliced.Arumugaswarmy and others 1994
L. monocytogenesCucumberPakistanRetail1/156.7 See Beuchat 1996b
L. monocytogenesCucumberUSRetail2/922.2Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesGreen pepperCanadaHospital1/352.9Samples were stored at 10oC prior to testing.Odumeru and others 1997
L. monocytogenesLeafy vegetablesMalaysiaRetail5/2223Samples were taken from refrigerated supermarkets and open wet markets.Arumugaswarmy and others 1994
L. monocytogenesMushroomsUSRetail10/9211Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesPotatoesUSRetail21/13216Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesRaddiccioUSProcessing facility0/1800Samples collected between December 1992 and February 1993.Industry data, unpublished but reviewed; unreferencd
L. monocytogenesRadishCanadaRetail0/100Produce were grown either in the US or Canada.Farber and others 1989
L. monocytogenesRadishUSRetail19/13214Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesTomatoCanadaRetail0/200Produce were grown either in the US or Canada.Farber and others 1989
L. monocytogenesTomatoPakistanNR2/1513 See Beuchat 1996a
L. monocytogenesTomatoUSRetail0/920Samples were obtained from two supermarkets.Heisick and others 1989
L. monocytogenesUnspecified vegetablesUKRetail5/905.6Samples were taken year round from four supermarkets.MacGowan and others 1994
SalmonellaArtichokeSpainFarm, wholesale, and retail3/2512Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
SalmonellaCabbageNetherlandsVarious0/180 Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaCabbageSpainVarious7/4117Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
SalmonellaCardoonSpainFarm, wholesale, and retail1/420Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
SalmonellaCauliflowerNetherlandsVarious1/137.7Salmonella tested only when E. coli present.Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaCauliflowerSpainFarm, wholesale, and retail1/234.3Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
SalmonellaCeleryNetherlandsVarious0/200 Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaCeleryVariousVarious1/841.2Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 2 countries.FDA 2001
SalmonellaEggplantNetherlandsVarious2/131.5Salmonella tested only when E. coli present.Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaEndiveNetherlandsVarious2/267.7Samples were either locally grown or imported from Italy.Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaFennelItalyRetail64/8972Samples were taken from five retail outlets and sampled monthly for 1 year.Ercolani 1976
SalmonellaFennelNetherlandsVarious0/150Samples were either locally grown or imported from Italy.Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaGreen onionVariousVarious1/1800.6Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 5 countries.FDA 2001
SalmonellaPepperNetherlandsVarious0/200 Tamminga and others 1978
SalmonellaSpinachSpainVarious2/385.2Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
SalmonellaZuchiniNetherlandsVarious0/110 Tamminga and others 1978
Salmonella Beet leavesSpainVarious4/527.7Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
Salmonella CelerySpainFarm, wholesale, and retail2/267.7Samples were collected all four seasons at different sources. Possible contamination from contaminated irrigation water.Garcia-Villanova, Galvez Vargas, and others 1987
ShigellaCeleryVariousVarious2/842.4Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 2 countries.FDA 2001
ShigellaGreen onionVariousVarious2/1801.1Produce imported into the US. Samples were collected from 5 countries.FDA 2001
StaphylococcusCarrotsLebanonNRNR14 See Beuchat 1996b
StaphylococcusRadishLebanonNRNR6.3 See Beuchat 1996b
Yersinia enteroliticaWatercressBrazilRetail1/520 Tassinari and others 1994
aCountry where produce samples were collected and tested
bModified atmosphere packaging
cNot Reported


 


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