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Listeria monocytogenes Risk Assessment: Appendix 7: Listeria Contamination of Food Category Data Sets - Part II

Appendix 7 - Part I

FDA/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
USDA/Food Safety and Inspection Service
September 2003

(Appendix 7 also available in PDF)

Contents


Processed Cheese Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Baek et al., 2000Cheese, pas- turized & pro- cessed2Korea3R45450                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Cheese & spreads2Singa- pore2P/R1031030                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, pro- cessed1USA3R440                        
Teufel and Bendzulla, 1993Cheese, Schnitt- kase- sliced1Ger- many1R96951                        
Teufel and Bendzulla, 1993Cheese, Schnitt- kase- sliced1Ger- many1R7775E4         2              
Total=3253221         2              
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Pasteurized Milk Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Ahrabi et al., 1997Milk, cow's2Tur- key2R20191                        
Arnold and Coble, 1995Milk, cow's1Aus- tralia2R33330                        
Baek et al., 2000Milk, pas- teur- ized2Korea3R26260                        
Bec- kers et al, 1987Milk, cow's1Ne- ther- lands1?41410                        
Casa- rotti et al., 1994Milk, cow's2Brazil2R20200                        
Farber et al., 1989Milk, cow's1Can- ada1R14140                        
Fer- nandez Garay- zabal et al., 1986Milk, cow's1Spain1P28226                        
Gelosa, 1990Milk, cow's1Italy1R770                        
Gohil et al., 1995Milk, cow's2UA Emi- rates2R1821820                        
Green- away and Drew, 1990Milk, cow's1Aus- tralia1P77770                        
Green- wood et al., 1991Milk, cow's1UK1R1039102811                        
Har- tung, M. 2000bMilk, pas- teur- ized1Ger- many3R6516510                        
Har- tung, 2001Milk, pas- teur- ized1Ger- many3R14521451E4         1              
Har- tung, M., 1999Milk, UHT1Ger- many3R28280                        
Har- tung, M., 1999Pas- teur- ized milk1Ger- many3R6906900                        
Harvey and Gil- mour, 1992Milk, cow's1Nor- thern Ireland1 95941                        
Ibrahim et al., 1992Milk, cow's1Hun- gary1R1001000                        
Ibrahim et al., 1992Milk, cow's1Hun- gary1R60537                        
Frye/ IDFA, 2000bMilk, cow's whole1USA3R189718970                        
Frye/ IDFA, 2000bMilk, cow's skim1USA3R184618451                        
Frye/ IDFA, 2000bMilk, cow's Choco- late1USA3R166916690                        
Frey/ IDFA, 2000bMilk, cow's re- duced fat1USA3R1071070                        
Frye/ IDFA, 2000bMilk, cow's1USA3R2852850                        
Kozak et al., 1996Milk, choco- late1USA1P4154105                        
Kozak et al., 1996Milk, lowfat1USA1P2822820                        
Kozak et al., 1996Milk, skim1USA1P98980                        
Kozak et al., 1996Milk, whole1USA1P3503482                        
Laciar et al., 1999Milk, cow's2Argen- tina3P80800                        
Mc- Laugh- lin and Gilbert, 1990Milk, cow's1UK1?4694690                        
Mick- ova, 1991Milk, cow's1Czech- oslo- vakia1P30300                        
Moura et al., 1993Milk, cow's2Brazil1P2202200                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Milk, choco- late1USA3R770                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Milk, cow's1USA3R39390                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Milk, goat's1USA3R110                        
Rola, 1994Milk, cow's1Poland1?73730                        
Roy, 1992Milk, cow's1Scot- land1?1151114                        
Sharif and Tunail, 1991Milk, cow's2Tur- key1R22220                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Milk, cow's1Ger- many1R?4434421                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Milk, treated1Ger- many1R?4139E         2              
Tis- cione et al., 1994Milk, cow's1Italy2P50500                        
Vena- bles, 1989Milk, cow's1Aus- tralia1P2062051                        
West and North York- shire Joint Work- ing Group, 1991Milk, cow's1UK1R6665E       1                
Total=124071236340       1 3              
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Non-pasteurized Milk Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Abou- Eleinin et al., 2000Milk, raw goat1USA3P45043317                        
Anony- mous, 1989Cows' milk1France1?1409132485                        
Arias et al., 1994Cows' milk2Costa Rica2P2202200                        
Baek et al., 2000Milk, raw2Korea3R45432                        
Beckers et al., 1987Cows' milk1Ne- ther- lands1?137131E4         6              
Casa- rotti et al., 1994Cows' milk2Brazil2R20200                        
David- son et al., 1989Cows' milk1Can- ada1P2562524                        
Desma- sures et al., 1997Cows' milk1France2P69654                        
Domin- guez Rodri- gues et al., 1985Cows' milk1Spain1P955243                        
Don- nelly et al., 1988Cows' milk1USA1P93992415                        
Doyle and Schoe- ni, 1986Cows' milk1USA1P50500                        
El Mar- rakchi et al., 1993Cows' milk2Mor- occo1R30273                        
El- Leboudy and Fayad, 1992Cows' milk2Egypt1P2362297                        
Farber et al., 1988Cows' milk1Can- ada1P4454396                        
Fedio and Jack- son, 1990Cows' milk1Can- ada1P36351                        
Fedio and Jack- son, 1990Cows' milk1Can- ada1P36324                        
Fedio and Jack- son, 1990Cows' milk1Can- ada1P4264188                        
Fenlon and Wilson, 1989Cows' milk1Sco- tland1P54052614                        
Fenlon et al., 1995Cows' milk1Sco- tland2P72763844    32 13                 
Fer- nandez Garay- zabul et al., 1987Cows' milk1Spain1P673730                        
Frye/ IDFA, 2000Milk, raw goat1USA3R65641                        
Frye/ IDFA, 2000Milk, raw1USA3R1941931                        
Gledel, 1986Milk, cow's1France1?514110                        
Gledel, 1986Milk, cow's1France1?33732314                        
Green- wood et al., 1991Milk, cow's1UK1P36134813                        
Har- tung, 2000a.Raw milk for sale (raw milk off farm)1Ger- many3R1871843                        
Har- tung, 2000a.Milk, un- treated (bulk raw milk)1Ger- many3R9649559                        
Har- tung, 2000a.Milk, cer- tified raw1Ger- many3R4154150                        
Har- tung, 1999Raw milk for sale (raw milk off farm)1Ger- many3R1661651                        
Har- tung, 1999Milk, un- treated (bulk raw milk)1Ger- many3R1273126310                        
Har- tung, 1999Milk, cer- tified & raw1Ger- many3R4394390                        
Harvey and Gil- mour, 1992Milk, cow's1N. Ire- land1P17614927                        
Laciar et al., 1999Milk, cow's2Ar- gen- tina3P?2082071                        
Liewen and Plautz, 1988Milk, cow's1USA1P2001928                        
Lovett et al., 1987Milk, cow's1USA1P65062327                        
Luis- juan- Morales et al., 1995Milk, cow's1Mex- ico2R1001000                        
Lund et al., 1991Milk, cow's1USA1P3002919                        
Mc- Lauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Milk, cow's1UK1?3313238                        
Mc- Lauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Non- bovine1UK1?4124120                        
Mc- Lauch- lin et al., 1990Milk, goat's1UK1P770                        
Moura et al., 1993Milk, cow's2Brazil1P22019921                        
Oni et al., 1989Milk, cow's2Nig- eria1P1501491                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Milk, cow's1USA3R3853841                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Milk, goat's1USA3R1711710                        
Patter- son et al., 1989Milk, cow's1USA1P12120                        
Razavi- Rohani and Hedaia- tinia, 1990Milk, cow's2Iran1P/R1901864                        
Rea et al., 1992Milk, cow's1Ire- land1P58956029                        
Rodler and Köer- bler, 1989Milk, cow's1Hun- gary1P80773                        
Rohr- bach et al., 1992Milk, cow's1USA1P29228012                        
Slade and Collins-Thomp- son, 1988Milk, cow's1Can- ada1P31529817                        
Steele et al., 1997Milk, cow's (farm bulk tank)1Can- ada2P1720167347                        
Stone, 1987Milk, cow's1New Zea- land1P71710                        
Takai et al., 1990Milk, cow's1Japan1P1201200                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Milk, cow's1Ger- many1R?9793E         4              
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Milk, cow's1Ger- many1R?2562560                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Non- bovine1Ger- many1R?39390                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Non- bovine1Ger- many1R?440                        
Váz- quez- Salinas et al. 2001Milk, raw1Mex- ico3P13001138162                        
Total=1908018299726    32 13  10              
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Frozen Dairy Products Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Arnold and Coble, 1995Ice cream1Aus- tralia2R16614323                        
Baek et al., 2000Ice cream2Korea3R1321248                        
Choi et al., 2001Ice cream2Korea3R25250                        
Cift- cioglu et al., 1992Ice cream2Tur- key1?50455                        
Farber et al., 1989Ice cream, novel- ty1Can- ada1P51501                        
Farber et al., 1989Ice cream1Can- ada1P3943931                        
Farber et al., 1989Ice cream mix1Can- ada1P85850                        
Frye, 2000Frozen dairy pro- ducts1USA3R69654                        
Green- wood et al., 1991Ice cream1UK1R1501473                        
Har- tung, 2000a.Ice cream =spei- seeis1Ger- many3R249024891                        
Har- tung, 2001Spei- seeis =ice cream1Ger- many3R169416922                        
Har- tung, 2001Spei- seeis =ice cream1Ger- many3R16961694E4         2              
Har- tung, 1999Ice cream =spei- seeis1Ger- many3R262826253                        
Hein- itz, 1999Ice cream1USA3P29427024                        
IDFA, 1999Ice cream, novel- ties1USA3R1227119631                        
IDFA, 1999Ice cream, novel- ties (0.01 detec- tion limit)1USA3R19320193119                        
IDFA, 1999Ice cream/ frozen yogurt1USA3R5175170                        
Kozak et al., 1996Ice cream, novel- ty1USA2P35132130                        
Kozak et al., 1996Ice cream1USA2P71668828                        
Kozak et al., 1996Ice milk1USA2P42420                        
Mai- freni et al., 1993Ice cream1Ger- many1R3963960                        
Mc- Lauch- lin and Gil- bert, 1990Ice cream1UK1?27425717                        
Monge et al., 1994Ice cream1Cos- ta Rica2R50491                        
Monge et al., 1994Ice cream1Cos- ta Rica2R50491                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Ice cream2Sing- apore2P/R61610                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- cul- ture, 2001Frozen yogurt1USA3R31310                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- cul- ture, 2001Ice cream1USA3R1061060                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- cul- ture, 2001Ice cream mix1USA3R57570                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- cul- ture, 2001Ice cream, novel- ty1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- cul- ture, 2001Ice milk1USA3R82820                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Ice cream, iced pro- ducts1Ger- many1R?63630                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Ice cream, iced pro- ducts1Ger- many1R?550                        
Un- ilever, 2000Ice cream2O- cea- nia/ Asia/ Afri- ca3P21416214133                        
Uni- lever, 2000Ice cream1A- mer- ica3P16387163825                        
Uni- lever, 2000Ice cream1Eu- rope3P992169916056                        
Warke et al., 2000Ice creams2India3R30291                        
West and North York- shire Joint Work- ing Group, 1991Ice cream1UK1R68652       1                
Total=170391170129259       1 2              
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Cultured Milk Products Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Green- wood et al., 1991Yogurt1UK1R?1801763                  1     
McLauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Yogurt1UK1?2092090                        
McLauch- lin et al., 1990Yogurt1UK1R220                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Yogurt2Sing- apore2P/R40400                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Butte- rmilk1USA3R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Sour cream1USA3R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Yogurt1USA3R440                        
West and North Yorkshire Joint Working Group, 1991Yogurt1UK1R45450                        
Total=4904863                  1     
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

High Fat and Other Dairy Products: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Frye, 2000Butter1USA3R23230                        
Green- wood et al., 1991Cream, pas- teurized1UK1R40400                        
Har- tung, 2000a.milk pro- ducts1Ger- many3R9589562                        
Har- tung, 2000a.milk pro- ducts,1Ger- many3R6567653829                        
Har- tung, 2001milk pro- ducts,1Ger- many3R2662642                        
Har- tung, 2001milk pro- ducts,1Ger- many3R537533E4         4              
Har- tung, 1999milk pro- ducts1Ger- many3R45450                        
Har- tung, 1999milk pro- ducts,1Ger- many3R87328552180                        
Heinitz, 1999milk pro- duct1USA3P32320                        
Heinitz, 1999Milk pro- ducts (not cheese or ice cream)1USA3P2712674                        
Karpis- kova et al., 2000Dairy pro- ducts1Czech Rep- ublic3R2092072                        
Kozak et al., 1996Butter1USA2P30300                        
Kozak et al., 1996Cream1USA2P52520                        
Kozak et al., 1996Cream half & half1USA2P42420                        
Mc- Lauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Cream1UK1?1161160                        
Ng and Seah, 1995cream2Sing- apore2P/R17170                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pud- ding, choco- late1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Egg nog1USA3R440                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Half & half1USA3R770                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Milk- shake1USA3R55550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Dip1USA3R42402                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Whip- ping cream1USA3R660                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Butter1Ger- many1R?1914E         5              
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Butter1Ger- many1R?97970                        
Total=1816917939221         9              
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Frankfurter Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Hayes et al., 1992Hotdogs1USA1R4028E4  9 1 2                 
Levine, 2000Hotdogs1USA3P1593151677                        
Levine, 2001Hotdogs1USA3P1800176634                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Franks, chicken & pork2Sing- apore2P/R78735                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Hotdog1USA3R11110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Hotdogs, beef1USA3R330                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Hotdogs, turkey1USA3R330                        
Qvist and Liberski, 1991Frank- furter1Swe- den?1R64568                        
Samelis and Metax- opoulos, 1999Frank- furter, sausage type1Greece3P880                        
Wang and Muriana, 1994Hotdogs1USA2R1179316    8                   
Wenger et al., 1990Wieners, turkey1USA1P462521                        
Total=37633582161  9 9 2                 
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Dry/Semi-dry Sausage Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Breer and Schop- fer, 1989Salami1Aus- tralia1?63594                        
Buncic, 1991Sausage, fer- mented1Yugo- slavia1R21174                        
Cantoni et al., 1988Salami & pork, sea- soned meat products1Italy?1R?2252196                        
Choi et al.,2001Sausage, fer- mented2Korea3R15132                        
Farber et al., 1989Sau- sages, fer- mented1Can- ada1R30246                        
Gomez- Campillo et al., 1999Cured chorizo1Spain3R20191                        
Lahellec et al., 1996Sausage, dry1France2?1168333                        
Lahellec et al., 1996Sausage, smoked1France2?45396                        
Levine, 2000Sau- sages, fer- mented1USA3P35233517                        
Levine, 2001Sausage, dry & semi-dry fer- mented1USA3P85684115                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Beef Stick1USA3R330                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Ag, 2001Pep- peroni1USA3R761                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salami1USA3R550                        
Samelis and Metax- opoulos, 1999Sausage, dry & fer- mented1Greece3P440                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Sausage1Ger- many1R?85080644                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Sausage, cooked & cured1Ger- many1R?338314E4         21  3           
Trüssel, 1989Beef, salami & mett- wurst1Ger- many1P9995E       4                
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Sausage, raw & fer- mented1Bel- gium3R30825936     13                  
Total=33573141175     13 4 21  3           
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Deli Meats Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Agua- do et al., 2001Deli meats1Spain3R36933534                        
Baek et al., 2000Ham2Korea3R50500                        
Bersot et al, 2001Morta- della2Brazil3R30228                        
Daley et al., 1999Meats, ready-to-eat1Can- ada3R19181                        
Gille- spie et al., 2000Deli meats1UK3R34553442E4         8 5            
Go- mez- Cam- pillo et al., 1999Cold cuts1Spain3R20200                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Ham, cooked2India2R220                        
Lahel- lec et al., 1996Ham1France2?45441                        
Levine, 2000Corned beef, roast and cooked1USA3P2587252364                        
Levine, 2000Ham and lunch- eon meats, sliced1USA3P97893048                        
Levine, 2000Poultry, cooked1USA3P4125403689                        
Levine, 2000Sau- sage, large dia- meter cooked1USA3P2174214826                        
Levine, 2001Corned beef, roast cooked1USA3P1939189247                        
Levine, 2001Ham- sliced/ sliced lunch- eon1USA3P2048197177                        
Levine, 2001Poultry, cooked1USA3P2325229431                        
Levine, 2001Sau- sage, large dia- meter cooked1USA3P2725271213                        
Miett- inen, et al., 2001Broiler pro- ducts, ready-to-eat1Fin- land3P25250                        
NFPA, 2002Deli meats1USA- CA3R46004572E108  6 1    2      1     
NFPA, 2002Deli meats1USA- MD3R45994545E3212  4 1    5            
Ng and Seah, 1995Ham/ salami/ bacon/ lunch- eon meat2Sing- apore2R17143                        
Ojeniyi et al., 2000Turkey breast, smoked1Den- mark3P220                        
Ojeniyi et al., 2000Turkey breast, cooked smoked1Den- mark3P18180                        
Ojeniyi et al., 2000Turkey cuvette, smoked1Den- mark3P17170                        
Ojeniyi et al., 2000Turkey fillet, smoked & ready-to-eat1Den- mark3P14113                        
Ojeniyi et al., 2000Turkey parts1Den- mark3P110                        
Ojeniyi et al., 2000Turkey wings1Den- mark3P101                        
Ojeniyi et al., 2000Turkey, cooked & smoked & diced1Den- mark3P220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Beef, barbe- cue1USA3R11110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Chic- ken, barbe- cue1USA3R440                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Meat, barbe- cue1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pork, barbe- cue1USA3R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Beef1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Bolog- na1USA3R440                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Chic- ken, breaded1USA3R22220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Chic- ken, ready- to-eat1USA3R74722                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Corned beef1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Ham1USA3R56560                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Olive loaf1USA3R440                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pas- trami1USA3R14140                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pork1USA3R312                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Beef, roast1USA3R1081080                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Turkey breast, sliced1USA3R1181180                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Turkey ham1USA3R880                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Turkey pas- trami1USA3R871                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Turkey, ready-to-eat1USA3R440                        
Qvist and Liber- ski, 1991Ham1Swe- den?1R80728                        
Qvist and Liber- ski, 1991Pork loin1Swe- den?1R806218                        
Qvist and Liber- ski, 1991Sau- sages1Swe- den?1R80728                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Bacon1Greece3P440                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Ham like pro- ducts1Greece3P431                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Ham, sliced & va- cuum- packed1Greece3P651                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Morta- della1Greece3P440                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Pariza1Greece3P220                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Pork shoul- der, sliced & va- cuum- packed1Greece3P660                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Sau- sage, country type1Greece3P1091                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Sau- sage, Emul- sion type1Greece3P12120                        
Same- lis and Me- taxo- poulos, 1999Turkey breast, smoked1Greece3P440                        
Sori- ano et al., 2001Beef, ready-to-eat1Spain3R550                        
Sori- ano et al., 2001Chic- ken, ready -to-eat1Spain3R550                        
Sori- ano et al., 2001Pork, ready- to-eat1Spain3R550                        
Uyt- ten- daele et al., 1999Ham, cooked sliced1Bel- gium3R87981754     8                  
Total=33824331795424220  1082  8 12      1     
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Pâté and Meat Spreads Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Anderson and Nørrung, 1995Pâté1Den- mark2R3413336      1    1            
Domin- guez et al., 2001Pâté1Spain3R182172E4         9 1            
Gomez-Campillo et al., 1999Pâté1Spain3R20200                        
Lahellec et al., 1996Pâté1France2?1109614                        
Levine, 2000Meat spreads1USA3P26425410                        
Levine, 2000Pâté1USA3P2492445                        
Levine, 2001Meat spreads1USA3P1051032                        
Levine, 2001Pâté1USA3P1031030                        
Mc- Lauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Pâté1UK1?69658099                 17      
Morris and Ribeiro, 1989Pâté1UK1R7336E       185  4      3 43  
Morris and Ribeiro, 1991Pâté1UK1R2161416       426  7      410    
Nichols et al., 1998Pâté, fish & seafood1UK2R1221131             6 2        
Nichols et al., 1998Pâté, meat- based1UK2R180417671             29 1  2 2  2
Nichols et al., 1998Pâté, poultry- based1UK2R528511E             11 2  1 2 1 
Nichols et al., 1998Pâté, unde- fined1UK2R380369E             9      1  1
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Ham spread1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pâté, salmon1USA3R770                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pâté, shrimp1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pâté, tuna1USA3R110                        
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Aspic mince, pre- packed, cooked1Bel- gium3R48434     1                  
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Aspic mince, unpre- pack- aged & cooked1Bel- gium3R67661                        
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Pâté mince, pre- packed & cooked1Bel- gium3R2172116                        
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Pâté mince, unpre- pack- aged & cooked1Bel- gium3R1301236     1                  
Total=56655295161     2160119 13 55 5 1710109313
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.



 

Deli-type Salad Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Bucha- nan et al., 1989Salad, seafood1USA1R220                        
Harte- mink and Georgs- son 1991Salads, seafood1Ice- land1P/R37316                        
Har- tung, 2000a.Delica- tessen salads, other1Ger- many3R4854796                        
Har- tung, 2001Delica- tessen salads, other1Ger- many3R26251                        
Har- tung, 2001Delica- tessen salads, other1Ger- many3R389374E4         15              
Har- tung, 1999Delica- tessen salads, unspec- ified1Ger- many3R3543513                        
Levine, 2000Various meat & poultry salads1USA3P1645159451                        
Levine, 2001Salads, deli1USA3P6306237                        
Lin et al., 1996Salads (2 egg, 2 cheese, 1 dress- ing)1USA2R55                         
NFPA, 2002Salads, deli1USA- CA3R42564157E7814  4 2           1     
NFPA, 2002Salad, seafood1USA -CA3R12481221E261                      
NFPA, 2002Salads, deli1USA- MD3R42934190E8414  5                   
NFPA, 2002Salad, seafood1USA- MD3R13131225E5618  10 2    2            
Ng and Seah, 1995Cole slaw/ vege- table salad2Sing- apore2R50482                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Fish, tuna salad2Sing- apore2R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Anti- pasto1USA3R330                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, broccoli & cheese1USA3R50500                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Caesar salad1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Chef salad1USA3R31310                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, chicken1USA3R2222184                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cole slaw1USA3R1611592                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, crab1USA3R990                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Creamy Fruit1USA3R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, egg1USA3R770                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, Greek1USA3R880                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, ham1USA3R770                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, maca- roni with cheese1USA3R1941931                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, meat1USA3R17170                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, pasta1USA3R1151150                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, pea1USA3R45423                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, potato1USA3R3023020                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, salmon1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, seafood1USA3R2112110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, shrimp1USA3R48480                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, tortel- lini1USA3R14140                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, tuna1USA3R16160                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, turkey1USA3R22220                        
Ryu et al., 1992Salad, potato1Japan1R330                        
Scoglio et al., 2000Fish mari- nate & seafood salad1Italy3R550                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla 1993Salad, meat & egg1Ger- many1R?25224111                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla 1993Deli, mayon- naise1Ger- many1R?360333E         24  3           
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Salad, chicken1Bel- gium3R15211041     1                  
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Salad, fish & shrimp1Bel- gium3R36224999     14                  
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Salad, ham1Bel- gium3R15912133     5                  
Uytten- daele et al., 1999Other salad (veg) with mayon- naise1Bel- gium3R20118613     2                  
West and North York- shire Joint Working Group, 1991Salad, egg/egg mayon- naise1UK1R10183E       26        10      
West and North York- shire Joint Working Group, 1991Salad, fish1UK1R3332E       1                
West and North York- shire Joint Working Group, 1991Salad, meat/ egg1UK1R1513E       11               
West and North York- shire Joint Working Group, 1991Salad, fruit/ nut1UK1R4342E       1                
Total=179151722928324447  192245739 23    101     
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.