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Listeria monocytogenes Risk Assessment: Appendix 8: Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Foods

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FDA/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
USDA/Food Safety and Inspection Service
September 2003

(Also available in PDF)


Table 1:

Growth Rate of Listeria monocytogenesin Food Categories
Considered for this Risk Assessment Growth Product - SEAFOOD
Food
Category
Reference
FoodLiterature ValuesEGRc at 5 °C
TemperatureGrowth Rate a,b(log10cfu/day)
Smoked
Seafood
Duffes et al., 1999cold-smoked salmon4 °C2.1 logs in 28 days0.107
8 °C5.4 logs in 21 days0.116
4 °C2.0 logs in 21 days0.136
8 °C4.6 logs in 14 days0.149
Jemmi and Keusch, 1992hot-smoked trout4 °C0.5 logs in 20 days0.035
8 to 10 °C6.5 logs in 20 days0.120
Hudson and Mott, 1993bcold-smoked salmon5 °C4 logs in 650 hours0.148
10 °C4 to 4.5 logs in 125 hours0.249
Szabo and Cahill, 1999smoked salmon4 °C3.9 logs in 28 days0.198
10 °C2.7 to 4.3 logs in 9 days0.119
Dillon and Patel, 1993cold-smoked cod4 °C2.8 logs in 21 days0.190
Guyer and Jemmi, 1991smoked salmon
(26 to 30 °C)
4 °C1.0 to 1.5 logs in 10 days0.177
10 °C3 to 3.5 logs in 10 days0.099
Pelroy et al., 1994bcold-smoked salmon5 °C2.5 to 5 logs in 40 days0.092
5 °C2 logs in 40 days0.050
10 °C4.5 to 7 logs in 10 days0.249
10 °C5 logs in 11 days0.139
Pelroy et al., 1994acold-smoked salmon5 °C4 logs in 50 days0.080
10 °C4.5 logs in 15 days0.092
Peterson et al., 1993cold-smoked salmon5 °C3 logs in 20 days0.150
5 °C2.5 logs in 20 days0.125
10 °C4 logs in 7 days0.175
10 °C3.7 logs in 7 days0.162
10 °C6 logs in 20 days0.092
Rosso et al., 1996smoked salmon4 °C1 log in 10 days0.142
8 °C3 logs in 14 days0.097
Nilsson et al., 1997cold-smoked salmon5 °C5 logs in 9 days0.556
Raw
Seafood
Fernandes et al., 1998fresh trout4 °C1 logs in 15 days0.100
catfish4 °C2 logs in 15 days0.185
Lovett et al., 1990raw shrimp, crab, surimi and whitefish7 °CGT in 12 hours0.342
Kaysner et al., 1990raw oysters4 °CNo growth in 21 days0.000
Leung et al., 1992catfish4 °C1-1.5 logs in 12 days0.133
Shineman and Harrison, 1994raw shrimp and fin fishice chestNo growth
[1 log decrease in 21 days]
--
Harrison et al., 1991raw shrimp and fin fishice chestNo growth
[0.5 log decrease in 14 days]
--
Preserved FishNo data available  No growth0.000
used in risk assessment
Cooked
Ready-to-Eat
Crustaceans
Rawles et al., 1995pasteurized crab5 °CGT in 21.8 hours0.343
Farber, 1991bcooked lobster, shrimp, crab and smoked fish4 °C2-3 logs in 7 days0.508
Buchanan and Klawitter, 1992pasteurized crabmeat5 °C3 logs in 10 days0.300
a logs = Log10cfu/g
b GT = Generation Time
c EGR = Exponential Growth Rate

 

 Growth Rate of Listeria monocytogenesin Food Categories
Considered for this Risk Assessment Growth Product - PRODUCE
Food Category
Reference
FoodLiterature ValuesEGRcat 5 °C
TemperatureGrowth Rate a,b(log10cfu/day)
VegetablesSteinbrugge et al., 1988lettuce, whole, ready to serve5 °C0.00 to 0.3 logs in 7 days0.043
12 °C0.00 to 2.03 logs in 7 days0.004
lettuce, whole, ready to serve, sealed25 °C0.00 to 0.31 logs in 7 days0.002
lettuce, whole, ready to serve, open25 °C0.00 to 0.35 logs in 7 days0.002
Beuchat and Brackett, 1990blettuce, shredded5 °C0.00 to 0.1 logs in 15 days0.007
lettuce, shredded10 °C1.5-2.0 logs in 3 days0.204
lettuce, whole10 °C1.0 logs in 15 days0.067
Nguyen and Carlin, 1994lettuce, butterhead10 °C1.5 logs in 7 days0.065
Nguyen and Carlin, 1994lettuce, lamb's10 °C1.0 logs decrease in 7 days-0.044
Francis and O'Beirne, 2001lettuce8 °C1.5 logs in 7 days0.097
Carlin et al., 1996endive, broad leaved10 °C1.0 logs in 7 days0.044
Nguyen and Carlin, 1994endive, broad leaved10 °C1.5 logs in 7 days0.065
Nguyen and Carlin, 1994endive, curly-leaved10 °C0.5 logs in 7 days0.022
Beuchat and Brackett, 1991tomatoes10 °Cno growth (death in chopped tomatoes)0.00
21 °CGrowth--
Castillego Rodriguez et al., 2000Asparagus4 °C0.0087 log decrease per hour-0.09
8 °C0.038 logs per hour0.413
Beuchat and Brackett, 1990acarrots, whole and shredded5 °Cno growth up to 7 days0.00
15 °Cno growth up to 7 days0.00
Beuchat et al., 1986cabbage, raw, shreds5 °C4 logs in 10 days0.400
Berrang et al., 1989Broccoli4 °C0.25 to 0.5 logs in 14 to 21 days0.059
15 °C3.0 logs in 4 days0.109
Berrang et al., 1989Cauliflower4 °C≤0.25 logs in 14 to 21 days0.020
15 °C3.0 logs in 4 days0.109
Francis and O'Beirne, 2001Rutabaga8 °C1.75 logs in 12 days0.066
Francis and O'Beirne, 2001Bean sprout8 °C1.75 logs in 8 days0.099
Sizmur and Walker, 1988salads, mixed , prepacked including fruits/nuts4 °C0.30 logs in 4 days0.106
FruitsParish and Higgins, 1989orange, serum (juice)4 °C1.0 logs in 35 days (pH 5.0)0.041
Conway et al., 2000Apple slices (fresh cut)5 °C0 logs in 6 days0
10 °C2 logs in 6 days0.102 (air)
Conway et al., 2000Apple slices (fresh cut)5 °C0 logs in 4 days0
10 °C2.8 logs in 10 days0.086
(0.5% O, 15% CO2)
a Logs = Log10cfu/g
b GT = Generation Time
c EGR = Exponential Growth Rate

 

 Growth Rate of Listeria monocytogenesin Food Categories
Considered for this Risk Assessment Growth Product - DAIRY PRODUCTS
Food Category
Reference
FoodLiterature ValuesEGRcat 5 °C
TemperatureGrowth Rate a,b(log10cfu/day)
Fresh
Soft
Cheese
Glass et al., 1995Queso blanco4 °C1.4 logs in 14 days0.142
Mendoza-Yepes et al., 1999Queso fresco3 °C0.13 log in 1 day0.284
7 °C0.5 log in 1 day0.285
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Queso fresco,
Queso Ranchero
Queso Panella
4 °C-2.0 logs in 30 days-0.067
-0.8 logs in 10 days-0.080
0.3 logs in 30 days0.010
0.3 logs in 18 days0.017
2.127 logs in 10 days0.212
0.21 logs in 30 days0.007
0.44 logs in 36 days0.012
Soft
Unripened
Cheese
Genigeorgis et al., 1991cottage cheese
(multiple brands)
8 °C0.59 logs in 18 days0.015
1.87 decrease in 36 days-0.024
0.42 logs in 24 days0.007
1.13 logs in 8 days0.064
1.87 decrease in 8 days-0.106
4 °C0.39 logs in 24 days0.023
0.34 logs in 24 days0.020
0.41 logs in 16 days0.036
0.94 logs in 36 days0.037
1.87 logs decrease in 8 days-0.333
teleme cheese8 °C2.2 logs in 36 days0.028
4 °C0.42 logs decrease in 36 days-0.017
ricotta
(3 company brands)
8 °C2.11 logs in 8 days0.120
1.75 logs in 6 days0.132
1.88 logs in 8 days0.106
4 °C1.53 logs in 30 days0.072
3.58 logs in 36 days0.141
1.97 logs in 22 days0.127
cream cheese8 °C2.0 logs decrease in 30 days-0.030
4 °C2.0 logs decrease in 36 days-0.079
>2.0 logs decrease in 36 days-0.056
Cottin et al., 1990cream cheese4 °C2 logs in 2 days1.423
Papageorgiou et al., 1996ricotta (whey cheese)5 °C16.2 - 20.2 hr in GT0.397
12 °C5.1 - 5.8 hr in GT0.292
Chen and Hotchkiss, 1993cottage cheese4 °C2.0 logs in 40 days0.071
7 °C2.4 logs in 10 days0.137
Fedio et al., 1994cottage cheese5 °C2 logs in 22 days0.091
El-Shenawy and Marth, 1990cottage cheeserefrigerated0.5 to 1.5 logs decrease in 1 to 5 weeks-0.048
6 °Cassume 1 log in 21 days-0.035
Soft
Ripened
Cheese
Papageorgiou and Marth, 1989bFeta4 °Csurvival > 90 days
[Scott A 1.28 logs decrease, 3.07 logs in 90 days]
0-0.034
Stecchini et al., 1995mozzarella5 °C4 logs in 21 days0.190
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Brie4 °C0.6 logs in 30 days0.020
0.6 logs in 14 days0.043
Feta4 °C>2.0 logs decrease in 8 day-0.250
>2.0 logs decrease in 8 days-0.250
>2.0 logs decrease in 8 days-0.250
Ryser and Marth, 1987bCamembert6 °C ripening4 logs in 45 days0.066
Farber et al., 1987Camembert4 °C2 to 3 longs decrease in 365 days-0.007
Back et al., 1993Camembert3°C0.9 logs in 10 days0.197
6°C1.5 logs in 15 days0.074
10C2.4 logs in 15 days0.049
Papageorgiou and Marth, 1989aBlue cheese5°CDecreased during storage,
3 logs in 56 days
-0.054
Sulzer and Busse, 1993Camembert14 °C4.5 logs in 34 days0.022
Camembert
(surface growth)
7 °C----
4 °C----
[Not used in risk assessment]
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Blue4 °C>2.0 logs decrease in 36 days-0.056
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Camembert4 °C0.64 logs in 36 days0.018
Semi-Soft
Cheese
Ryser and Marth, 1989aBrick (surface ripened)10 °C1 to 7-fold decrease in 20 weeks-0.043
Ryser and Marth, 1989atilsiter, trappist, havarti, limburger10 °C< 1 logs in 20 wk0.015
Kovincic et al., 1991Trappist10 °CInitial 1 log during ripening, stable 30 days, 1 log decrease for 90 days-0.011
Bachmann and Spahr, 1995emmenthaler, tilster--no survival after 24 hours (initial level was 104 cfu/g)--
[not used in risk assessment]
Northolt et al., 1988gouda--Survival 6 weeks0.000
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Monterey Jack4 °C>2.1 logs decrease in 30 days-0.070
> 2.1 logs decrease in 30 days-0.070
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Limburger4 °C2.26 logs decrease in 36 days-0.064
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Provolone4 °C2.36 logs decrease in 36 days-0.066
Genigeorgis et al., 1991String cheese4 °C2.29 logs decrease in 36 days-0.064
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Muenster4 °C2.0 logs decrease in 36 days-0.056
Hard
Cheese
Whitley et al., 2000Stilton cheese4 °C
(2 to 8.3°C reported)
0.7 log in 6 weeks0.0285
Yousef and Marth, 1988colby4 °C1.5 logs decrease in 100 days (after 40 days)-0.053
Ryser and Marth, 1987acheddar13 °C2 logs decrease in 75 to 150 days-0.003
Buazzi et al., 1992swiss7 °C4 logs decrease in 10 days (complete inactivation 66-80 days ripening at 24 °C)-0.228
Yousef and Marth, 1990parmesan--2.0 logs decrease in 40 days-0.048
2.0 logs decrease in 80 days-0.025
Genigeorgis et al., 1991swiss4 °C>2.1 logs decrease in 36 days-0.058
Kaufmann, 1990emmenthaler, gruyere--no survival after 24 hours (initial level was 104 cfu/g)--
[not used in risk assessment]
Genigeorgis et al., 1991Cheddar, cracker barrel4 °C1.17 logs decrease in 34 days-0.049
Cheddar, mild4 °C>2.1 logs decrease in 30 days-0.070
Cheddar, sharp4 °C>2.1 logs decrease in 36 days-0.058
Colby4 °C0.81 logs decrease in 36 days-0.022
Processed
Cheese
Genigeorgis et al., 1991American process cheese4 °C0.18 logs decrease in 36 days-0.005
American process cheese with sorbate and citrate4 °C1.84 logs decrease in 36 days-0.051
Piedmont process cheese4 °C1.62 logs decrease in 36 days-0.045
Glass et al., 1998Pasteurized process cheese 0.6 logs decrease during 96 hours-0.15
Ryser and Marth, 1989bCold pack cheese Non-acid3°C0.5 logs decrease in 110 days-0.004
Acidified or preservatives3°C1.0 logs decrease in 60 days-0.017
Fluid Milk,
Pasteurized
and
Unpasteurized
Northolt et al, 1988unpasteurized milk5 °CGT 3.5 in days0.085
7 °CGT 1.0 in days0.173
Northolt et al, 1988pasteurized milk4 °C2 logs in 7 days0.407
Farber et al., 1990unpasteurized fluid milk4 °CGT in 25.3 hours0.404
10 °CGT in 10.8 hours0.204
15 °CGT in 7.4 hours0.142
Rajkowski et al., 1994uht milk12 °CGT in 4.7 hours0.337
Rosenow and Marth, 1987skim, whole, chocolate milk4 °C3.3 logs in 18 days0.261
8 °C4 logs in 8 days0.227
Rosso et al., 1996Skim, whole,4 °C1.3 days (generation time)0.33
Chocolate milk8 °C0.54 days (generation time)0.252
Ice Cream &
Frozen Dairy
Products
Berrang et al., 1988ice cream-18 to -25 °C0 logs in 2 months0.000
Dean and Zottola, 1996soft serve-18 °C0 logs in 3 months0.000
Palumbo and Williams, 1991Ice cream-18 °C0 logs in 14 weeks0.000
Cultured Dairy ProductsSchaack and Marth, 1988buttermilk4 °Cdecrease, survives 2.5-13 wk-0.02
yogurt4 °Cdecrease, survived 4-12 days-0.18
  (~1 log decline detectable) 
Choi et al., 1988yogurt4 °Csurvives 21-24 days, most drop in first 8-12 days
(~2 log decline detectable)
-0.12
buttermilk4 °Csurvives 18-26 days-0.12
Siragusa and Johnson, 1988byogurt high level survived 9 days
[2 logs drop in 3-6 days]
-0.40
Miscellaneous
Milk Products
Rosenow and Marth, 1987cream4 °C3.3 logs in 18 days0.261
8 °C4 logs in 8 days0.227
Farrag et al., 1990sweetened condensed milk7 °Cdecrease 1.2 logs in 42 days-0.016
evaporated milk7 °C4 logs in 14 days0.163
Olsen et al., 1988butter4 to 6 °C1.9 logs in 49 days0.039
13 °C2.7 logs in 42 days0.012

 

Growth Rate of Listeria monocytogenesin Food Categories
Considered for this Risk Assessment Growth Product - MEATS
Food Category
Reference
FoodLiterature ValuesEGRcat 5 °C
TemperatureGrowth Rate a,b(log10cfu/day)
FrankfurtersGlass and Doyle, 1989frankfurters4.4 °C2.3 logs in 6 weeks0.064
McKellar et al., 1994.frankfurters5 °C3.5 logs in 21 days0.168
McKellar et al., 1994.poultry wieners5 °C3.5 logs in 21 days0.090
Wederquist et al., 1994turkey4 °C7.0 logs in 55 days0.181
Bedie et al., 2001Pork frankfurters4 °C3.8 logs in 35 days0.154
Dry/Semi-Dry
Fermented
Sausages
Glass and Doyle, 1989Summer sausage4.4 °CNo change in 12 weeks0.000
Hugas, 1995Fermented sausage12 to 14 °C1.25 logs decrease in 25 days-0.02
Farber et al., 1993German-style American Italian sausage4 °CApproximately 1 log in 4 weeks-0.036
Nisson, 1998Norwegian fermented dry sausage4 °C1 log in 5.5 months-0.006
Deli MeatsGlass and Doyle, 1989bologna4.4 °C1 to 2 logs in 14 days0.131
Grau and Vanderline, 1992corned beef4.8 °C0.130.130
Grau and Vanderline, 1992vacuum packed ham5 °C0.300.300
Glass and Doyle, 1989cooked ham4.4 °C2 to 3 logs in 28 days0.131
Beumer et al., 1996cooked ham7 °C6 logs in 35 days0.098
Bredholt et al., 1999Vacuum packed Cooked ham8 °C0.16 logs per day0.0725
8 °C0.2 logs per day0.091
Nyati, 2000Cooked chicken4.519.5 days (generation time)0.438
Beef sirloin4.521.8 days (generation time)0.392
Grant et al., 1993roast beef5 °C5 logs in 15 days0.333
10 °C5 logs in 6 days0.254
Glass and Doyle, 1989chicken, sliced4.4 °C4.15 logs in 14 days0.364
vacuum packed4.4 °C5.90 logs in 14 days0.517
Siragusa and Johnson, 1988achicken, homogenate4.0 °C5.2 logs in 20 days0.370
Siragusa and Johnson, 1988achicken fillets, breaded5.0 °C0.9 logs in 6 days0.150
Glass and Doyle, 1989turkey, sliced4.4 °C2.0 logs in 14 days0.175
4.4 °C3.11 logs in 28 days0.136
4.4 °C3.08 logs in 14 days0.270
Glass and Doyle, 1989turkey, sliced4.4 °C3.83 logs in 14 days0.336
vacuum packed4.4 °C5.09 logs in 14 days0.446
Ingham and Tautorus, 1991turkey loaf, cooked, uncured, vacuum3 °C0.09 logs in 12 days0.016
Hudson and Mott, 1993acooked beef5 °C11.9 hour GT0.607 (aerobic)
5 °C8.7 hour GT0.83 (vacuum- packed)
Pâté and
Meat Spreads
Farber et al., 1995pâté5 °C0.361 log in 1 day0.361
Hudson and Mott, 1993apâté4 °C4 logs in 680 hours0.143

 

Growth Rate of Listeria monocytogenes in Food Categories
Considered for this Risk Assessment Growth Product - COMBINATION FOODS
Food Category
Reference
FoodLiterature ValuesEGRcat 5 °C
TemperatureGrowth Rate a,b(log10cfu/day)
Deli-type SaladsEblen, 2002a
[Growth permitting]
Crab salad, store prepared5 °C1 log in 10 days0.100
Shrimp salad, store prepared5 °C2 logs in 14 days0.143
- - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - - - - -
[No growth permitting]Shrimp salad, plant prepared5 °CNo change0.000
Chicken salad Store prepared5 °CNo change0.000
Chicken salad Plant prepared5 °C3 log decrease in 18 days-0.167
Potato salad Store prepared5 °C2 log decrease in 13 days-0.154
Potato salad Plant prepared5 °C3 log decrease in 10 days-0.333
Cole slaw Store prepared5 °C3 log decrease in 13days-0.231
Cole slaw Plant prepared5 °C3 log decrease in 6 days-0.500
Egg salad Store prepared5 °CNo change0.000
Tuna salad Store prepared5 °CNo change0.000
Ham salad Store prepared5 °C3 log decrease in 13 days-0.231
Imitation crab salad, store prepared5 °C3 log decrease in 19 days-0.158
Johnson, 1993Chicken salad   High pH4 °C1 log decrease in 20 days-0.050
Chicken salad  Low pH4 °C1 log decrease in 7 days-0.143
Potato salad   High pH4 °C1 log decrease in 20 days-0.050
Potato salad   Low pH4 °C1 log decrease in 4 days-0.250
Pasta salad   High pH4 °C1 log decrease in 9 days-0.111
Pasta salad   Low pH4 °C1 log decrease in 6days-0.250
Seafood salad   High pH4 °C1 log decrease in 23 days-0.043
Seafood salad   Low pH4 °C1 log decrease in 23 days-0.043