• Decrease font size
  • Return font size to normal
  • Increase font size
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

  • Print
  • Share
  • E-mail

Listeria monocytogenes Risk Assessment: Appendix 7: Listeria Contamination of Food Category Data Sets - Part I

Return to Table of Contents

Appendix 7 - Part II

FDA/Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
USDA/Food Safety and Inspection Service
September 2003

(Appendix 7 also available in PDF)

Contents

More Tables - Appendix 7 - Part II



 

Smoked Seafood Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Aguado et al., 2001Salmon, smoked1Spain3R523616                        
Baek et al., 2000Mussels,
frozen & smoked
1Korea3R68653                        
Cortesi et al., 1997Salmon, smoked1Italy2P100808    11             1     
Cortesi et al., 1997Salmon, smoked1Italy2P65536    2 2    1      1     
Dau- phin et al., 2001Coalfish, smoked1France3P101                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Salmon,
fresh &
smoked
1France3P11011                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Salmon Skin, smoked1France3P21E4      1                 
Dau- phin et al., 2001Salmon, smoked1France3P21192                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Tuna,
smoked
1France3P101                        
Dillon et al., 1994Fin-fish, hot/cold-smoked1Can- ada2?25824612                        
Domin- guez et al., 2001Salmon,
cold- smoked
1Spain3R170132E         18 18      2     
Eklund et al., 1995Salmon,
cold- smoked
1USA2P6113E         48              
Erics- son et al., 1997Trout,
smoked
1Swe- den2P&R96E         3              
Farber, 1991bSalmon,
cold- smoked
1Can- ada
/etc
1P322210                        
Gar- land, 1995Salmon,
cold- smoked
1Aus- tralia2P2852841                        
Guyer and Jemmi, 1990Salmon,
cold- smoked
1Switz- erland1P64604                        
Harte- mink and Georgs- son, 1991Fish,
smoked
1Ice- land1P/R31301                        
Heinitz and John- son, 1998Fish,
smoked
1USA1P1080929151                        
Hudson et al., 1992Mussels, smoked1New Zea- land1R1495                        
Hudson et al., 1992Salmon, smoked1New Zea- land1R1248                        
Inoue et al., 2000Salmon, smoked1Japan3R9287E  4 1                   
Jemmi, 1990Fin-fish,
cold- smoked
1Switz- erland1R32428044                        
Jemmi, 1990Fin-fish,
hot- smoked
1Switz- erland1R49645244                        
Jørgen- sen and Huss, 1998Halibut,
cold- smoked
1Den- mark2P2011E    9                   
Jørgen- sen and Huss, 1998Halibut,
cold- smoked
1Den- mark2P208E    6 2    3     1      
Jørgen- sen and Huss, 1998Salmon,
cold- smoked
1Den- mark2P190126E    53 9    2            
Jørgen- sen and Huss, 1998Salmon,
cold- smoked
1Den- mark2P11569E    11 23    10     2      
Jørgen- sen and Huss, 1998Salmon,
cold- smoked
1Den- mark2P7543E    17 11    2     2      
Ha- takka et al., 2001Smoked,
cold &
vacuum- packed
1Fin- land3R232222E         10              
Miett- inen, H., et al., 2001Fish, cold- smoked1Fin- land3P12102                        
Miett- inen, H., et al., 2001Fish, hot- smoked1Fin- land3P13121                        
NFPA, 2002Seafood, smoked1USA- CA3R13631292E445  11 5    4      1   1 
NFPA, 2002Seafood, smoked1USA- MD3R13241281E236  8 3    2          1 
Ng and Seah, 1995Mussels, smoked1Singa- pore2R211                        
Norton et al., 2000Fish, cold- smoked1USA3P38326                        
Norton et al., 2001Fish, cold- smoked1USA3P968511                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cod,
smoked
1USA3R550                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Halibut,
smoked
1USA3R330                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Oysters, smoked1USA3R220                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salmon, smoked1USA3R1301291                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Seafood, smoked1USA3R440                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Shad,
smoked
1USA3R220                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Snapper, smoked1USA3R220                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Sockeye, smoked1USA3R330                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Stur- geon, smoked1USA3R10100                        
Oregon  State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Trout,
smoked
1USA3R770                        
Scoglio et al., 2000Salmon, smoked1Italy3R21183                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fish,
smoked
1Ger- many1R?71665                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fish,
smoked
1Ger- many1R?309287E         14  4      4    
Vogel et al., 2001aSalmon,
cold- smoked
1Den- mark3P32423193                        
Vogel et al., 2001bSalmon,
cold- smoked
1Den- mark3P20065135                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Herring, smoked1Japan3R101                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Salmon, smoked1Japan3R12102                        
Total=7855684458967114 129 56  93 424    554  2 
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples ≥ 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Raw Seafood Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Ade- siyun, 1993Fish & shrimp, raw2Trini- dad1R1021002                        
Ander- son and Nør- rung, 1995Fish, raw1Den- mark2R232199E4    26 6   1             
Baek et al., 2000Hali- but, raw1Korea3R45450                        
Baek et al., 2000Shell- fish1Korea3R2502473                        
Berry et al., 1994Shrimp, im- ported & frozen1USA2R30282                        
Buch- anan et al., 1989Cat- fish, fresh1USA1R110                        
Buch- anan et al., 1989Clam, raw1USA1R110                        
Buch- anan et al., 1989Fin- fish, fresh1USA1R422                        
Buch- anan et al., 1989Oy- sters, un- cooked1USA1R220                        
Buch- anan et al., 1989Scal- lops, raw1USA1R110                        
Buch- anan et al., 1989Shrimp, raw & frozen1USA1R440                        
Buch- anan et al., 1989Surimi, crab1USA1R110                        
Colburn et al., 1990Oy- sters, live1USA1P35350                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Fillet, coal- fish1France3P202                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Fillet, cod1France3P404                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Sal- mon, cut & raw1France3P101                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Her- ring, frozen1France3P505                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Sur- faces, raw salmon (filets)1France3P817                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Sur- faces, raw salmon (whole)1France3P716                        
Dau- phin et al., 2001Sur- faces, raw salmon1France3P18162                        
Davies et al. 2001Plaice/ raw food1Great Britain3R550                        
Davies et al. 2001Sal- mon/ raw sea- food1Great Britain3R550                        
Davies et al. 2001Sar- dine/ raw sea- food1Port- ugal3R10100                        
Davies et al. 2001Trout/ raw sea- food1Great Britain3R20182                        
Davies et al. 2001Trout/ raw sea- food1Port- ugal3R10100                        
Davies et al. 2001Whi- ting/ raw sea- food1France3R26260                        
de Simon et al., 1992Mol- luscs, bi- valve, mus- sels1Spain1R40373                        
Deca- stelli et al., 1993Mus- sels, dep- urated1Italy1P1101100                        
Deca- stelli et al., 1993Mus- sels,1Italy1P1751750                        
Degnan et al., 1994Meat, blue crab1Aus- tralia2R431                        
Drau- ghon et al., 1999Trout, rain- bow1USA3R7436E       308               
El- Shen- awy and El- Shen- awy, 1995Clam, fresh2Egypt2R431                        
El- Shen- awy and El- Shen- awy, 1995Co- quina, fresh2Egypt2R651                        
El- Shen- awy and El- Shen- awy, 1995Crab2Egypt2R550                        
El- Shen- awy and El- Shen- awy, 1995Fin- fish, fresh2Egypt2R39345                        
El- Shen- awy and El- Shen- awy, 1995Fin- fish, frozen2Egypt2R17161                        
El- Shen- awy and El- Shen- awy, 1995Oy- sters, raw2Egypt2R220                        
El- Shen- awy and El- Shen- awy, 1995Shrimp2Egypt2R541                        
Farber, 1991bShrimp, retail1Can- ada1R20164                        
Farber, 1991bSurimi, etc1Can- ada1R46451                        
Ferrer and de Simón, 1993Mus- sels, fresh1Spain1R35323                        
Ferrer and de Simón, 1993Oy- sters, fresh1Spain1R40391                        
Fuchs and Suren- dran, 1989Clam, raw1India1R110                        
Fuchs and Suren- dran, 1989Fish, fresh2India1R990                        
Fuchs and Suren- dran, 1989Fish, frozen2India1R14140                        
Harte- mink and Georg- sson, 1991Fish, other1Ice- land1P or R541                        
Harte- mink and Georg- sson, 1991Trout, fresh1Ice- land1P or R220                        
Heinitz, 1999Fin- fish/ shell- fish1USA3P94958791704                        
Hofer and Ribeiro, 1990Shrimp, frozen1Brazil1P45414                        
Hudson et al, 1992Ready- to-eat sea- food1New Zea- land1R503713                        
Iida et al., 1998Fin- fish & non- fin- fish1Japan2R78177110                        
Inoue et al., 2000Sea- food, raw1Japan3R213206E  112 2   1             
Jeya- seka- ran et al., 1996Fin- fish, tropi- cal2India2P or R29245                        
Jeya- seka- ran et al., 1996Shell- fish, tropi- cal1India2P or R36324                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994An- chovy2India2R220                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Duck- fish, Bom- bay2India2R220                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Crab1India2R220                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Fish, Doma- local2India2R330                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994An- chovy, Golden2India2R220                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Sal- mon, Indian2India2R110                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Mack- eral2India2R330                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Pom fret2India2R220                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Shrimp, raw1India2R550                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Fin, thread2India2R330                        
Karpis- kova et al., 2000Fish, raw1Czech Re- public3R1201182                        
Karu- nasa- gar et al., 1992Fish2India1P2002000                        
Manoj et al., 1991Fin- fish, fresh2India1P or R51510                        
Manoj et al., 1991Shrimp, raw/ pro- cess1India1P or R19190                        
Mas- uda et al., 1992Fin- fish, fresh1Japan1R3823739                        
Mas- uda et al., 1992Shell- fish, non- oyster1Japan1R1471452                        
Mas- uda et al., 1992Oy- sters, raw1Japan1R84840                        
Mc- Lauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Fish & fish prod- ucts1UK1?462917                        
Miett- inen et al., 2001Fish, raw1Fin- land3P18162                        
Miett- inen et al., 2001Roe1Fin- land3P550                        
Mon- fort et al., 1998Shell- fish1France1P12010911                        
Motes, 1991Oy- sters, live1USA1P75750                        
Motes, 1991Shrimp, live1USA1P74668                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Crab- meat/ scal- lops1Sing- apore2P or R16160                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Fish cakes, fingers2Sing- apore2P or R16133                        
Ng and Seah, 1995Tuna2Sing- apore2P or R550                        
Norton et al., 2000Fish, raw1USA3P43403                        
Norton et al., 2001Fish, raw1USA3P102939                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Butter- fish1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cod1USA3R402218                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Crab1USA3R39337518                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Hali- but1USA3R606                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Fillets, ocean cats1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Perch1USA3R17170                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Sea- food, raw1USA3R402812                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Surimi, raw1USA3R321                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Fish, rock1USA3R29227                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Roe1USA3R880                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Sable1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salmon1USA3R880                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Shrimp1USA3R106997                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Snap- per1USA3R12120                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Sole1USA3R543519                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Sushi- with & without rice1USA3R42411                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Fillets, turbot1USA3R660                        
Pullela et al., 1998Fin- fish, aqua- culture1USA1P1401400                        
Ravo- mana- na et al., 1993Shrimp, raw & fresh1France1R?17152                        
Rorvik and Ynd- estad, 1991Fin- fish, minced1Nor- way1P871                        
Ryu et al., 1992Fish, other1Japan1R660                        
Ryu et al., 1992Fish, salt sushi1Japan1R10100                        
Ryu et al., 1992Fish, sushi1Japan1R18153                        
Ryu et al., 1992Prawn, raw, 'sushi'1Japan1R38371                        
Ryu et al., 1992Tuna, minced sushi1Japan1R37343                        
Scoglio et al., 2000Shell- fish, raw1Italy3R23230                        
Scoglio et al., 2000Shrimp, raw1Italy3R17170                        
Soriano et al. ,2001Hake, raw1Spain3R440                        
Soriano et al. ,2001Sal- mon, raw1Spain3R440                        
Soriano et al. ,2001Sole, raw1Spain3R660                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Crus- tacean / shell- fish1Ger- many1R?3232E                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Crus- tacean / shell- fish1Ger- many1R?80800                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fish & fish parts1Ger- many1R?3533E         1  1           
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fish & fish parts1Ger- many1R?2382326                        
Vogel et al., 2001aSal- mon, raw1Den- mark3P92902                        
Wea- gant et al., 1988Fin- fish, frozen1USA1R or P40391                        
Wea- gant et al., 1988Lob- ster tail, frozen1USA1R or P20191                        
Wea- gant et al., 1988Oy- sters, frozen1USA1R or P10100                        
Wea- gant et al., 1988Scal- lops, frozen1USA1R or P18180                        
Wea- gant et al., 1988Shrimp, raw & frozen1USA1R or P706010                        
Wea- gant et al., 1988Squid, lango- stinos, frozen1USA1R or P20200                        
Wea- gant et al., 1988Surimi, frozen1USA1R or P664620                        
Wong et al., 1990Fish & non- fish, local frozen and refrig- erated2Taiwan1R57516                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Finfish, raw1Japan3R10100                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Octo- pus, raw, squid, tre- pang1Japan3R770                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Sal- mon, raw1Japan3R12111                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Shell- fish, raw1Japan3R10100                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Shrimp, raw1Japan3R10100                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Sea- food, surimi and minced1Japan3R10100                        
Yama- zaki et al., 2000Sea- food,1Japan3R880                        
Total=15634145411013  1128 830812 1           
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples ≥ 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Preserved Fish Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Ander- son and Nørrung, 1995Fish, pre- served1Den- mark2R335300E4    18 11   6             
Baek et al., 2000Dried shrimp, squid & mussels1Korea3R12120                        
Choi et al.,2001Dried squid & mussels1Korea3R20200                        
El-Shen- awy and El-She- nawy, 1995Fin-fish, smoke & salted2Egypt2R11101                        
Erics- son et al, 1997Trout, gravad1Swe- den2P/R83E         3 1           1
Fuchs and Sirvas, 1991Ceviche1Peru1R32293                        
Fuchs and Suren- dran, 1989Fish, dried & salted2India1R11110                        
Harte- mink and Georgs- son, 1991Gravad1Ice- land1P or R23176                        
Harte- mink and Georgs- son, 1991Had- dock, dried1Ice- land1P or R550                        
Jemmi, 1990Fin-fish, pickled1Switz- erland1R896623                        
Jorgen- sen and Huss, 1998Fish, gravad1Den- mark2P9168E    5 10    5     3      
Kamat and Nair, 1994An- chovy, dried2India2R330                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994An- chovy, Golden dried2India2R220                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Dried fish "Bombay Duck"2India2R330                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Mack- eral, dried2India2R220                        
Kamat and Nair, 1994Shrimp, dried1India2R330                        
Lon- carevic et al, 1996Fish, gravad1Swe- den2R584612                        
Hatakka et al, 2001Fish, cold- salted & vacuum- packed1Fin- land3R8277E         5              
Mc- Lauch- lin & Gilbert, 1990Cooked fish & fish products1UK1?34633412                        
Miet- tinen et al, 2001Fish, cold & salted1Fin- land3P1082                        
Oregon State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Clams, salted1USA3R220                        
Oregon State  Dept of Agr- iculture, 2001Salmon, salted1USA3R440                        
Oregon State  Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Ancho- vies, sea- soned1USA3R110                        
Rorvik and Ynde- stad, 1991Shrimp, brined1Nor- way1P16133                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fish, pro- cessed1Ger- many1R?186185E         1              
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fish, pro- cessed1Ger- many1R?11910613                        
Yama- zaki et al, 2000Dried squid, salmon, shi- shamo smelt1Japan3R440                        
Yama- zaki et al, 2000Seafood, fer- mented1Japan3R770                        
Yama- zaki et al, 2000Sushi flatfish, fer- mented1Japan3R101                        
Yama- zaki et al, 2000Salad, mari- nated seafood1Japan3R880                        
Yama- zaki et al, 2000Sushi sandfish, fer- mented1Japan3R101                        
Total=1495134977    23 21  966     3     1
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples ≥ 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Ready-to-eat Crustacean Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Dauphin et al, 2001Mussels, shelled cooked1France3P202                        
Degnan et al, 1994Crab1USA2R412      1                 
Farber, 1991bShrimp, whole- sale1Can- ada1R49451  1 2                   
Harte- mink and Georgs- son, 1991Shell- fish, cooked1Ice- land1P or R11110                        
Harte- mink and Georgs- son, 1991Shrimp, cooked & pro- cessed1Ice- land1P or R11101                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Crab, cooked1USA3R95905                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Shrimp, cooked1USA3R2362342                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Crab, imi- tation1USA3R24240                        
Ravo- manana et al, 1993Shrimp, cooked1France1R?35314                        
Rawles et al, 1995Crab1USA2P126116E4    1 8           1     
Rich- mond, 1990Miscel- lany, cooked1UK1R40400                        
Valdi- marsson, et al, 1998Shrimp, cooked & frozen1Ice- land2P3331325972                        
Weagant et al, 1988Crab, cooked1USA1R or P24177                        
Weagant et al, 1988Shrimp, cooked1USA1R or P862                        
Yama- zaki et al, 2000Sea- food, boiled1Japan3R880                        
Total=4004389298  1 3 9           1     
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples ≥ 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Vegetables Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Beckers et al, 1987vege- tables, fresh & cut1Ne- ther- lands1?2514E4         11              
Benezet et al., 2001Celery,1Spain3P330                        
Benezet et al., 2001Cilantro1Spain3P110                        
Benezet et al., 2001Onion,1Spain3P330                        
Benezet et al., 2001Laurel1Spain3P110                        
Benezet et al., 2001Parsley1Spain3P110                        
Benezet et al., 2001Thyme1Spain3P110                        
Benezet et al., 2001Winter sweet1Spain3P220                        
Breer, 1988Salads1Switz- erland1R64613                        
Breer, 1988vege- tables1Switz- erland1R27270                        
Choi et al.,2001vege- tables, raw2Korea3R2052050                        
Daley et al., 1999vege- tables1Can- ada3R25250                        
de Simon et al., 1992vege- tables, fresh1Spain1R103958                        
Farber et al., 1989Celery1Can- ada1R30300                        
Farber et al., 1989Lettuce1Can- ada1R50500                        
Farber et al., 1989Radishes1Can- ada1R10100                        
Farber et al., 1989Toma- toes1Can- ada1R20200                        
Garcia- Gimeno et al., 1996Salads1Spain2P704921                        
Hartung, 2000bSalads, mini- mally pro- cessed fresh vege- tables1Ger- many3R59581                        
Hartung, 2001Vege- table foods, other1Ger- many3R?6766715                        
Hartung, 2001Vege- table foods, other1Ger- many3R?672667E         5              
Hartung, 1999Salad1Ger- many3R23203                        
Heinitz, 1999Salads, vege- table1USA3P36134120                        
Heisick et al., 1989Cabbage1USA1R92911                        
Heisick et al., 1989Cucum- bers1USA1R92902                        
Heisick et al., 1989Lettuce1USA1R92920                        
Heisick et al., 1989Mush- rooms1USA1R92920                        
Heisick et al., 1989Radishes1USA1R13211319                        
Inoue et al., 2000vege- tables1Japan3R2852850                        
Karpis- kova et al., 2000vege- tables1Czech Rep- ublic3R1561524                        
Lin et al., 1996Salads, vege- table1USA2R58571                        
Marran- zano et al., 1996Celery1Italy2R20182                        
Marran- zano et al., 1996Fennel1Italy2R31301                        
Marran- zano et al., 1996Lettuce1Italy2R32311                        
McLauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990vege- tables & salads,1UK1?56749569                  3     
McLauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990vege- tables & salads,1UK1?27925524                        
Monge and Arias, 1996Cabbage salad1Costa Rica2R504010                        
NFPA, 2002Salad, leafy bagged & precut1USA- CA3R15151501E121    1                 
NFPA, 2002Salad, leafy bagged & precut1USA- MD3R14481440E5   1 1    1            
Odumeru et al., 1997Broccoli florets1Can- ada2P1513E          2             
Odumeru et al., 1997Broccoli florets1Can- ada2P2020E                        
Odumeru et al., 1997Coleslaw mix1Can- ada2P1514E          1             
Odumeru et al., 1997Coleslaw mix1Can- ada2P2020E                        
Odumeru et al., 1997Green peppers1Can- ada2P2020E                        
Odumeru et al., 1997Green peppers1Can- ada2P1514E         1              
Odumeru et al., 1997Lettuce, chopped1Can- ada2P2422E         2              
Odumeru et al., 1997Lettuce, chopped1Can- ada2P1512E         21             
Odumeru et al., 1997Salad mix1Can- ada2P159E         24             
Odumeru et al., 1997Salad mix1Can- ada2P2421E         21             
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Broccoli1USA3R330                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cabbage1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Celery1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cilentro1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Green Beans1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Jalapeno1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Kelp1USA3R11101                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Kidney, Mung. Bean1USA3R33330                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Lettuce1USA3R15150                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, mixed vege- table1USA3R49472                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Mush- room1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Onion1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pea1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Potato1USA3R14140                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Radish1USA3R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Spinach1USA3R321                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Sprouts1USA3R1091090                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Tomato1USA3R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Vege- table1USA3R12120                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Yam1USA3R220                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Root, beet2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Cabbage2India3R431                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Carrot2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Cori- ander1India3R1091                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Cucum- ber2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Lettuce2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Leaves, math vege- table2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Roots, math2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Leaves, radish2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Roots, radish2India3R440                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Salads, ready- to- eat2India3R12120                        
Pin- gulkar et al., 2001Cap- sicum2India3R431                        
Porto et al., 2001Cabbage2Brazil3R50500                        
Porto et al., 2001Lettuce2Brazil3R100962   2                    
Porto et al., 2001Parsley1Brazil3R50482                        
Porto et al., 2001Water- cress1Brazil3R50482                        
Salamah, 1993Cabbage2Saudi Ara- bia1R70682                        
Salamah, 1993Carrot2Saudi Ara- bia1R12010416                        
Salamah, 1993Cucum- ber2Saudi Ara- bia1R1101064                        
Salamah, 1993Lettuce2Saudi Ara- bia1R80791                        
Sizmur and Walker, 1988vege- tables, mixed1UK1R60564                        
Soriano et al.,2001Lettuce1Spain3R1091                        
Soriano et al.,2001Lettuce,1Spain3R1091                        
Soriano et al.,2001Spinach1Spain3R10100                        
Soriano et al.,2001Spinach1Spain3R10100                        
Szabo et al.,2000Lettuce1Aus- tralia3R60591                        
Szabo et al.,2000Lettuce1Aus- tralia3P60582                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Legumes1Ger- many1R?13121                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Mush- rooms1Ger- many1R?880                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993vege- tables, fresh1Ger- many1R?660                        
Velani and Roberts, 1991Indivi- dual salad ingre- dients (bean sprouts, cab- bage, carrot, celery, cress, cucum- ber, lettuce, mush- room, peppers, radish, spring onions, tomato, vege- tables, water- cress)1UK1R108106E             2          
Velani and Roberts, 1991Salads, mixed & pre- packed1UK1R4234E             8          
West and North Yorkshire Joint Working Group, 1991Salad, raw vege- tables1UK1R2372242       53  2     1      
Wong et al., 1990vege- tables2Tai- wan1R49436                        
Total=92238892249171 21 2532593 10   13     
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples ≥ 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Fruit Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Heinitz, 1999Fruit products1USA3P1178928                        
Karpis- kova et al., 2000Fruit, dried1Czech Re- public3R12120                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Apples1USA3R12120                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Blue- berries1USA3R642                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cantalope1USA3R880                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Salad, fruit1USA3R23230                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Fruit, various1USA3R17170                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Gelatin dessert with fruit1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Melons1USA3R880                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pears1USA3R35350                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Pine- apples1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Water- melons1USA3R440                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fruit, fresh1Ger- many1R?770                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Fruit, product1Ger- many1R?110                        
Total=25422430                        
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
 


 

Fresh Soft Cheese Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Frye, 2000Queso Fresco1USA3R1724167846                        
Frye, 2000Queso Fresco1USA3R22202                        
Gelosa, 1990Cheese, fresh (for- naggio fresco)1Italy1R17170                        
NFPA, 2002Cheese, Hispanic style1USA- CA3R14821481E4      1                 
NFPA, 2002Cheese, Hispanic style1USA- MD3R14541450E2     2                 
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Queso Fresco1USA3R13112                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Panela1USA3R110                        
Salti- jeral et al., 1999Panellá1Mexico3R40346                        
Ubach et al., 1991Queso- fresco, requesoy1Spain1R?91847                        
Weber et al., 1988Cheese, fresh cow & goat milk1Ger- many1?22202                        
Total=48664796652     3                 
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Soft Unripened Cheese Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Copes et al., 2000Cheeses, soft paste2Argen- tina3R35314                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, farmer1USA3R18180                        
Frye, 2000Gournay1USA3R110                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, fresh port1USA3R84831                        
Frye, 2000Quark1USA3R110                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, sheep milk1USA3R110                        
Green- wood et al., 1991Cheese, un- ripened1UK1R366362E4                4       
McLauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Cheese, cottage1UK1?1371370                        
McLauch- lin et al., 1990Anari1UK1R/P239E    10                  4
McLauch- lin et al., 1990Halloumi1UK1R/P113E    8                   
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, cottage1USA3R12120                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, cream1USA3R550                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Creme Mexi- cana1USA3R440                        
Teufel and Bendzulla, 1993Spieise- quark1Ger- many1R2221E         1              
Teufel and Bendzulla, 1993Spieise- quark- quargel1Ger- many1R20200                        
West and North Yorkshire Joint Working Group, 1991Cheese, cottage1UK1R74740                        
Total=8147825    18    1      4      4
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Soft Ripened Cheese Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Beckers et al, 1987Brie/ Camem- bert (from pas- teurized milk)1Ne- ther- lands1?51510                        
Beckers et al, 1987Brie/ Camem- bert (from raw milk)1Ne- ther- lands1?1880                 10      
Botarelli et al., 1999Feta/ cheese, soft & short-ripened1Italy3R15150                        
Botarelli et al., 1999Brie/ cheese, soft & short-ripened1Italy3R15150                        
Botarelli et al., 1999Cre- scenza/ cheese, soft & short-ripened1Italy3R15150                        
Botarelli et al., 1999Taleggio/ cheese, soft, short- ripened1Italy3R15150                        
Breer and Schopfer, 1989Cheese, white mold1Switz- erland1?2612547                        
Delgado da Silva et al., 1998Minas frescal chome- madel, Brazilian soft cheese eaten fresh2Brazil2R17107                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, feta1USA3R34340                        
Frye, 2000Brie1USA3R20200                        
Frye, 2000Camam- bert1USA3R12120                        
Frye, 2000Mozza- rella1USA3R17170                        
Hartung, 2000a.soft, mold- ripened cheese1Ger- many3R2342304                        
Hartung, 2001soft, mold- ripened cheese1Ger- many3?62593                        
Hartung, 2001soft, mold- ripened cheese1Ger- many3?4139E4         1         1    
Hartung, 1999soft, mold- ripened cheese1Ger- many3R82748                        
Lonca- revic et al., 1995soft, mold- ripened cheese1Eu- rope Swe- den2R3118E         9 1      2   1 
Mc- Lauch- lin et al., 1990Feta1UK1R330                        
NFPA, 2002Cheese, soft mold ripened1USA3R13471333E12   2                   
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, Camem- bert1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, pyramid goat1USA3R10100                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, feta goat1USA3R990                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Mozza- rella1USA3R220                        
Pinto and Reali, 1996Taleggio1Italy2R45450                        
Pinto and Reali, 1996Mozza- rella1UK2R29254                        
Rudolf et al., 2001Cheese, soft1Eu- rope3P or R19218012                        
Sanchez -Rey et al., 1993La Serena cheese, from raw ewes milk1Spain1P15105                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Hartz mountain cheese Harzer- kase1Ger- many1R1919E                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Hartz mountain cheese Harzer- kase1Ger- many1R?19145                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Cheese, Sauer- mulch- kase- sour milk hand1Ger- many1R53485                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Cheese, Sauer- mulch- kase- sour milk hand1Ger- many1R6964E         2  3           
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Romadur1Ger- many1R2318E         5              
Weber et al., 1988Cheese, soft1Ger- many1?22220                        
Weber et al., 1988Cheese, soft cow1Ger- many1?3072998                        
Weber et al., 1988Cheese, soft goat & sheep1Ger- many1?440                        
Total=310929926812   2    17 13    1021  1 
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Semi-Soft Cheese Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Botarelli et al., 1999Gorgon- zola/ cheese1Italy3R4038E4              2         
Breer and Schopfer, 1989Cheese, semi- soft1Switz- erland1?2052014                        
de Boer and Kuik, 1987Cheese, blue- veined1Ne- ther- lands1R20182                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, blue1USA3R22220                        
Frye, 2000Butter cheese1USA3R110                        
Frye, 2000Gorgon- zola1USA3R220                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, Gouda1USA3R39390                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, Gouda1USA3R110                        
Frye, 2000Havarti1USA3R440                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, Jack1USA3R220                        
Frye, 2000Lim- burger1USA3R770                        
Frye, 2000Pinna Ricotta1USA3R523                        
Frye, 2000Roquefort1USA3R220                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, semi- soft1USA3R1351350                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, semi- soft1USA3R660                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, string1USA3R440                        
NFPA, 2001Cheese, blue- veined soft1USA3R16231600E183  1 1                 
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, blue1USA3R21210                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, Monterey Jack1USA3R54540                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Muenster1USA3R110                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, semi- soft goat1USA3R660                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, string1USA3R220                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, Swiss1USA3R12120                        
Pinto and Reali, 1996Gorgon- zola1UK2R58553                        
Rudolf and Scherer, 2001Cheese, semi- soft1Eu- rope3P or R92857                        
Saltijeral et al., 1999Man- chego1Mex- ico3R40400                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Edam1Ger- many1R31E         2              
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Edam1Ger- many1R990                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Lim- burger1Ger- many1R2119E         1  1           
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Lim- burger1Ger- many1R110                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Muenster1Ger- many1R505                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Muenster1Ger- many1R80E         1  6      1    
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Stangen- kase, Lim- burger type1Ger- many1R330                        
Teufel and Bend- zulla, 1993Stangen- kase, Lim- burger type1Ger- many1R1110E            1           
Weber et al., 1988Cheese, semi- soft1Ger- many1?14412519                        
Weber et al., 1988Cheese, sheep semi- soft1Ger- many1?660                        
Total=2615253443183  1 1  4  8 2    1    
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.


 

Hard Cheese Food Category: Contamination Data
Refer- enceFoodGeo-
graph- ic
Re- gion1
Coun- tryPub. Date2Sam- ple Col- lec-
tion3
Number of Samples (values in cfu/g units)
Total # of Sam- ples from the refer- ence<0.04≥0.04>0.01- 0.1>0.1-1<0.30.3- <10<10≥1010- 100<2020- 100<100>100100- 10001E2- 1E4<200200- 500200- 1000<500>10001E3- 1E4>1E41E4- 1E5>1E51E5- 1E6>1E6
Breer and Schopfer, 1989Cheese, hard Hartkase1Switz- erland1?88880                        
Delgado da Silva et al., 1998Cheese, Cheddar2Brazil2R220                        
Frye, 2000Cacique Asadero1USA3R110                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, Colby Jack semi-soft1USA3R110                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, Parmesan1USA3R220                        
Frye, 2000Cheese, Provo- lone1USA3R110                        
Frye, 2000Queso Anejo1USA3R110                        
Green- wood et al., 1991Cheese, hard1UK1R6665E4                1       
Lanciotti et al., 1999Cheese, hard ripened1Italy3P45450                        
McLauch- lin and Gilbert, 1990Cheese, hard1UK1?4484426                        
McLauch- lin et al., 1990Cheese, Cheddar goat1UK1R/P84E    2                 11
McLauch- lin et al., 1990Gjestost1UK1R10E    1                   
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, Cheddar1USA3R65650                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, Cheddar1USA3R19190                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, Colby Jack1USA3R990                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Cheese, hard1USA3R48480                        
Oregon State Dept of Agri- culture, 2001Quesco Cotija1USA3R550                        
Rudolf and Scherer, 2001Cheese, hard1Eu- rope3P or R45432                        
Saltijeral et al., 1999Chi- huahua1Mex- ico3R40400                        
Weber et al., 1988Cheese, hard1Ger- many1?440                        
West and North Yorkshire Joint Working Group, 1991Cheese, hard1UK1R74740                        
Total=9739598    3           1     11
1 Group 1 includes North America including the United States, Canada, Mexico, EU countries, Japan, Australia, New Zealand. Other countries were also included in group 1 on a case-by-case basis if they import the product to the United States. Group 2 includes any country not in group 1.
2 1 = time period pre-1993 to 1993; 2 = time period 1994 to 1998; 3 = time period 1999 to present.
3 R = sample collected at retail; P = sample collected at plant/ manufacturer; ? = location of sample collection unknown.
4 E = samples = 0.04 cfu/g that were enumerated.

More Tables - Appendix 7 - Part II