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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

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Experimental Study of Health Claims on Food Packages

Preliminary Topline Frequency Report
May 2007

 

Contact:
Chung-Tung Jordan Lin
Consumer Studies Staff
Division of Social Sciences
Office of Regulations, Policy and Social Sciences
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Food and Drug Administration
Tel: 301-436-1831
Email: chung-tung.lin@fda.hhs.gov


Table of Contents

Summary

 

Phase 1

 

Phase 2

 

Appendix A. Label example 1 - Yogurt with a food-specific health claim

Appendix B. Label example 2 - Yogurt with a substance-specific health claim

Appendix C. Label example 3 - Yogurt with a nutrient content claim

Appendix D. Label example 4 - Yogurt with a structure/function claim

Appendix E. Label example 5 - Yogurt with a dietary guidance statement

Appendix F. Label example 6 - Yogurt without a claim

Appendix G. Label example 7 - Yogurt back panel


This report highlights selected preliminary findings based on data collected in the Experimental Study of Health Claims on Food Packages. The report also shows frequency distributions in the data. The study examines consumer perceptions of health claims and other health messages (nutrient content claims, structure/function claims, dietary guidance statements) on the front panels of food packages.

The research was intended to help reveal causal relationships between health claims and other health messages and consumer responses, rather than to assess population-wide prevalence or distributions of consumer responses. It uses quota sampling methodology on a specific Internet consumer panel. As such, the study findings describe only respondents' attitudes, knowledge, behavior, and label responses; the findings cannot and should not be construed as representative of attitudes, knowledge, behavior, or label responses among U.S. consumers.

The main research objective was to evaluate and compare consumers' reactions to food-specific health claims that do not mention the substance (nutrient) that underlies the diet-disease relationship (for example, "Yogurt may reduce the risk of osteoporosis") and substance-specific health claims that mention the substance (for example, "Calcium-rich foods, such as yogurt, may reduce the risk of osteoporosis"). We were particularly interested in determining if consumers are still able to identify the nutrient responsible for the claimed benefit, and recognize that there are many food sources from which they can obtain the nutrient. The information enhances FDA's understanding of consumer responses to health claims and informs any policy initiative(s) that FDA may undertake in the future. For more details about this informational need, go to the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Food Labeling: Health Claims; Dietary Guidance of November 25, 2003, page 66047.

We emphasize that the inclusion of examples of health claims and other health messages in this study does not in any way suggest or imply any new or impending change in regulatory actions regarding these messages.

 

Methodology

The study includes two phases. Phase 1 collected information on respondent awareness of foods, nutrients, and foods' possible health benefits. This information was intended to help enhance understanding of respondent perceptions of various health messages, which were collected in Phase 2.

Synovate, Inc., the data collection contractor, fielded the study via the Internet between January 25, 2006 and March 24, 2006. The median completion time was five minutes for Phase 1 and ten minutes for Phase 2.

The target population was adult members in the Global Opinion Panels maintained by Synovate, Inc. Synovate drew a sample of 9,000 members per quota set to match the distribution of U.S. household heads in gender, education, age, and ethnicity/race. Invitation emails were sent to designated panel members. The invitation mentioned the general purpose of the study, sponsor of the study (FDA), and effort expected (the two phases and the expected length of time for each phase). A total of 1,593 of the 9,000 invitees completed Phase 1. Ten days after the end of the Phase 1, Phase 1 respondents were sent an invitation to participate in Phase 2; 1,077 of these Phase 1 respondents also completed Phase 2.

The study examines the following 18 front-panel label examples. These examples vary in component of a diet-disease relationship (i.e., whether a message mentions a food, a substance or nutrient, or a health problem) and presumed familiarity with a diet-disease relationship (from a well-known calcium - osteoporosis relationship, a less known potassium - high blood pressure relationship, to a unknown relationship between a fictitious nutrient "lysoton" and the risk of heart disease). There is no variation in back-panel information, e.g., the Nutrition Facts panel, for a given food. [See Appendices A-G for examples of front and back panels.]

 

Claim TypeYogurt - calcium - osteoporosisOrange juice - potassium - high blood pressurePasta - lysoton (a fictitious nutrient) - heart disease
(1) Food-specific health claimYogurt may reduce the risk of osteoporosisOrange juice may reduce the risk of high blood pressurePasta may reduce the risk of heart disease
(2) Substance-specific health claimCalcium-rich foods, such as yogurt, may reduce the risk of osteoporosisPotassium-rich foods, such as orange juice, may reduce the risk of high blood pressureLysoton-rich foods, such as pasta, may reduce the risk of heart disease
(3) Nutrient content claimA good source of calciumA good source of potassiumA good source of lysoton
(4) Structure/function claimHelps promote bone healthHelps promote blood pressure healthHelps promote heart health
(5) Dietary guidanceDairy products may reduce the risk of osteoporosisFruit juices may reduce the risk of high blood pressureGrain foods may reduce the risk of heart disease
(6) No messageNot applicableNot applicableNot applicable

 

In Phase 1, respondents were asked about their awareness of foods, nutrients, and foods' possible health benefits; no labels were shown in Phase 1. In Phase 2, each respondent was first asked about perceptions of one of the 18 label examples and then perceptions of another label example; each and every question was shown together with the pertinent label example. For a given respondent, the examples shown were for two different foods and two different front-panel messages. Each respondent was asked about the same pair of foods in both Phases, either (1) yogurt and orange juice, (2) orange juice and pasta, or (3) pasta and yogurt. Assignment of foods and health messages were randomized and counter-balanced across respondents. See Appendices A-G for examples of label images.

 

Selected preliminary findings

  1. Awareness of foods, nutrients, and health benefits
    1. Among the three foods examined, yogurt and orange juice are considered more healthful than pasta.
    2. All respondents have heard of calcium and potassium. Eight percent of respondents claim to have heard of the fictitious nutrient "lysoton."
    3. Reducing the risk of osteoporosis is identified as a health benefit of yogurt by about two-thirds of those who are asked about the food; reducing the risk of hypertension is identified as a health benefit of orange juice by one quarter of those who are asked about the food; and reducing the risk of heart disease is identified as a health benefit of pasta by one in ten respondents who are asked about the food.
    4. Nine in ten of those who associate yogurt with reducing osteoporosis or pasta with reducing heart disease think other foods also have the same benefit; three in four of others who associate orange juice with reducing hypertension think other foods also have the same benefit.
    5. All who associate yogurt with osteoporosis identify calcium as the substance that might help reduce the risk; three in four of those who associate orange juice with hypertension say potassium might help reduce the risk; about one in five of those who associate pasta with heart disease say "lysoton" might help reduce the risk.
  2. Recognition of nutrient underlying the stated diet-disease relationship.
    1. When a nutrient or the nutrient-disease link is lesser known (potassium-hypertension) or unknown ("lysoton-heart disease"), respondents are more likely to recognize the nutrient if it is mentioned in a health claim (a substance-specific health claim) than if it is not mentioned (a food-specific health claim).
    2. When a nutrient or health benefit is lesser known (potassium-hypertension) or unknown ("lysoton-heart disease"), respondents are also more likely to recognize the nutrient from a substance-specific health claim than from a structure/function claim or a dietary guidance statement.
    3. There is no difference in how likely respondents are to recognize the nutrient between a food-specific health claim, a structure/function claim, and a dietary guidance statement.
  3. Recognition of the existence of other food sources of a nutrient.
    1. The recognition that other food sources provide the nutrient is less likely for an unknown nutrient ("lysoton"), regardless of which health messages respondents see.
  4. Recognition of the existence of other foods that may have the same health benefit.
    1. When there is a widespread belief that the risk of osteoporosis or heart disease may be reduced with many foods, the likelihood of recognizing that there are other foods that may offer the benefit stated on a product package does not differ between the health message they see (substance-specific health claim, food-specific health claim, structure/function claim, dietary guidance statement).
    2. When the belief is less common (i.e., the risk of hypertension may be reduced with many foods), however, the recognition that there are other foods that may offer the stated benefit is more likely when respondents see a substance-specific health claim than a food-specific health claim or a structure/function claim.
  5. Belief in the stated benefit.
    1. When a nutrient or diet-disease benefit is lesser known (potassium-hypertension) or unknown ("lysoton-heart disease"), respondents are less likely to believe the food has the stated benefit when they see a label with a nutrient content claim or with no health message, when compared to a label with other health messages (substance-specific health claims, food-specific health claims, structure/function claims, dietary guidance statements).
    2. When a nutrient or health benefit is well known (calcium-osteoporosis), there is no difference in how strongly respondents believe in the stated benefit across various health messages (substance-specific health claim, food-specific health claim, structure/function claim, nutrient content claim, dietary guidance statement).
  6. Intention to buy the product.
    1. Respondents would be more likely to consider buying the product when the health claim they see mentions the nutrient responsible for the benefit.
    2. Similarly, the purchase intent is stronger when they see a substance-specific health claim than when they see any other health messages (nutrient content claims, structure/function claims, dietary guidance statements) or a label without any health message.
    3. Respondents are least likely to buy a product when they see a nutrient content claim or a label that does not include any health message.

Notes to the following tabulations

  1. We ignored responses from 41 respondents due to discrepancies in reported demographics (age, education, race/ethnicity, gender) between the two phases. Thus, the base sample size for this report is 1,036 respondents.
  2. The study uses the quota sampling methodology. The study is not intended to, and does not, generate nationally representative results or population estimates of consumer attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. Neither is the study intended to produce results generalizable to Synovate's Global Opinion Panels.
  3. Sample size ("n") for each table is noted. The sample size is based on either the number of respondents, for questions that are not food- or label-specific, or the number of observations for other questions. In the latter questions, each respondent contributed up to two observations per question, one for each of the two foods, front-panel messages, or both.
  4. An asterisk (*) in the table denotes a percentage value smaller than one and greater than zero.
  5. Row or column percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding, multiple responses, or both.

OMB No. 0910-0565
Expiration: 8/31/2008

 

PHASE 1

 

SECTION A. CONSUMPTION AND PERCEIVED HEALTHFULNESS OF FOODS

A1. First of all, how often do you eat/drink these foods in a typical month? Please select one for each item.
AnswerYogurt

(n = 693)
Orange Juice

(n = 686)
Pasta

(n = 693)
Everyday or nearly every day11 %22 %2 %
2-3 times a week22 %18 %21 %
Once a week10 %9 %38 %
Less than once a week29 %34 %37 %
Never eat/drink it26 %16 %2 %
Don't know2 %1 %*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

A2. On a six point scale, where 6 means "very healthful" and 1 means "not healthful at all," how healthful would you say these foods are? Please select one for each item.
AnswerYogurt

(n = 693)
Orange Juice

(n = 686)
Pasta

(n = 693)
6 very healthful44 %58 %11 %
531 %25 %14 %
414 %11 %36 %
34 %4 %24 %
21 %2 %10 %
1 not healthful at all**3 %
Don't know5 %0 %1 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

SECTION B. AWARENESS OF NUTRIENTS AND HEALTH BENEFITS

B1. Have you ever heard of each of the following nutrients or food components? Please select an answer for each one of them. [RANDOMIZE LIST; RECORD FIRST ITEM.]
(n=1036)
Nutrient/Food ComponentYes
 
No
 
Don't know
Calcium100 %**
Potassium99 %**
Monounsaturated fat or fatty acid89 %7 %3 %
Lysoton8 %81 %12 %
Lycopene72 %22 %6 %
Trans fat or trans fatty acid95 %4 %2 %

"n" denotes number of respondents. "Lysoton" is a fictitious nutrient included for the purpose of the study.

 

B2. Have you ever heard or read that [eating/drinking food] regularly may help lower the risk of the following health problems? Please select an answer for each health problem.[RANDOMIZE LIST; RECORD FIRST ITEM.]
Yogurt (n = 693)
Health ProblemYesNo
 
Don't know
Hypertension or high blood pressure17 %67 %17 %
Cancer12 %70 %18 %
Osteoporosis or bone problem62 %28 %11 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar15 %68 %17 %
Heart disease24 %61 %15 %
Orange juice (n = 686)
Health ProblemYesNo
 
Don't know
Hypertension or high blood pressure24 %60 %16 %
Cancer35 %50 %15 %
Osteoporosis or bone problem39 %47 %14 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar16 %68 %16 %
Heart disease46 %40 %14 %
Pasta (n = 693)
Health ProblemYesNo
 
Don't know
Hypertension or high blood pressure7 %80 %13 %
Cancer4 %83 %13 %
Osteoporosis or bone problem7 %80 %13 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar7 %80 %12 %
Heart disease9 %78 %12 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF YES TO THE TARGET HEALTH PROBLEM, GO TO B3. OTHERWISE, SKIP TO C1.]
[Target health problem: yogurt - osteoporosis; orange juice - high blood pressure; pasta - heart disease.]

 

B3. Are there foods or beverages other than [food] that might also help lower the risk of [health problem]? Please select one.
 YesNo
 
Don't know
Yogurt - osteoporosis (n = 428)88 %*11 %
Orange juice - hypertension or high blood pressure (n = 161)76 %*24 %
Pasta - heart disease (n = 65)88 %3 %9 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF YES, GO TO B4 OTHERWISE, SKIP TO B5.]

 

B4. In the list below, please select the foods that you think might also help lower the risk of [health problem]?  Select all that apply.

Osteoporosis or bone problem (n = 378)
Food 
Cereals30 %
Cheese, milk, or buttermilk97 %
Dairy products other than cheese, milk, and buttermilk88 %
Fruits or fruit juices31 %
Oatmeal24 %
Potato or sweet potato16 %
Salmon or sardines35 %
Fish, shellfish, or seafood other than salmon and sardines28 %
Soy, soy bean, soy milk, bean curd, or tofu 44 %
Spinach35 %
Vegetables other than spinach, soy bean, potato, and sweet potato29 %
Vegetable juices16 %
Other foods (up to 3 items; examples include whole grains/wheat, any food containing significant amount of calcium.)5 %
Don't know0 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure (n = 122)
FoodDon't know
Cereals53 %
Cheese, yogurt, milk, or buttermilk25 %
Dairy products other than cheese, yogurt, milk, and buttermilk20 %
Fruits or fruit juices70 %
Oatmeal79 %
Potato or sweet potato36 %
Salmon or sardines 57 %
Fish, shellfish, or seafood other than salmon and sardines55 %
Soy, soy bean, soy milk, bean curd, or tofu 52 %
Spinach58 %
Vegetables other than spinach, soy bean, potato, and sweet potato49 %
Vegetable juices43 %
Other foods (up to 3 items; examples include red wine, whole grain, dark chocolate.)15 %
Don't know4 %
Heart disease (n = 57)
FoodDon't know
Cereals81 %
Cheese, yogurt, milk, or buttermilk23 %
Dairy products other than cheese, yogurt, milk, and buttermilk16 %
Fruits or fruit juices74 %
Oatmeal88 %
Potato or sweet potato35 %
Salmon or sardines 67 %
Fish, shellfish, or seafood other than salmon and sardines60 %
Soy, soy bean, soy milk, bean curd, or tofu 61 %
Spinach61 %
Vegetables other than spinach, soy bean, potato, and sweet potato56 %
Vegetable juices46 %
Other foods (up to 3 items;  examples include nuts, whole grains/wheat)16 %
Don't know0 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

 

B5. For each of the following nutrients, would you say it might help reduce the risk of [health problem]?  If you have never heard of a nutrient, please select that option. [RANDOMIZE LIST IN EACH FOOD.]
Osteoporosis or bone problem (n = 428)
NutrientYesNo
 
Don't knowDon't know
Calcium99 %*0 %1 %
Potassium54 %14 %*32 %
Vitamin A46 %13 %*40 %
Phosphorus44 %11 %4 %41 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure (n = 161)
NutrientYesNo
 
Don't knowDon't know
Calcium60 %15 %*25 %
Potassium74 %6 %*19 %
Vitamin C68 %6 %*25 %
Vitamin A62 %7 %*30 %
Heart disease (n = 65)
NutrientYesNo
 
Don't knowDon't know
Lysoton17 %12 %48 %23 %
Fiber89 %5 %0 %6 %
Calcium58 %18 %0 %23 %
Potassium74 %8 %0 %18 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF YES TO THE TARGET NUTRIENT FOR A FOOD, GO TO B6 OTHERWISE, SKIP TO C1.]
[Target nutrient: yogurt - calcium; orange juice - potassium; pasta - lysoton.]

 

B6. Some foods are good sources of [nutrient] because they provide more [nutrient] than other foods. Please select from the list foods that you would say are good sources of [nutrient]. Select all that apply. [RANDOMIZE LIST IN EACH FOOD.]
Calcium (n = 422)
FoodDon't know
Olive oil8 %
Spinach41 %
Fish like salmon or sardines47 %
Tomato14 %
Don't know39 %
Potassium (n = 119)
FoodDon't know
Margarine3 %
Fruit juices67 %
Potato or sweet potato78 %
Egg20 %
Don't know12 %
Lysoton (n = 11)
FoodDon't know
Canola oil55 %
Carrot36 %
Milk36 %
Nuts (all kinds)64 %
Don't know27 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

 

SECTION C. Dietary supplements, special diets, and demographics

C1. Have you taken any of these dietary supplements in the past 12 months, that is, since [month] 2005?
(n = 1036)
Dietary SupplementYes
 
No
 
Don't know
A multi-vitamin or multi-mineral supplement, such as One-A-Day, Mega-Vitamin, Centrum A-to-Z.65 %34 %*
A specialized or single-ingredient vitamin or mineral supplement such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, iron, or calcium. Please do not include vitamins or minerals added to foods or beverages, for example, Vitamin D in milk and Vitamin C in orange juice.58 %41 %*
An herb, botanical, or other dietary supplement that is not a vitamin or a mineral. Examples include garlic pills, echinacea, ginkgo, ginseng (not as a food), glucosamine, MSM, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, amino acids, black cohosh, creatine, or fish oil or Omega-3 oil.40 %58 %2 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

C2. Which of these diet plans have you yourself been on during the past 30 days? Select all that apply.
DietDon't know
Low fat diet19 %
Low carb or carbohydrate diet16 %
Low sodium diet13 %
Low calorie diet11 %
Low cholesterol diet11 %
Low sugar diet15 %
Weight loss diet15 %
None of these55 %
Don't know1 %
Prefer not to answer*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

Skip rule for C3 and C4

  • If each and every of low fat, low carb, low sodium, low calorie, low cholesterol, and low sugar was selected, skip to C4.
  • If "none of these" was selected, go to C3.
  • If weight loss was selected and none of low fat through low sugar was selected, go to C3.
  • If "prefer not to answer" or "don't know" was selected, skip to C4.
  • All remaining cases, go to C3 and ask unselected items (from low fat to low sugar).

 

C3. Have you yourself been trying to limit or cut down on these things in your diet in the past 30 days? Select all that apply.
AnswerDon't know
Fat37 %
Carb or carbohydrate15 %
Sodium20 %
Calorie34 %
Cholesterol20 %
Sugar32 %
None of these30 %
Don't know*
Prefer not to answer*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

C4. Finally, what is the highest grade or level of school you have completed or the highest degree you have received? Please select one.
Level of SchoolDon't know
0 - 11 years or grades2 %
12 years, high school graduate, or GED42 %
1 - 3 years of college or associate degree28 %
4 years of college or college graduate20 %
Postgraduate, masters, doctorate, law degree, MD8 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

C5. What year were you born?
AgeDon't know
18 - 34 years old10 %
35 - 54 years old38 %
55 + years old52 %
Mean age = 53 years

Age = 2006 - response.

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

C6. Are you .   .   .   Please select one.
GenderDon't know
Female77 %
Male23 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

C6a. Are you of Hispanic or Latino origin? Please select one.

 

 Don't know
Hispanic or Latino origin5 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

C6b. What is your race? Select all that apply.
RaceDon't know
White90 %
Black or African American7 %
Asian2 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander*
American Indian or Alaskan Native3 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

C6c. Have you used the Internet for the following purposes in the past 6 months? Please select an answer for each purpose.
(n = 1036)
PurposeYesDon't knowDon't know
Sending and receiving E-mail99 %1 %*
Looking for health information, such as diet, nutrition, diseases or medicine68 %32 %*
Reading newspapers, magazines, or doing research74 %25 %*
For other purposes such as searching for or buying products,
online banking, trading stocks, or looking for a book in the library
80 %20 %*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

PHASE 2

 

SECTION D. Label responses

[SHOW FRONT PANEL AND PROVIDE A TURN BUTTON FOR BACK PANEL.]

D1. Please take a moment to look at this label. Feel free to click on the "TURN" button to see the other side of the label, which provides more information about this product. Note that the label information you see in this study may or may not be the same as you would see at the grocery store.

When you are ready to continue the survey, click on the "NEXT" button.

[IF THE "NO CLAIM" CONDITION IS ASSIGNED, SKIP TO D4.]

 

D2. Do you see the statement on the label - "[statement from the front panel]"? Please select one.

 

Statement typeDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Food-specific health claim96% (116)97% (117)97% (117)
Substance-specific health claim99% (116)97% (116)95% (116)
Nutrient content claim99% (115)99% (118)100% (114)
Structure/function claim99% (116)94% (112)97% (117)
Dietary guidance statement97% (111)98% (111)97% (115)

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF D2=NO, GO TO D3; OTHERWISE, SKIP TO D4.]

 

D3. Please take another look at the label. Do you see this statement on the label - "[statement from the front panel]"? Please select one.

 

Statement TypeDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Food-specific health claim60% (5)25% (4)75% (4)
Substance-specific health claim100% (1)100% (3)0% (6)
Nutrient content claim100% (1)100% (1)-- (0)
Structure/function claim100% (1)57% (7)100% (4)
Dietary guidance statement33% (3)100% (2)100% (3)

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF D3=NO, SKIP TO D5; OTHERWISE, GO TO D4.]

 

D4. DOES THE LABEL MENTION OR SUGGEST THIS [FOOD] may help reduce the risk of any of these health problems? Select all that apply.[RANDOMIZE LIST IN A CLAIM CONDITION.]

 

Food-specific health claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem78 %0 %0 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure*76 %4 %
Heart disease*6 %75 %
Cancer*0 %0 %
Obesity or overweight2 %0 %*
Diabetes or high blood sugar0 %2 %2 %
Other health problems not on this list**4 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS (food) helps reduce the risk of any health problem18 %17 %17 %
Don't know3 %2 %2 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem82 %0 %0 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure*81 %5 %
Heart disease3 %7 %80 %
Cancer0 %0 %0 %
Obesity or overweight3 %3 %3 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar*2 %*
Other health problems not on this list2 %3 %3 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS (food) helps reduce the risk of any health problem16 %15 %14 %
Don't know0 %*3 %

 

Nutrient content claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem25 %3 %0 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure2 %4 %*
Heart disease2 %4 %5 %
Cancer*2 %0 %
Obesity or overweight3 %2 %*
Diabetes or high blood sugar2 %2 %2 %
Other health problems not on this list3 %3 %*
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS (food) helps reduce the risk of any health problem72 %83 %82 %
Don't know*5 %9 %

 

Structure/function claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem68 %2 %*
Hypertension or high blood pressure*77 %5 %
Heart disease0 %7 %52 %
Cancer0 %0 %0 %
Obesity or overweight*2 %3 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar0 %4 %2 %
Other health problems not on this list***
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS (food) helps reduce the risk of any health problem28 %19 %41 %
Don't know3 %*4 %

 

Dietary guidance statement
 Don't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem72 %*0 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure3 %82 %4 %
Heart disease2 %4 %70 %
Cancer*0 %0 %
Obesity or overweight5 %0 %2 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar2 %0 %3 %
Other health problems not on this list3 %2 %0 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS (food) helps reduce the risk of any health problem24 %14 %26 %
Don't know*2 %3 %

 

No claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem3 %*2 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure*4 %2 %
Heart disease*2 %3 %
Cancer0 %*0 %
Obesity or overweight***
Diabetes or high blood sugar0 %2 %2 %
Other health problems not on this list0 %2 %0 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS (food) helps reduce the risk of any health problem88 %89 %88 %
Don't know8 %3 %7 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF YES TO THE TARGET HEALTH PROBLEM, SKIP TO D6.  OTHERWISE, GO TO D5.]
[Target health problem: yogurt - osteoporosis/bone problem; orange juice - high blood pressure/hypertension; pasta - heart disease.]

 

D5. BASED ON YOUR KNOWLEDGE of [FOOD], would you say THIS [FOOD] may help reduce the risk of any of these health problems? Select all that apply.[KEEP LIST IN THE SAME ORDER AS IN D4.]

 

Food-specific health claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem48 %7 %0 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure8 %15 %10 %
Heart disease8 %11 %38 %
Cancer4 %0 %0 %
Obesity or overweight12 %0 %3 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar12 %0 %3 %
Other health problems not on this list4 %7 %0 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS [food] helps reduce the risk of any health problem24 %41 %34 %
Don't know28 %30 %21 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem52 %0 %0 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure0 %27 %5 %
Heart disease0 %9 %27 %
Cancer0 %5 %0 %
Obesity or overweight0 %9 %14 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar0 %14 %0 %
Other health problems not on this list5 %5 %5 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS [food] helps reduce the risk of any health problem33 %23 %32 %
Don't know10 %27 %27 %

 

Nutrient content claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem49 %14 %4 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure5 %10 %5 %
Heart disease6 %16 %3 %
Cancer3 %6 %*
Obesity or overweight20 %9 %6 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar5 %7 %6 %
Other health problems not on this list10 %12 %*
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS [food] helps reduce the risk of any health problem24 %23 %35 %
Don't know16 %36 %55 %

 

Structure/function claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem32 %4 %4 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure3 %24 %9 %
Heart disease3 %16 %25 %
Cancer0 %4 %4 %
Obesity or overweight11 %0 %11 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar0 %8 %9 %
Other health problems not on this list3 %8 %4 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS [food] helps reduce the risk of any health problem27 %44 %48 %
Don't know32 %16 %20 %

 

Dietary guidance statement
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem42 %15 %3 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure6 %20 %6 %
Heart disease10 %10 %12 %
Cancer0 %0 %3 %
Obesity or overweight19 %10 %3 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar10 %0 %3 %
Other health problems not on this list6 %10 %3 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS [food] helps reduce the risk of any health problem23 %25 %50 %
Don't know29 %40 %35 %

 

No claim
Health ProblemDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Osteoporosis or bone problem37 %11 %6 %
Hypertension or high blood pressure2 %10 %9 %
Heart disease7 %21 %9 %
Cancer4 %11 %2 %
Obesity or overweight16 %10 %7 %
Diabetes or high blood sugar3 %11 %7 %
Other health problems not on this list9 %25 %5 %
The label does not mention or suggest that THIS [food] helps reduce the risk of any health problem21 %32 %48 %
Don't know32 %22 %32 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF YES TO THE TARGET HEALTH PROBLEM, GO TO D6; OTHERWISE, SKIP TO D9.]
[Target health problem: yogurt - osteoporosis/bone problem; orange juice - high blood pressure/hypertension; pasta - heart disease.]

 

D6. What nutrient in THIS [FOOD] would you say may help reduce the risk of [HEALTH PROBLEM]?   Select all that apply.  [RANDOMIZE LIST IN A CLAIM CONDITION.]

 

Food-specific health claim
NutrientDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Calcium79 %8 %2 %
Fiber5 %3 %14 %
Iron9 %2 %3 %
Potassium18 %22 %8 %
Lysoton*3 %22 %
Vitamin A10 %2 %2 %
Vitamin C11 %34 %1 %
Other #14 %1 %4 %
Other #20 %0 %2 %
None of these2 %7 %9 %
Don't know7 %35 %49 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
NutrientDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Calcium92 %2 %2 %
Fiber0 %1 %7 %
Iron*1 %5 %
Potassium10 %85 %5 %
Lysoton0 %0 %81 %
Vitamin A2 %2 %2 %
Vitamin C3 %11 %2 %
Other #10 %0 %2 %
Other #20 %0 %1 %
None of these0 %4 %3 %
Don't know3 %7 %11 %

 

Nutrient content claim
NutrientDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Calcium97 %25 %0 %
Fiber0 %13 %22 %
Iron6 %13 %11 %
Potassium7 %94 %11 %
Lysoton3 %6 %78 %
Vitamin A3 %13 %11 %
Vitamin C6 %31 %11 %
Other #10 %0 %0 %
Other #20 %0 %0 %
None of these0 %0 %11 %
Don't know0 %0 %0 %

 

Structure/function claim
NutrientDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Calcium91 %6 %3 %
Fiber1 %3 %19 %
Iron7 %2 %5 %
Potassium15 %33 %5 %
Lysoton0 %1 %24 %
Vitamin A7 %7 %3 %
Vitamin C9 %40 %0 %
Other #11 %4 %7 %
Other #20 %0 %1 %
None of these0 %6 %7 %
Don't know4 %36 %43 %

 

Dietary guidance statement
NutrientDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Calcium85 %11 %1 %
Fiber1 %5 %14 %
Iron4 %4 %7 %
Potassium16 %33 %7 %
Lysoton1 %1 %12 %
Vitamin A1 %7 %2 %
Vitamin C5 %39 %2 %
Other #13 %1 %8 %
Other #20 %0 %2 %
None of these3 %6 %13 %
Don't know7 %33 %51 %

 

No claim
NutrientDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Calcium96 %13 %8 %
Fiber2 %13 %54 %
Iron4 %13 %23 %
Potassium17 %38 %23 %
Lysoton2 %0 %15 %
Vitamin A4 %6 %31 %
Vitamin C4 %31 %31 %
Other #17 %13 %23 %
Other #20 %0 %8 %
None of these0 %6 %8 %
Don't know0 %31 %0 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF YES TO TARGET NUTRIENT, GO TO D7.  OTHERWISE, SKIP TO D8.]
[Target nutrient:  yogurt - calcium; orange juice - potassium; pasta - lysoton.]

 

D7.Would you say one can get [NUTRIENT] from any foods other than [FOOD]? Please select one.

 

Food-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes98 %90 %36 %
No0 %0 %5 %
Don't know3 %10 %59 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes98 %95 %46 %
No2 %1 %0 %
Don't know0 %4 %54 %

 

Nutrient content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes99 %100 %29 %
No0 %0 %0 %
Don't know1 %0 %71 %

 

Structure/function claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes99 %100 %39 %
No1 %0 %0 %
Don't know0 %0 %61 %

 

Dietary guidance statement
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes96 %97 %50 %
No3 %0 %20 %
Don't know1 %3 %30 %

 

No claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes98 %100 %50 %
No0 %0 %0 %
Don't know2 %0 %50 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

 

D8. Are there other foods, in addition to [FOOD], that might also help reduce the risk of [HEALTH PROBLEM]? Please select one

 

Food-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes89 %56 %70 %
No3 %2 %1 %
Don't know8 %42 %29 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes92 %84 %73 %
No0 %1 %0 %
Don't know8 %15 %27 %

 

Nutrient content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes96 %94 %78 %
No0 %0 %0 %
Don't know4 %6 %22 %

 

Structure/function claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes92 %57 %84 %
No0 %2 %0 %
Don't know8 %41 %16 %

 

Dietary guidance statement
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes96 %65 %79 %
No1 %2 %0 %
Don't know3 %33 %21 %

 

No claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Yes96 %75 %92 %
No0 %0 %0 %
Don't know4 %25 %8 %

"n"denotes number of observations.

 

D9. Overall, how helpful would you say the label is in telling you what the possible health benefits of THIS [FOOD] are? Please select one.

 

Food-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful24 %13 %16 %
Somewhat helpful51 %47 %42 %
Somewhat not helpful12 %12 %15 %
Not helpful at all9 %25 %24 %
Don't know4 %3 %3 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful24 %21 %27 %
Somewhat helpful54 %56 %45 %
Somewhat not helpful9 %9 %10 %
Not helpful at all11 %13 %17 %
Don't know*2 %*

 

Nutrient content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful11 %7 %0 %
Somewhat helpful37 %23 %15 %
Somewhat not helpful14 %16 %10 %
Not helpful at all37 %51 %66 %
Don't know*3 %10 %

 

Structure/function content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful19 %23 %11 %
Somewhat helpful43 %35 %29 %
Somewhat not helpful16 %11 %16 %
Not helpful at all21 %28 %39 %
Don't know*4 %4 %

 

Dietary guidance statement
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful21 %15 %9 %
Somewhat helpful47 %49 %39 %
Somewhat not helpful14 %20 %15 %
Not helpful at all14 %14 %33 %
Don't know4 %2 %4 %

 

No claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful4 %*3 %
Somewhat helpful21 %13 %13 %
Somewhat not helpful8 %16 %11 %
Not helpful at all59 %68 %67 %
Don't know8 %3 %7 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

 

D10. On a six point scale, where 6 means "very likely" and 1 means "very unlikely," how likely or unlikely would you say THIS [FOOD] is to help reduce the risk of [HEALTH PROBLEM]? Please select one.

 

Food-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely13 %13 %5 %
219 %11 %9 %
328 %22 %26 %
423 %19 %26 %
54 %14 %11 %
6 very unlikely7 %12 %14 %
Don't know5 %9 %9 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely16 %9 %11 %
215 %16 %14 %
328 %34 %18 %
425 %22 %28 %
58 %9 %11 %
6 very unlikely7 %5 %12 %
Don't know2 %3 %5 %

 

Nutrient content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely9 %5 %0 %
29 %6 %6 %
335 %15 %9 %
423 %12 %9 %
59 %14 %9 %
6 very unlikely9 %29 %36 %
Don't know7 %19 %32 %

 

Structure/function content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely14 %15 %3 %
215 %11 %9 %
321 %20 %14 %
427 %20 %38 %
58 %10 %8 %
6 very unlikely9 %17 %18 %
Don't know7 %8 %11 %

 

Dietary guidance statement
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely11 %6 %6 %
217 %9 %8 %
327 %32 %15 %
423 %29 %28 %
510 %9 %12 %
6 very unlikely7 %9 %24 %
Don't know5 %6 %7 %

 

No claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely11 %*2 %
29 %3 %4 %
318 %13 %11 %
425 %13 %16 %
58 %14 %13 %
6 very unlikely17 %36 %40 %
Don't know12 %21 %14 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

 

D11. Overall, how helpful would you say the label is in helping you decide whether to buy THIS [FOOD]? Please select one

 

Food-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful18 %12 %14 %
Somewhat helpful45 %38 %36 %
Somewhat not helpful9 %13 %15 %
Not helpful at all23 %33 %32 %
Don't know5 %3 %3 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful23 %15 %20 %
Somewhat helpful40 %49 %42 %
Somewhat not helpful17 %9 %10 %
Not helpful at all19 %21 %25 %
Don't know*6 %3 %

 

Nutrient content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful5 %8 %4 %
Somewhat helpful48 %26 %15 %
Somewhat not helpful12 %15 %13 %
Not helpful at all34 %50 %62 %
Don't know**5 %

 

Structure/function content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful14 %23 %5 %
Somewhat helpful42 %31 %38 %
Somewhat not helpful16 %13 %17 %
Not helpful at all26 %29 %39 %
Don't know2 %4 %*

 

Dietary guidance statement
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful16 %13 %9 %
Somewhat helpful47 %44 %29 %
Somewhat not helpful14 %19 %19 %
Not helpful at all21 %23 %41 %
Don't know3 %2 %3 %

 

No claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Very helpful10 %5 %7 %
Somewhat helpful30 %21 %18 %
Somewhat not helpful9 %23 %14 %
Not helpful at all45 %47 %58 %
Don't know5 %3 %3 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

 

D12. Imagine that you are in a grocery store and thinking about getting some [FOOD] for yourself. Assume the [FOOD] you see here is comparable to other [FOOD]s on the shelf in terms of price, taste, flavor, and nutritional values. [IF PASTA, REPLACE "FLAVOR" WITH "TEXTURE."]On a six point scale, where 6 means "definitely would consider buying" and 1 means "definitely would not consider buying," how likely or unlikely would you be to consider buying THIS [FOOD] rather than another [FOOD]? Please select one.

 

Food-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely11 %12 %12 %
218 %16 %15 %
325 %19 %22 %
420 %32 %28 %
54 %11 %12 %
6 very unlikely16 %9 %7 %
Don't know5 %2 %4 %

 

Substance-specific health claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely21 %10 %19 %
211 %17 %17 %
324 %31 %19 %
421 %22 %25 %
58 %8 %9 %
6 very unlikely12 %9 %9 %
Don't know3 %2 %3 %

 

Nutrient content claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely10 %9 %6 %
216 %11 %8 %
323 %12 %13 %
425 %28 %29 %
512 %18 %18 %
6 very unlikely9 %19 %18 %
Don't know4 %3 %8 %

 

Structure/function claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely15 %19 %10 %
213 %18 %11 %
318 %15 %27 %
428 %20 %33 %
57 %13 %13 %
6 very unlikely16 %13 %4 %
Don't know3 %3 %*

 

Dietary guidance statement
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely8 %14 %10 %
214 %10 %13 %
327 %32 %18 %
425 %18 %30 %
514 %14 %10 %
6 very unlikely9 %10 %11 %
Don't know3 %3 %7 %

 

No claim
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
1 Very likely10 %4 %4 %
24 %12 %7 %
318 %13 %23 %
421 %26 %30 %
515 %18 %15 %
6 very unlikely28 %21 %16 %
Don't know3 %5 %6 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

Results for D13 - D24, which repeat D1 - D12 for the second food tested, have been combined with results for D1 - D12.

 

D25. [SHOW BOTH SIDES OF LABEL OF THE SECOND FOOD; REMOVE CLAIM STATEMENT.] Now, think about the [NUTRIENT] in this [FOOD], which of the following best describes how much [NUTRIENT] you consider this [FOOD] to have? Please select one.
[Nutrient: yogurt - protein; orange juice - total carbohydrate; pasta - dietary fiber.]

 

AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
High3 %9 %1 %
Moderately high23 %33 %8 %
Neither high nor low34 %27 %24 %
Moderately low23 %14 %28 %
Low6 %6 %30 %
Don't know11 %12 %10 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

[IF DON'T KNOW, SKIP TO E1.]

 

D26. You just indicated that the amount of [NUTRIENT] in this [FOOD] is [RESPONSE FROM D25]. Which of the following is or are the reason(s) that you said the [NUTRIENT] in this [FOOD] is [RESPONSE FROM D25]? Please select all that apply. [RANDOMIZE FIRST TWO ITEMS.]

 

ReasonDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
My answer was based on the label I saw73 %69 %77 %
That is how much [NUTRIENT] I think [FOOD]s generally have24 %26 %19 %
Neither of the above; specify3 %4 %2 %
Don't know4 %5 %4 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

[IF "MY ANSWER WAS BASED ON THE LABEL I SAW," GO TO D27; OTHERWISE, SKIP TO E1.]

 

D27. [SHOW NAMES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF LABEL.]You just indicated that the [NUTRIENT] in this [FOOD] is [RESPONSE FROM D25]. Which part or parts of the label did you use to decide your answer? Please select all that apply.

 

Label PartDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Front panel1 %*0 %
Nutrition Facts box32 %47 %33 %
Amount of nutrient43 %43 %43 %
% Daily value61 %35 %64 %
Ingredient list7 %9 %7 %
Don't know*0 %*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

SECTION E. Food Purchase Experience and Selection Criteria

[REMOVE LABEL.]

E1. Do you yourself buy all, most, some, or none of the [FOOD] you eat/drink? Please select one.

 

AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
All56 %57 %68 %
Most10 %15 %17 %
Some8 %9 %11 %
None1 %2 %1 %
Never buy9 %7 %2 %
Never eat or drink16 %9 %*
Don't know*0 %*

"n" denotes number of observations.

[IF "ALL," "MOST," OR "SOME," GO TO E2. OTHERWISE, SKIP TO F1.]

 

E2. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements? Please select one for each statement.

 

I only buy the [food]s that are on sale
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Strongly agree12 %10 %11 %
Somewhat agree28 %31 %29 %
Somewhat disagree23 %25 %23 %
Strongly disagree36 %33 %36 %
Don't know***

 

I only buy the [food]s that are familiar to me
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Strongly agree27 %27 %21 %
Somewhat agree47 %46 %46 %
Somewhat disagree15 %18 %20 %
Strongly disagree11 %8 %12 %
Don't know***

 

I only buy the [food]s that tell their health benefits on the package
AnswerDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Strongly agree18 %17 %10 %
Somewhat agree31 %31 %30 %
Somewhat disagree31 %30 %31 %
Strongly disagree19 %21 %26 %
Don't know3 %2 %2 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

 

SECTION F. Health status

F1. The next few questions may seem a bit personal. But we need this information because this study is about nutrition and health. Have you ever been told by a doctor or other healthcare professional that you have the following health problems? Please select an answer for each of the health problems.
(n = 1036)
Health ProblemYesDon't knowDon't knowDon't know
Cancer7 %92 %1 %*
Diabetes13 %85 %1 %*
Heart disease7 %92 %1 %*
High blood pressure35 %63 %1 %*
High cholesterol36 %62 %1 %*
Liver-related problem3 %95 %2 %*
Obesity or overweight34 %64 %1 %*
Osteoporosis or bone problem15 %83 %2 %*
Stroke3 %95 %1 %*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

[ASK F2 FOR HEALTH PROBLEMS THAT RECEIVED A "NO" OR "DON"T KNOW," BUT NOT "PREFER NOT TO ANSWER," IN F1.]

 

F2. Would you expect yourself to be at risk in the next five years for the following health problems? Please select an answer for each of the health problems.
Health ProblemYesNo
 
Don't knowPrefer not to answer
Cancer (n = 963)7 %66 %26 %0 %
Diabetes (n = 898)11 %69 %20 %0 %
Heart disease (n = 961)15 %60 %25 %0 %
High blood pressure (n = 667)10 %71 %19 %0 %
High cholesterol (n = 655)9 %70 %20 %0 %
Liver-related problem (n = 1003)2 %80 %18 %0 %
Obesity or overweight (n = 682)8 %79 %12 %*
Osteoporosis or bone problem (n = 873)10 %70 %20 %0 %
Stroke (n = 999)6 %68 %26 %0 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

F3. How tall are you without shoes? Please enter a number in both the "feet" and "inches." (n = 1036)
Range of Height4 ft 6 in — 6 ft 6 in
Prefer not to answer*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

F4. How much do you weigh without shoes? Please enter a number in the pounds option. (n = 1036)
Range of Weight90 lb — 392 lb
Prefer not to answer6 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

F5. Do you consider yourself to be overweight, underweight, or about the right weight? Please select one.
Answer(n = 1036)
Overweight67 %
Underweight2 %
About the right weight30 %
Don't know1 %
Prefer not to answer*

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

SECTION G. Internet experience and demographics

G1. What is the modem speed that you are using to do this study? Please select one.
Modem(n = 1036)
56k or lower27 %
High-speed, including broadband, cable, DSL, ADSL, T1, T3, ISDN65 %
Other*
Don't know8 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

G2. Finally, what is the highest grade or level of school you have completed or the highest degree you have received? Please select one.
Level of School(n = 1036)
0 - 11 years or grades2 %
12 years, high school graduate, or GED42 %
1-3 years of college or associate degree28 %
4 years of college or college graduate20 %
Postgraduate, masters, doctorate, law degree, MD8 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

G3. What year were you born?
Age(n = 1036)
18 - 34 years old10 %
35 - 54 years old38 %
55 + years old52 %
Mean age = 53 years

Age = 2006 - response.

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

G4. Are you . . . . Please select one.
Gender(n = 1036)
Female77 %
Male23 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

G5. Are you of Hispanic or Latino origin? Please select one.
 Yes

(n = 1036)
Hispanic or Latino origin5 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

 

G6. What is your race? Select all that apply.
Race
(n = 1036)
White90 %
Black or African American7 %
Asian2 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander*
American Indian or Alaskan Native3 %

"n" denotes number of respondents.

[SHOW THE FOLLOWING TO RESPONDENTS ASSIGNED TO ANY CONDITION RELATED TO PASTA.]

 

This study has talked about something called LYSOTON. Please note that LYSOTON does not exist. The term is included in this study to assess people's reactions to food labels if there is an unfamiliar or unknown nutrient mentioned on the label.

I have read this statement. Please select one.
Answer
(n = 634)
Yes96 %
No4 %

"n" denotes number of observations.

Thank you. These are all the questions in this study. We hope you have enjoyed your participation in the study.

END OF STUDY


 

Appendix A.
Label example 1 - Yogurt with a food-specific health claim

Drawing of a package of yogurt. At the top of the principal display panel, surrounded by a sunburst, is 'Yogurt may reduce the risk of osteoporosis'. The rest of the panel reads 'Vanilla Yogurt. 6oz (170g).'

 

Appendix B.
Label example 2 - Yogurt with a substance-specific health claim

Drawing of a package of yogurt. At the top of the principal display panel, surrounded by a sunburst, is 'Calcium-rich foods, such as yogurt, may reduce the risk of osteoporosis'. The rest of the panel reads 'Vanilla Yogurt. 6oz (170g).'

 

Appendix C.
Label example 3 - Yogurt with a nutrient content claim

Drawing of a package of yogurt. At the top of the principal display panel, surrounded by a sunburst, is 'A good source of calcium'. The rest of the panel reads 'Vanilla Yogurt. 6oz (170g).'

 

Appendix D.
Label example 4 - Yogurt with a structure/function claim

Drawing of a package of yogurt. At the top of the principal display panel, surrounded by a sunburst, is 'Helps promote bone health'. The rest of the panel reads 'Vanilla Yogurt. 6oz (170g).'

 

Appendix E.
Label example 5 - Yogurt with a dietary guidance statement

Drawing of a package of yogurt. At the top of the principal display panel, surrounded by a sunburst, is 'Dairy products may reduce the risk of osteoporosis'. The rest of the panel reads 'Vanilla Yogurt. 6oz (170g).'

 

Appendix F.
Label example 6 - Yogurt without a claim

Drawing of a package of yogurt. On the principal display panel is 'Vanilla Yogurt. 6oz (170g).'

 

Appendix G.
Label example 7 - Yogurt back panel

Drawing of a package of yogurt, showing the back panel with the Nutrition Facts panel.