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Food

2002 Health and Diet Survey: Topline Frequency Report

(November 2007)

Chung-Tung Jordan Lin
Consumer Studies Staff
Division of Social Sciences
Office of Regulations, Policy and Social Sciences
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Email: chung-tung.lin@fda.hhs.gov


Table of Contents

  1. Screener and Introduction
  2. Section A. Awareness of diet-health relationship (cancer)
  3. Section B. Dietary management practices (diet monitoring)
  4. Section C. Dietary management practices (cholesterol)
  5. Section D. Fat and cholesterol knowledge
  6. Section E. Trans fatty acids and hydrogenated oils
  7. Section F. Knowledge of dietary deficiencies
  8. Section G. Awareness of diet-health relationship (heart disease)
  9. Section H. Awareness of diet-health relationship (high blood pressure)
  10. Section J. Dietary management practices (weight control)
  11. Section K. Dietary management practices (sodium)
  12. Section M. Use of food labels
  13. Section N. Prevalence of supplement use in the past 12 months
  14. Section P. Doctor's knowledge of supplement use
  15. Section Q. Sources of information and perceptions of dietary supplement labels
  16. Section R. Perceptions and knowledge of dietary supplements
  17. Section S. Adverse experience with dietary supplements
  18. Section T. Supplement non-user information
  19. Section U. Children's and teenagers' use of dietary supplements
  20. Section V. Demographics and health status
  21. Appendix. List of Supplements

Results are based on a random-digit-dialing telephone survey of 2,743 English-speaking non-institutionalized adults (aged 18 years and older) in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Two versions of the questionnaire were sequentially administered to the sample. Version 1 had 1,374 respondents and Version 2 had 1,369 respondents. Households were selected from a nationally representative single-stage sample of telephone numbers generated from the GENESYS system. The eligible respondent in a household was selected using the most-recent birthday method. The survey was conducted by a contractor during May 14 - September 24, 2002. A response rate of 30 percent was obtained; the rate was calculated per the Response Rate 3 (RR3) formula by the American Association for Public Opinion Research. Results have been weighted to adjust for number of land phone lines in a household, number of adults in a household, and Census distributions of gender, race/ethnicity, and education in the 50 states and District of Columbia.

Notes to the following tabulations

The number of respondents who answered a question, or sample size ("n"), is shown for each question.An asterisk (*) denotes a percentage value between zero and one. Row or column percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding, multiple responses, or both.


Screener and Introduction

Hello, I'm ________________ calling for the United States Food and Drug Administration, the FDA. We're doing a 15-minute survey about people's opinions about foods, health, and dietary supplements. May I speak to the member of your household who is aged 18 or over and has had the most RECENT birthday? Would that be you?

Yes: [READ "Your answers to this survey are voluntary and will be kept confidential. No identifying information will appear on any report of this study." THEN, GO TO THE FIRST QUESTION.]

No: [READ THE FOLLOWING.]
May I speak with a member of the household who is at least 18 years old and has the most recent birthday?

Yes: [REINTRODUCE.]

No/Not Available: [GO TO SMS.]

[IF NOT AVAILABLE, ASK FOR THE FIRST NAME OF THE ELIGIBLE RESPONDENT FOR CALL-BACK PURPOSE.]

[REINTRODUCE AS NECESSARY.]

INTERVIEWER: CODE SEX WITHOUT ASKING.

  • Male
  • Female
  • Not Sure

[VERSION 1 - GO TO SECTION A; VERSION 2 - SKIP TO SECTION G.]

(Version 1, v1)

Section A. Awareness of diet-disease relationship (Cancer)

First let's focus on your opinions regarding diet and health issues.

(v1)A1. Have you heard anything about cancer being related to things people eat or drink? (n=1,374)

  Percent  
YES 76  
NO 24 [SKIP TO B1]
[DON'T READ] DON'T KNOW (DK)/NOT SURE (NS) * [SKIP TO B1]
[DON'T READ] REFUSED (RF) * [SKIP TO B1]

(v1)A2. What things that people eat or drink might make them MORE likely to get cancer? [DON'T READ LIST.] [PROBE ONLY ONCE: Are there any other things people eat or drink that make them more likely to get cancer?] (n=1,087)

  Percent
Additives/chemicals 6.6
Alcohol 13.6
Artificial colors/dyes 1.9
Artificial Sweetener/Aspartame/NutraSweet 4.5
Caffeine/coffee/tea 4.9
Charcoal/barbecued food/burnt food 5.0
Equal/Sweet n' Low 2.2
Fats 14.6
Fried foods(s) 4.8
Junk food(s) 2.0
Meats/specific meats 15.5
Nitrates/nitrites/nitrosamines 1.4
Polyunsaturated fat *
Preservatives 3.4
Processed foods/refined foods 2.4
Saccharin 2.1
Saturated fat *
Smoking 7.2
Trans fat or trans fatty acids *
Other
Bread/carbohydrates 1.2
(High) cholesterol *
Dairy products 1.4
Dietary supplements *
Sugar/candy/sweets 1.2
Water 4.7
Unspecified 3.2
Everything/food 2.3
Fast food *
Fruits/vegetables 2.8
Not enough fiber *
Pesticides/insecticides 2.0
Pickled food *
Pollution *
Soda/carbonated drinks 1.7
[DON'T READ] DK/NS/RF 29.3

(v1)A3. Have you heard about any things people could eat or drink that might help PREVENT cancer? (n=1,087)

  Percent  
YES 80  
NO 18 [SKIP TO B1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO B1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO B1]

(v1)A4. What things could people eat or drink that might help PREVENT cancer? [DON'T READ LIST.] [PROBE ONLY ONCE: Are there any other things people eat or drink that might help prevent cancer?] (n=904)

  Percent
Antioxidants 6.5
Beta-carotene/Vitamin A 3.0
Dietary supplements 3.4
Fiber/roughage/whole grain cereals/bran 12.6
Fish/fish oil/omega 3 oil 7.0
Fruits/specific fruit 31.3
Fruit juice(s)/vegetable juice(s) 16.7
Poultry/chicken 1.2
Vegetables/specific vegetable(s) 66.2
Vitamin C/ascorbic acid 3.1
Vitamin E 2.4
Other
Aspirin *
Garlic *
Green tea/tea 2.3
Herbal/herbs *
Milk *
Natural/organic foods *
Soy/soy products *
Water 4.5
Wine 2.3
Avoid fatty foods *
Exercise *
Not smoking 1.3
Restrict alcohol *
Lean meat/less (red) meat 1.1
Low fat diet/good diet 1.4
Unspecified 5.5
[DON'T READ] DK/NS/RF 10.9

Section B. Dietary Management Practices (Diet Monitoring)

Now I'd like to ask you about your current diet.

(v1)B1. Do you try to keep track, on a daily basis, of the amount of calories, sodium, fat, or other nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, you eat? (n=1,374)

  Percent  
YES 32  
NO 68 [SKIP TO C1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO C1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO C1]

(v1)B2. How do you keep track of the amount of calories or specific nutrients you eat each day? Do you [READ AND ROTATE LIST] (n=459)

  Percent
YES NO DK/NS RF
a. Record amounts of foods eaten at each meal or each day 29 71 0 *
b. Follow a specific diet or eating plan 54 46 0 *
c. Read the nutrition label 92 8 * 0
d. Count the number of servings you eat from different food groups 57 42 * *

Section C. Dietary Management Practices (Cholesterol)

(v1)C1. Are you on a diet to lower blood cholesterol recommended by a doctor or other health professional? (n=1,374)

  Percent  
YES 18 [SKIP TO D1_1]
NO 81  
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *  
[DON'T READ] RF *  

(v1)C2.Which of these three statements best describes your feelings about your blood cholesterol level? (n=1,155)

  Percent
I am not especially concerned about it 59
I probably should try to lower it but I haven't really tried 20
I have been trying to reduce my blood cholesterol level 17
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 3
[DON'T READ] RF *

Section D. Fat and Cholesterol Knowledge

(Version 1 and Version 2 combined)

(v1+v2)D1_1. Have you heard about different kinds of fat, like saturated fat and polyunsaturated fat? (n=2,743)

  Percent  
YES 88  
NO 12 [SKIP TO E1_1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO E1_1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO E1_1]

(v1+v2)D1_2. Is saturated fat usually found in [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Vegetables and vegetable oils or 16
Animal products like meat and dairy products 71
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 13
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_3. Is polyunsaturated fat usually found in [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Vegetables and vegetable oils or 56
Animal products like meat and dairy products 21
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 22
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_4. Which kind of fat is higher in calories? [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Saturated fat, or 51
Polyunsaturated fat 6
Or, are they both the same 24
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 19
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_5. Which kind of fat is more likely to raise people's blood cholesterol level? [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Saturated fat, or 59
Polyunsaturated fat or 5
Both, or 24
Neither 2
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 10
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_6. If a fat or oil has been hydrogenated, has it become [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
More saturated, or 28
Less saturated 38
[DON'T READ] no change *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 32
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_7. If a food is labeled as containing only vegetable oil, would it be [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Low in saturated fat 39
High in saturated fat 10
Could it be either high or low in saturated fat 40
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 12
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_8. Have you heard of mono-unsaturated fat or oil? (n=2,523)

  Percent
YES 50
NO 49
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 1
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_9. Is cholesterol the same thing as [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Saturated fat, or 15
Polyunsaturated fat, or 1
Neither 59
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 25
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_10. Is cholesterol found in [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Vegetables and vegetable oils 2
Animal products like meat and dairy products, or 30
All foods containing fat or oil 59
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 9
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)D1_11. If a food is labeled cholesterol-free, is it also likely to be [READ] (n=2,523)

  Percent
Low in saturated fat 46
High in saturated fat, or 3
Could it be either high or low in saturated fat 40
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 11
[DON'T READ] RF *

Section E. Trans Fatty Acids and Hydrogenated Oils

(Version 1 and Version 2 combined)

(v1+v2)E1_1. Have you heard of trans fatty acids, also called trans fat? (n=2,743)

  Percent  
YES 34  
NO 65 [SKIP TO E1_4]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO E1_4]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO E1_4]

(v1+v2)E1_2. Do trans fatty acids raise blood cholesterol, lower blood cholesterol or have no effect on blood cholesterol? (n=1,069)

  Percent
Raise cholesterol 37
Lower cholesterol 18
Have no effect 8
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 37
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)E1_3. Are trans fatty acids often found in [R EAD] (n=1,069)

  Percent
YES NO DK/NS RF
a. Butter 45 23 32 *
b. Margarine 56 14 30 0
c. Vegetable cooking oils 37 24 38 *
d. Cookies and other baked foods sold in stores 61 9 30 *

(v1+v2)E1_4. Have you heard of hydrogenated oils or partially hydrogenated oils? (n=2,743)

  Percent  
YES 47  
NO 51 [SKIP TO F1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2 [SKIP TO F1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO F1]

(v1+v2)E1_5. Do hydrogenated oils or partially hydrogenated oils raise blood cholesterol, lower blood cholesterol or have no effect on blood cholesterol? (n=1,515)

  Percent
Raise cholesterol 39
Lower cholesterol 15
Have no effect 13
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 33
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1+v2)E1_6. Are hydrogenated oils or partially hydrogenated oils often found in [READ] (n=1,515)

  Percent
YES NO DK/NS RF
a. Butter 46 31 22 *
b. Margarine 71 8 21 *
c. Vegetable cooking oils 59 18 22 *
d. Cookies and other baked foods sold in stores 79 4 17 *

[VERSION 1 - GO TO SECTION F; VERSION 2 - SKIP TO SECTION M.]

Section F. Knowledge of Dietary Deficiencies

(v1)F1. Have you heard about any health problems that might be related to [READ AND ROTATE LIST] (n=1,374)

  Percent
YES NO DK/NS RF
a. Not eating enough calcium 84 15 * 0
b. Not eating enough antioxidant vitamins 45 50 5 *
c. Not eating enough fiber 76 23 * *
d. Not eating enough folic acid 54 42 4 *

[SKIP TO SECTION M.]

Version 2 (v2)

Section G. Awareness of Diet-Disease Relationship (Heart Disease)

First, let's focus on your opinions regarding diet and health issues.

(v2)G1. Have you heard anything about heart disease or heart attacks being related to things people eat or drink? (n=1,369)

  Percent  
YES 83  
NO 15 [SKIP TO H1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO H1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO H1]

(v2)G2. What things that people eat or drink might be related to heart disease or heart attacks? [DON'T READ LIST.] [PROBE ONLY ONCE: Are there any other things people eat or drink that might be related to heart disease or heart attacks?] (n=1,178)

  Percent
Alcohol 28.7
Caffeine/coffee/tea 5.8
Calories/eating too much/overweight 2.6
Cholesterol 27.0
Dairy products/milk/cheese 6.1
Eggs 5.8
Fats 53.0
Fried foods/greasy foods/oily foods 14.6
Junk food(s) 5.0
Meat/red meat/specific meat 19.6
Salt/salty foods/sodium 7.9
Saturated fat 4.5
Smoking 11.2
Sugar/sweet foods 6.6
Trans fat or trans fatty acids *
Other
Carbohydrates 1.8
Butter *
Drugs 1.1
No/lack of exercise *
Additives/preservatives *
Carbonated drinks *
Spicy/smoky food *
Bad diet *
Unspecified. 2.8
[DON'T READ] DK/NS/RF 5.3

(v2)G3. Have you heard about any things people could eat or drink that might help PREVENT heart disease or heart attacks? (n=1,178)

  Percent  
YES 81  
NO 17 [SKIP TO H1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO H1]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO H1]

(v2)G4. What things could people eat or drink that might help PREVENT heart disease or heart attacks? [DON'T READ LIST.] [PROBE ONLY ONCE: Are there any other things people eat or drink that might help prevent heart disease or heart attacks?] (n= 978)

  Percent
Dietary supplements 4.2
Fiber/roughage/whole grain cereals/bran 20.4
Fish 8.8
Fish oil/omega 3 oil 3.5
Fruits/specific fruit 35.9
Olive oil/monounsaturated fat/oils 2.8
Poultry/chicken 4.2
Red wine/wine 17.6
Vegetables/specific vegetable 48.6
Vegetable oils/polyunsaturated fat/oils 3.6
Other
Aspirin 8.8
Juices (fruit, vegetable) 6.3
Garlic 1.4
Green tea/tea *
Nuts 1.1
Soy/soy products 1.6
Vitamins 2.9
Water 4.6
Eat less/moderately *
Exercise 2.0
Health(y) foods. 1.7
Less/lean meat 3.5
Less fat/cholesterol 8.2
Less salt/sodium *
Medication *
Restrict alcohol. 1.7
Unspecified 7.0
[DON'T READ] DK/NS/RF 5.8

Section H. Awareness of Diet-Disease Relationship (High Blood Pressure)

(v2)H1. Have you heard anything about high blood pressure being related to things people eat or drink? (n=1,369)

  Percent  
YES 75  
NO 24 [SKIP TO J1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO J1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO J1]

(v2)H2. What things that people eat or drink might be related to high blood pressure? [DON'T READ LIST.] [PROBE ONLY ONCE: Are there any other things people eat or drink that might be related to high blood pressure?] (n=1,047)

  Percent
Alcohol 23.3
Caffeine/coffee 7.4
Calcium/milk/dairy products 2.5
Calories/eating too much/overweight 2.2
Cholesterol/eggs 7.8
Fats 23.8
Fried food(s) 5.9
Junk food(s) 3.0
Meats/specific meats. 13.4
Salt/salty foods/sodium 52.6
Saturated fat 1.3
Smoking 2.5
Sugar 5.6
Trans fat or trans fatty acids *
Other
Carbohydrates 1.3
Fast foods *
Greasy foods/fried foods 1.0
Processed/preservatives *
Carbonated drinks/soda. *
Spicy foods *
Stress 1.2
Unspecified 5.3
[DON'T READ] DK/NS/RF 7.3

Section J. Dietary Management Practices (Weight Control)

Now I'd like to ask you about your current diet.

(v2)J1. Are you on a reduced-calorie or weight-loss diet? (n=1,369)

  Percent  
YES 19  
NO 81 [SKIP TO J3]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO J3]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO J3]

(v2)J2. Did a doctor or other health professional advise you to lose weight? (n=279)

  Percent
YES 46
NO 54
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0
[DON'T READ] RF 0

(v2)J3. There are some food products specially made to have less fat; they're often labeled "low fat" or "fat free" or something like that. Have you ever seen any of these products or seen them in advertising? (n=1,369)

  Percent  
YES 93  
NO 7 [SKIP TO K1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO K1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO K1]

(v2)J4. Do you buy "low fat" or "fat free" foods regularly, only sometimes, hardly ever, or do you never buy these products? (n=1,295)

  Percent
REGULARLY 26
SOMETIMES 40
HARDLY EVER 17
NEVER 17
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Section K. Dietary Management Practices (Sodium)

(v2)K1. Are you on a low-salt or low-sodium diet recommended by a doctor or other health professional? (n=1,369)

  Percent  
YES 14 [SKIP TO K3]
NO 86  
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *  
[DON'T READ] RF 0  

(v2)K2. Which of these four statements best describes your own feelings about your salt or sodium consumption? [READ; ACCEPT ONLY ONE ANSWER.] (n=1,185)

  Percent
a. I don't think I personally have any need to worry about my sodium consumption 46
b. I think I probably should reduce it, but I haven't really tried 23
c. I have been trying to reduce my sodium consumption, but not very successfully 6
d. I have reduced my sodium consumption quite a bit 22
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 3
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v2)K3. There are some food products specially made to have less sodium; they're often labeled "low sodium" or "salt free" or something like that. Have you ever seen any of these products or seen them in advertising? (n=1,369)

  Percent  
YES 88  
NO 12 [SKIP TO D2_1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO D2_1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO D2_1]

(v2)K4. Do you buy "low salt" or "low sodium" foods regularly, only sometimes, hardly ever, or do you never buy these products? (n=1,244)

  Percent
REGULARLY 15
SOMETIMES 33
HARDLY EVER 24
NEVER 27
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

[GO TO SECTION D.]

(There was no Section L.)

(All Respondents)

Section M. Use of Food Labels

M1. Next, I'd like you to think about the labels on many food products that list ingredients and provide nutrition and other information.When you buy a product for the FIRST TIME, how often do you read this information? Would you say [READ] (n=2,743)

  Percent  
OFTEN 44  
SOMETIMES 25  
RARELY, OR 13  
NEVER 18 [SKIP TO N1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO N1]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO N1]

M2. People tell us they use food product labels in many different ways. When you look at food labels, either in the store or at home, how often, if at all, do you use the labels in the following ways? Would you say you often, sometimes, rarely or never use the label [READ AND ROTATE LIST] (n=2,357)

  Percent
OFTEN SOMETIMES RARELY NEVER DK/NS RF
a. To help you decide which brand of a particular food item to buy 44 32 14 11 * *
b. To figure out how much of the food product you or your family should eat 30 28 21 20 * *
c. To compare different food items with each other 45 31 14 10 * *
d. To see if something said in advertising or on the package is actually true 32 33 19 15 * *
e. To get a general idea of the nutritional content of the food 48 33 12 7 * *
f. To see how high or low the food is in things like calories, salt, vitamins, or fat 59 27 9 5 * *
g. To help you in meal planning 28 29 20 22 * *
h. To see if there is an ingredient that you or someone in your family should avoid 47 21 15 17 * *

M3. In the last TWO WEEKS, can you remember an instance where your decision to buy or use a food product was changed because you read the nutrition label? (n=2,357)

  Percent
YES 51
NO 48
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Section N. Prevalence of Supplement Use in the Past 12 Months

(All Respondents)

Now please think about dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other supplements that you may take in addition to your regular diet. [PAUSE.]

N1. First, have you taken a multi-vitamin or multi-mineral supplement in the past 12 months, that is, since (month) 2001? [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN THESE PRODUCTS ARE THINGS LIKE ONE-A-DAY, MEGA-VITAMIN, CENTRUM A-TO-ZINC, AND OTHER PRODUCTS THAT CONTAIN A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND MAY ALSO CONTAIN OTHER THINGS AS WELL.] (n=2,743)

  Percent
YES 62
NO 38
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

N2. And in the past 12 months, have you taken a specialized or single-ingredient vitamin or mineral supplement such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, iron, or calcium? [EXCLUDE: VITAMINS AND MINERALS ADDED TO FOODS OR BEVERAGES - EXAMPLE: VITAMIN-D IN FORTIFIED MILK AND VITAMIN-C IN FORTIFIED ORANGE JU ICE. INCLUDE: (1) SINGLE-INGREDIENT PRODUCTS THAT COME WITH AUXILIARY INGREDIENTS - EXAMPLE: A SUPPLEMENT SOLD AS A CALCIUM BUT ALSO INCLUDES MAGNESIUM, COPPER, AND A FEW OTHER THINGS; (2) PRODUCTS LIKE "CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM-ZINC" WHICH ALSO CONTAINS A FEW OTHER THINGS; (3) VITAMIN B-COMPLEX; (4) CALCIUM ANTACID, IF TAKEN FOR THE CALCIUM.IF RESPONDENT IS NOT SURE WHETHER THE PRODUCT(S) HE OR SHE TOOK IS CONSIDERED A VITAMIN OR MINERAL SUPPLEMENT, USE THE CHECKLIST IN THE APPENDIX TO HELP HIM OR HER IDENTIFY THE KIND OF SUPPLEMENT.]

[IF ANSWER IS NOT CLEARLY A SUPPLEMENT AND SOUNDS LIKE IT MAY BE AN INGREDIEN T IN FOOD, ASK "Is that in your food or is it taken separately as a supplement?"] (n=2,743)

  Percent
YES 56
NO 44
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

N3. Have you taken any kind of herbs, botanicals, or other dietary supplements in the past 12 months, that is, since (month) 2001? We are talking about things such as garlic pills, echinacea, ginkgo, glucosamine, St. John's wort, amino acids, or fish oil. [INCLUDE: SINGLE-INGREDIENT PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTS WITH MORE THAN ONE KIND OF SUPPLEMENT MIXED TOGETHER. INCLUDE: GINSENG TEA AND OTHER HERBAL TEAS TAKEN MAINLY FOR HEALTH PURPOSES. EXCLUDE: FRESH GARLIC, FRESH GINSENG, GINSENG ROOT, AND HERBS USED TO FLAVOR FOODS IN COOKING SUCH AS GARLIC FOR SPAGHETTI SAUCE OR PEPPERMINT FOR TEA. EXCLUDE: SUPPLEMENTS THAT ARE NOT TAKEN BY MOUTH, SUCH AS VITAMIN E OR ALOE USED ON SKIN. PRODUCTS MAY BE IN THE FORM OF TABLET, CAPSULE, PILL, EXTRACT, GRANULE, LOZENGE, SYRUP, TEA, TINCTURE, OR IN THEIR NATURAL FORM SUCH AS ROOT AND LEAF. IF RESPONDENT IS NOT SURE WHETHER THE PRODUCT(S) HE OR SHE TOOK IS CONSIDERED A HERBAL SUPPLEMENT, USE THE CHECKLIST IN THE APPENDIX TO HELP HIM OR HER IDENTIFY THE KIND OF SUPPLEMENT.]

[IF ANSWER IS NOT CLEARLY A SUPPLEMENT AND SOUNDS LIKE IT MAY BE AN INGREDIENT IN FOOD, ASK "Is that in your food or is it taken separately as a supplement?"] (n=2,743)

  Percent  
YES 30  
NO 69 [IF N1 OR N2=YES, SKIP TO P1 or P4; IF N1=N2=N3=NO/DK/NS/RF, SKIP TO T1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [IF N1 OR N2=YES, SKIP TO P1 or P4; IF N1=N2=N3=NO/DK/NS/RF, SKIP TO T1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [IF A1 OR A2=YES, SKIP TO P1 or P4; IF N1=N2=N3=NO/DK/NS/RF, SKIP TO T1]

N4. What herbs, botanicals, or other dietary supplements have you taken in the past 12 months? I can write up to five. [DON'T READ LIST. RECORD UP TO FIVE RESPONSES; RECORD FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD MENTIONS.] [REMIND, IF NECESSARY, "We'd like to know the herbs, botanicals, or dietary supplements other than a vitamin or mineral you have taken in the past 12 months. "REPEAT, IF NECESSARY, PRODUCT DEFINITION IN N3. IF RESPONDENT HAS DIFFICULTY DECIDING WHAT TO REPORT, ASK FOR THE FIVE SUPPLEMENTS TAKEN MOST REGULARLY IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS.] [ASK FOR SPELLING, IF NECESSARY.] [PROBE ONLY ONCE.] (n=888)

  Percent
Acidophilus, bacteria, or other probiotics supplements 0.45
Alpha-Lipoic acid 0.34
Amino acid(s)
  [Isoleucine, Leucine, L-Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalaine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine]
3.39
Androstenedione or Andro 0.25
Antioxidant(s), antioxidant amino acid(s), antioxidant vitamins 0.85
Bee pollen, propolis, or royal jelly 0.85
Black cohosh 1.09
Blue green algae, wheat grass, or other green food supplements 0.07
Calcium 9.40
Cayenne or capsicum 0.75
Chloride 0.15
Choline 0.10
Chromium 0.72
Cobalt 0.07
Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10 0.81
Copper 0.11
Creatine 2.15
DHEA 0.65
Echinacea 19.48
Ephedra or Ma-Huang 2.16
Evening primrose oil 0.77
Feverfew 0.16
Fish oil or Omega 3 oil 7.48
Flaxseed oil 1.72
5 HTP 0.05
Floride 0.07
Folate/folic acid/vitamin B9 1.75
Garlic (not as food) 16.62
Germanium 0.82
Ginger (not as food) 1.38
Ginkgo or ginkgo biloba 14.64
Ginseng (including tea taken mainly for health) 11.73
Glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine and chondroitin 10.92
Goldenseal 2.28
Mixed herbal products or herbal/botanical combinations 5.32
Herbal teas 4.69
Homeopathics 0.22
Iron 1.86
Kava (or Kava kava) 1.48
Lecithin 1.12
Lycopene 1.16
Magnesium 1.49
Manganese 0.26
Melatonin 0.86
Milk thistle 1.60
MSM or methylsulfonylmethane 4.26
Multi-mineral or multi-vitamin/multi-mineral 6.71
Phosphorus 0.57
Potassium 1.19
Probiotics 0.07
Red yeast 0.46
Saw palmetto 1.85
Selenium 0.75
Shark cartilage 0.14
Soy extract or isoflavones 1.09
St. John's wort. 6.52
Valerian 0.66
Vitamins (specialized or single-ingredient) 14.21
Wild yam 0.18
Weight loss/control formula 0.45
Zinc 2.52
Other Aloe 0.49
Billberry 0.56
Chamomile 0.45
Cat's claw 0.75
Chondroitin 0.68
Cranberry 0.67
Enzymes 0.07
Fiber (caplets/pills/etc) 0.49
Grape seed (extract) 0.75
Leutine 0.46
"Metabolife" 0.89
Non-specified 16.07
[DON'T READ] DK/NS/RF 5.95

(There was no Section O.)

Section P. Doctor's Knowledge of Supplement Use

[IF N1, N2, OR N3 = YES, AND VERSION 1]

(v1)P1. On a slightly different subject, have you taken any prescription drug in the past 12 months? (n=1,048)

  Percent  
YES 73  
NO 27 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]

(v1)P2. While you took the prescription drug, did you also take a dietary supplement? (n=788)

  Percent  
YES 59  
NO 41 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]

(v1)P3. Did you discuss taking both products with your doctor or other healthcare professional? ["BOTH PRODUCTS" MEANS THE PRESCRIPTION DRUG AND THE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT.] [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL ARE PEOPLE LIKE A MEDICAL DOCTOR, A PHYSICIAN'S ASSISTANT, A DENTIST, A PSYCHIATRIST, A PHARMACIST, OR A REGISTERED NURSE.] (n=472)

  Percent  
YES 65 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
NO 34 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]

[IF N1, N2, OR N3 = YES, AND VERSION 2]

(v2)P4. In the past 12 months, have you taken a dietary supplement to treat or prevent a health problem or condition instead of taking a prescription drug? (n=1,053)

  Percent  
YES 21  
NO 79 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]

(v2)P5. Did you discuss the substitution with your doctor or healthcare professional? [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL ARE PEOPLE LIKE A MEDICAL DOCTOR, A PHYSICIAN'S ASSISTANT, A DENTIST, A PSYCHIATRIST, A PHARMACIST, OR A REGISTERED NURSE.] (n=238)

  Percent  
YES 51 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
NO 48 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO Q1 OR Q16]

[IF (N1=Y OR N2=Y) BUT N3=NO/DK/NS/RF, GO TO Q1. IF N3=YES, SKIP TO Q16.]

Section Q. Sources of Information and Perceptions of Dietary Supplements Labels

(Two sets of questions, one for vitamin/mineral users (Q1 - Q15) and the other for users of herbs, botanicals, and other supplements (Q16 - Q30)).

Q1. Before you try a vitamin or mineral supplement for the first time, do you usually, sometimes, hardly ever, or do you never look for information about the supplement? (n=1,213)

  Percent  
Usually 57  
Sometimes 19  
Hardly Ever 7  
Never 15 [SKIP TO Q3]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO Q3]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO Q3]

Q2. Please tell me whether you personally get a lot, a little, or no information about vitamin or mineral supplements from each of the following. [READ AND ROTATE LIST. RECORD START. KEEP A AND B TOGETHER AND DON'T CHANGE THEIR ORDER.] (n=1,021)

  Percent
A Lot A little no info DK/NS RF
a. An alternative medicine practitioner like a nutrition therapist or a herbal therapist [ALSO INCLUDES: PRACTITIONER/THERAPIST OF ACUPUNCTURE, BIOFEEDBACK, CHIROPRACTIC, CHELATION THERAPY, ENERGY HEALING/REIKI, FOLK MEDICINE, HYPNOSIS, HERBAL THERAPY, HOMEOPATHY, MASSAGE, NATUROPATHY, NUTRITION THERAPY, OSTEOPATHY.] 11 22 66 * *
b. A medical doctor, physician's assistant, registered nurse, or dietitian 31 44 24 * *
c. Family or friends 22 50 28 * *
d. A sales person at a store 7 29 63 * *
e. Newspapers, magazines, books, or medical articles 27 49 23 * *
f. Television or radio 11 54 35 * *
g. The Internet 11 20 69 * 0
h. Product labels 38 47 14 * *

Q3. Now, let's talk about the labels on vitamin and mineral products. Do you yourself use these labels to find out [READ AND ROTATE LIST. RECORD START.] [LABELS INCLUDE LABELS ON THE BOTTLES/PACKAGES AND PACKAGE INSERTS.] (n=1,213)

  Percent
YES NO Info not on label DK/NS RF
a. What ingredients are in the product 75 25 * * 0
b. The amounts of specific ingredients in the product 70 30 * * *
c. What the product is for 78 22 * * 0
d. If there are side effects or drug interactions from using the product 73 27 * * 0
e. If anyone should avoid the product 69 30 * * *
f. How different brands of a supplement compare to each other 62 37 * * *

Q4. Thinking about the information you see on these labels, how easy is it to understand the label information about ingredients. Would you say very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult? (n=1,213)

  Percent
Very easy 21
Somewhat easy 44
Somewhat difficult 25
Very difficult 7
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q5. How useful is the label information about ingredients to you? Would you say very useful, somewhat useful, not too useful, or not at all useful? (n=1,213)

  Percent
Very useful 34
Somewhat useful 52
Not too useful 8
Not at all useful 4
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q6. In addition to ingredients, the vitamin and mineral labels may have information about health benefits. Have you ever seen any information about health benefits on these labels? (n=1,213)

  Percent  
YES 51  
NO 47 [SKIP TO Q9]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2 [SKIP TO Q9]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO Q9]

Q7. How easy is it to understand the label information about health benefits? Would you say very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult? (n=636)

  Percent
Very easy 26
Somewhat easy 57
Somewhat difficult 14
Very difficult 2
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q8. How useful is the label information about health benefits? Would you say very useful, somewhat useful, not too useful, or not at all useful? (n=636)

  Percent
Very useful 27
Somewhat useful 62
Not too useful 8
Not at all useful 2
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q9. Have you ever seen any information on vitamin and mineral labels about health risks such as side effects, adverse reactions, interactions with medications, or who should be careful about taking a product? (n=1,213)

  Percent  
YES 62  
NO 37 [SKIP TO Q12]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO Q12]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO Q12]

Q10. How easy is it to understand the label information about health risks? Would you say very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult? (n=748)

  Percent
Very easy 38
Somewhat easy 46
Somewhat difficult 12
Very difficult 2
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q11. How useful is the label information about health risks? Would you say very useful, somewhat useful, not too useful, or not at all useful? (n=748)

  Percent
Very useful 42
Somewhat useful 50
Not too useful 6
Not at all useful *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 0

Q12. Now, compare the labels on vitamin and mineral supplements with the labels on foods. In general, which labels are easier to understand, [ROTATE: dietary supplement labels, food labels], or are they the same? (n=1,213)

  Percent
Dietary supplement labels are easier to understand 15
Food label labels are easier to understand 35
They are the same 45
[DON'T READ] Both are easy to understand *
[DON'T READ] Both are difficult to understand *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 5
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q13. In general, which labels do a better job providing the information you need to make decisions, [READ AND ROTATE IN THE SAME ORDER AS IN Q12: the dietary supplement labels, the food labels], or are they the same? (n=1,213)

  Percent
Dietary supplement labels do a better job 17
Food labels do a better job 36
They are the same 43
[DON'T READ] Both do a good job *
[DON'T READ] Neither does a good job *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 4
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q14. Now compare the labels on vitamin and mineral supplements with the labels on over-the-counter drugs. In general, which labels are easier to understand, [ROTATE: dietary supplement labels, over-the-counter drug labels], or are they the same? (n=1,213)

  Percent
Dietary supplement labels are easier to understand 16
Over-the-counter drug labels are easier to understand 25
They are the same 53
[DON'T READ: both are easy to understand] 0
[DON'T READ: both are difficult to understand] 0
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 6
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q15. In general, which labels do a better job of providing the information you need to make decisions, [READ AND ROTATE IN THE SAME ORDER AS IN Q14: the dietary supplement labels, the over-the-counter drug labels], or are they the same? (n=1,213)

  Percent  
Dietary supplement labels do a better job 11 [SKIP TO R1]
Over-the-counter drug labels do a better job 30 [SKIP TO R1]
They are the same 52 [SKIP TO R1]
[DON'T READ] Both do a good job * [SKIP TO R1]
[DON'T READ] Neither does a good job * [SKIP TO R1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 7 [SKIP TO R1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO R1]

[ASK Q16 IF N3=YES.]

Q16. Before you try an herb, botanical, or other dietary supplement for the first time, do you usually, sometimes, hardly ever, or do you never look for information about the supplement? [IF NECESSARY, REMIND RESPONDENT THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THINGS LIKE GARLIC PILLS, GLUCOSAMINE, ST.JOHN'S WORT, AMINO ACIDS, AND FISH OIL.] (n=888)

  Percent  
Usually 71  
Sometimes 16  
Hardly ever 5  
Never 8 [SKIP TO Q18]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO Q18]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO Q18]

Q17. Please tell me whether you yourself get a lot, a little, or no information about herbs, botanicals, or other dietary supplements from each of the following. [READ AND ROTATE LIST. RECORD START. KEEP A AND B TOGETHER AND DON'T CHANGE THEIR ORDER.] (n=831)

  Percent
A lot A little No info DK/NS RF
a. An alternative medicine practitioner like an herbal or chiropractic therapist [ALSO INCLUDES: PRACTITIONER/THERAPIST OF ACUPUNCTURE, BIOFEEDBACK, CHELATION THERAPY, ENERGY HEALING/REIKI, FOLK MEDICINE, HYPNOSIS, HOMEOPATHY, MASSAGE, NATUROPATHY, NUTRITION THERAPY, OSTEOPATHY.] 11 25 65 * *
b. A medical doctor, physician's assistant, registered nurse, or dietitian 18 44 37 * 0
c. Family or friends 25 57 18 * 0
d. A sales person at a store 8 36 55 * 0
e. Newspapers, magazines, books, or medical articles 38 46 15 0 0
f. Television or radio 9 50 41 0 *
g. The Internet 20 30 49 * 0
h. Product labels 26 57 15 * *

Q18. Now, let's talk about the labels on herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplement products. Do you yourself use these labels to find out [READ AND ROTATE LIST. RECORD START.] (n=888)

  Percent
YES NO Info not on label DK/NS RF
a. What ingredients are in the product 88 12 * * 0
b. The amounts of specific ingredients in the product 81 19 * * *
c. What the product is for 83 16 * * *
d. If there are side effects or drug interactions from using the product 82 16 2 * *
e. If anyone should avoid the product 80 19 * * 0
f. How different brands of a supplement compare to each other 71 29 * * *

Q19. Thinking about the information you see on these labels. How easy is it to understand the label information about ingredients? Would you say very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult? (n=888)

  Percent
Very easy 21
Somewhat easy 48
Somewhat difficult 25
Very difficult 5
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q20. How useful is the label information about ingredients to you? Would you say very useful, somewhat useful, not too useful, or not at all useful? (n=888)

  Percent
Very useful 34
Somewhat useful 54
Not too useful 9
Not at all useful 3
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q21. In addition to ingredients, the labels on herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements may have information about health benefits. Have you ever seen any information about health benefits on these labels? (n=888)

  Percent  
Yes 67  
No 31 [SKIP TO Q24]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2 [SKIP TO Q24]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO Q24]

Q22. How easy is it to understand the label information about health benefits? Would you say very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult? (n=591)

  Percent
Very easy 32
Somewhat easy 50
Somewhat difficult 16
Very difficult 2
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 0

Q23. How useful is the label information about health benefits? Would you say very useful, somewhat useful, not too useful, or not at all useful? (n=591)

  Percent
Very useful 30
Somewhat useful 61
Not too useful 6
Not at all useful 2
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 0

Q24. Have you ever seen any information on labels of herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements about health risks such as side effects, adverse reactions, interactions with medications, or who should be careful about taking a product? (n=888)

  Percent  
Yes 70  
No 29 [SKIP TO Q27]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2 [SKIP TO Q27]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO Q27]

Q25. How easy is it to understand the label information about health risks? Would you say very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult? (n=608)

  Percent
Very easy 43
Somewhat easy 42
Somewhat difficult 13
Very difficult *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q26. How useful is the label information about health risks? Would you say very useful, somewhat useful, not too useful, or not at all useful? (n=608)

  Percent
Very useful 46
Somewhat useful 47
Not too useful 5
Not at all useful *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q27. Now compare the labels on herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements with the labels on foods. In general, which labels are easier to understand, [ROTATE: dietary supplements labels, food labels], or are they the same? (n=888)

  Percent
Dietary supplement labels are easier to understand 20
Food labels are easier to understand 34
They are the same 43
[DON'T READ] Both are easy to understand *
[DON'T READ] Both are difficult to understand *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 3
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q28. In general, which labels do a better job providing the information you need to make decisions, [READ AND ROTATE IN THE SAME ORDER AS IN Q27: the dietary supplement labels, the food labels], or are they the same? (n=888)

  Percent
Dietary supplement labels do a better job 26
Food labels do a better job 35
They are the same 37
[DON'T READ] Both do a good job *
[DON'T READ] Neither does a good job *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q29. Now compare the labels on herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements with the labels on over-the-counter drugs. In general, which labels are easier to understand, [ROTATE: dietary supplement labels, over-the-counter drug labels], or are they the same? (n=888)

  Percent
Dietary supplement labels are easier to understand 18
Over-the-counter drug labels are easier to understand 29
They are the same 48
[DON'T READ] Both are easy to understand *
[DON'T READ] Both are difficult to understand *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 4
[DON'T READ] RF *

Q30. In general, which labels do a better job providing the information you need to make decisions, [READ AND ROTATE IN THE SAME ORDER AS IN Q29: the labels on supplements, the labels on over-the-counter drugs], or are they the same? (n=888)

  Percent  
Dietary supplement labels do a better job 17 [SKIP TO R4]
Over-the-counter drug labels do a better job 31 [SKIP TO R4]
They are the same 49 [SKIP TO R4]
[DON'T READ] Both do a good job * [SKIP TO R4]
[DON'T READ] Neither does a good job * [SKIP TO R4]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 3 [SKIP TO R4]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO R4]

Section R. Perceptions and Knowledge of Dietary Supplements

(R1 - R3: Vitamin/Mineral Supplement Users)

R1. For each of the following, please tell me if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with the statement. [READ AND ROTATE LIST. RECORD START.] (n=1,213)

  Percent
strongly agree somewhat agree somewhat disagree strongly disagree DK/ RF
a. A good reason for me to take vitamin or mineral supplements is to prevent illnesses 46 40 7 6 * *
b. A good reason for me to take vitamin or mineral supplement is to treat illness 24 38 22 14 2 *
c. It is important to educate myself about vitamin and mineral supplements before I try them 70 25 2 2 * *
d. I try to pay attention to possible side effects
or drug interactions when I take vitamin or mineral supplements
64 24 5 4 2 *

R2. As far as you know, does the government set manufacturing standards for vitamin and mineral supplements? (n=1,213)

  Percent
Yes 57
No 30
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 13
[DON'T READ] RF *

R3. As far as you know, does the government approve vitamin and mineral supplements before they are marketed to consumers? (n=1,213)

  Percent  
Yes 55 [SKIP TO S1]
No 32 [SKIP TO S1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 12 [SKIP TO S1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO S1]

(R4 - R6: Users of Herbs, Botanicals, or Other Dietary Supplements)

R4. For each of the following, please tell me if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with the statement. [READ AND ROTATE LIST. RECORD START.] (n=888)

  Percent
strongly agree somewhat agree somewhat disagree strongly disagree DK/ NS RF
a. A good reason for me to take herbs, botanicals, or other supplements is to prevent illnesses 57 33 5 3 * *
b. A good reason for me to take herbs, botanicals, or other supplement is to treat illnesses 33 41 15 9 * *
c. It is important to educate myself about herbs, botanicals, or other supplements before I try them 80 17 2 * * *
d. I try to pay attention to possible side effects or drug interactions when I take herbs, botanicals, or other supplements 71 21 6 * * *

R5. As far as you know, does the government set manufacturing standards for herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements? (n=888)

  Percent
Yes 40
No 51
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 9
[DON'T READ] RF *

R6. As far as you know, does the government approve herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements before they are marketed to consumers? (n=888)

  Percent  
Yes 35 [GO TO S1]
No 56 [GO TO S1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 9 [GO TO S1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [GO TO S1]

Section S. Adverse Experience with Dietary Supplements

(All Supplement Users: N1, N2 OR N3=1)

S1. In the past 12 months, that is, since (month) 2001, have you experienced any health problem that you thought might be related to any dietary supplements you took? (n=2,101)

  Percent  
Yes 4  
No 95 [SKIP TO U1 (Version 1) or U6 (Version 2)]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO U1 (V1) or U6 (V2)]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO U1 (V1) or U6 (V2)]

S2. The last time you had such a problem, what were the major symptoms of the problem? [ACCEPT UP TO THREE ANSWERS.] (n=87)

  Percent of all mentions
Heart problems/chest pain 12.5
Abdominal pain 8.4
Headache 7.7
Rashes 6.7
Allergy/reaction 6.0
Nausea 5.1
Blood pressure problems 4.7
Diarrhea 4.5
Cramping/muscle aches 4.4
Sleep problems 2.8
Dizziness/fainting 3.1
Itching 1.5
Anxiety/nervousness 1.4
Drowsiness 1.2
Vomiting *
Other symptoms (unspecified) 29.7
  Percent of all respondents
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0
[DON'T READ] RF *

S3. What supplements did you think were related to your problem? [ACCEPT UP TO THREE ANSWERS.] (n=87)

  Percent of all mentions
Multi-vitamins 13.3
"Xenadrine" 6.7
Unspecified vitamins/minerals 5.4
Iron 5.1
Ginko Biloba 4.6
Vitamin C 4.6
Calcium 3.6
"Metabolife" 3.4
Vitamin E 2.7
Ginseng 2.7
"Phen Phen" 2.5
St. John's wort 2.3
Vitamin B 2.1
Other supplements 41.0
  Percent of all respondents
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 1.2
[DON'T READ] RF 1.9

S4. What did you do about your problem? Did you [READ AND ROTATE LIST] (n=87)

  Percent
YES NO DK/NS RF
a. Stop taking the supplements 90 8 * *
b. See a doctor 48 52 0 0
c. Complain to the manufacturer or the store
where you bought the supplements
9 92 0 0
d. Report to any health authorities
[IF YES, ASK S5;OTHERWISE, SKIP TO S6.]
25 75 0 0
e. Go to an emergency room 12 88 0 0

S5. Did you report your problem to [READ AND ROTATE LIST] (n=21)

  Percent
YES NO DK/NS RF
a. The Food and Drug Administration 0 100 0 0
b. The CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 0 100 0 0
c. A health department or poison control center 0 100 0 0
d. Your doctor 90 10 0 0

S6. Did a doctor say the problem was related to dietary supplements? (n=87)

  Percent  
Yes 42 [SKIP TO U1(Version 1) OR U6(Version 2)]
No 53 [SKIP TO U1(Version 1) OR U6(Version 2)]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 4 [SKIP TO U1(Version 1) OR U6(Version 2)]
[DON'T READ] RF 1 [SKIP TO U1(Version 1) OR U6(Version 2)]

Section T. Supplement Non-User Information

(Supplement non-users: if N1, N2, and N3 = NO/DK/RF)

T1. You said that you had not taken a dietary supplement in the past 12 months. Have you taken any dietary supplement in the past 5 years? [IF NECESSARY, REMIND RESPONDENTS THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THINGS LIKE MULTI-VITAMINS, VITAMIN C, IRON, CALCIUM, ECHINACEA, ST. JOHN'S WORT, AMINO ACID, AND FISH OIL.] (n=642)

  Percent  
Yes 23  
No 75 [SKIP TO T5(Version 1) or T8(Version 2)]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2 [SKIP TO T5(Version 1) or T8(Version 2)]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO T5(Version 1) or T8(Version 2)]

T2. In the past 5 years, have you taken any multi-vitamin or multi-mineral supplement? [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN THESE PRODUCTS ARE THINGS LIKE ONE-A-DAY, MEGA-VITAMIN, AND OTHER PRODUCTS THAT CONTAIN A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND MAY ALSO CONTAIN OTHER THINGS AS WELL.] (n=165)

  Percent
Yes 70
No 30
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0
[DON'T READ] RF 0

T3. In the past 5 years, have you taken any specialized or single-ingredient vitamin or mineral such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, iron, calcium? [EXCLUDE: VITAMINS AND MINERALS ADDED TO FOODS OR BEVERAGES - EXAMPLE: VITAMIN-D IN FORTIFIED MILK AND VITAMIN-C IN FORTIFIED ORANGE JUICE. INCLUDE: (1) SINGLE-INGREDIENT PRODUCTS THAT COME WITH AUXILIARY INGREDIENTS - EXAMPLE: A SUPPLEMENT SOLD AS A CALCIUM BUT ALSO INCLUDES MAGNESIUM, COPPER, AND A FEW OTHER THINGS; (2) PRODUCTS LIKE "CALCIUM-MAGNESIUM-ZINC" WHICH ALSO CONTAINS A FEW OTHER THINGS; (3) VITAMIN B-COMPLEX; (4) CALCIUM ANTACID, IF TAKEN FOR THE CALCIUM. IF RESPONDENT IS NOT SURE WHETHER THE PRODUCT(S) HE OR SHE TOOK IS CONSIDERED A VITAMIN OR MINERAL SUPPLEMENT, USE THE CHECKLIST IN THE APPENDIX TO HELP HIM OR HER IDENTIFY THE KIND OF SUPPLEMENT.] (n=165)

  Percent
Yes 55
No 44
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 0

T4. In the past 5 years, have you taken any other kinds of dietary supplements? [IF NECESSARY, REMIND RESPONDENTS THAT WE ARE TALKING ABOUT THINGS LIKE ECHINACEA, ST. JOHN'S WORT, AMINO ACID, AND FISH OIL.] (n=165)

  Percent  
Yes 28 [GO TO T5 (Version 1) OR T8 (Version 2)]
No 72 [GO TO T5 (Version 1) OR T8 (Version 2)]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0 [GO TO T5 (Version 1) OR T8 (Version 2)]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [GO TO T5 (Version 1) OR T8 (Version 2)]

(v.1 and Supplement Non-Users)

(v1)T5. For each of the following, please tell me if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with the statement? [READ AND ROTATE LIST.] (n=326)

  Percent
Strongly agree somewhat agree somewhat disagree strongly disagree DK/NS RF
a. I can get everything I need from the food I eat 40 30 21 6 2 *
b. Vitamin and mineral supplements cost too much 38 26 9 7 20 *
c. I am not sure what vitamin or mineral supplements can do for me 26 34 19 12 8 *
d. I am concerned about the safety of vitamin and mineral supplements 34 26 16 19 4 *

(v1)T6. As far as you know, does the government set manufacturing standards for vitamin and mineral supplements? (n=326)

  Percent
Yes 43
No 28
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 29
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v1)T7. As far as you know, does the government approve vitamin and mineral supplements before they are marketed to consumers? (n=326)

  Percent  
Yes 52 [SKIP TO U1]
No 28 [SKIP TO U1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 21 [SKIP TO U1]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO U1]

(v. 2 and Supplement Non-users)

(v2)T8. For each of the following, please tell me if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with the statement? [READ AND ROTATE LIST.] (n=316)

  Percent
Strongly agree somewhat agree somewhat disagree strongly disagree DK/NS RF
a. I can get everything I need from the food I eat 48 30 12 8 2 *
b. Herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements cost too much 34 30 13 3 19 *
c. I am not sure what herbs, botanicals, or other dietary supplements can do for me 32 34 10 11 12 *
d. I am concerned about the safety of herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements 28 36 16 15 5 *

(v2)T9. As far as you know, does the government set manufacturing standards for herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements? (n=316)

  Percent
Yes 30
No 49
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 19
[DON'T READ] RF *

(v2)T10. As far as you know, does the government approve herbs, botanicals, and other dietary supplements before they are marketed to consumers? (n=316)

  Percent  
Yes 37 [SKIP TO U6]
No 46 [SKIP TO U6]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 16 [SKIP TO U6]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO U6]

Section U. Children's and Teenagers' Use of Dietary Supplements

(2 versions - Version 1 about children 1-12 years old and Version 2 about teenagers 13-17 years old.)

(version 1)

(v1)U1. Now, I have a few more questions about dietary supplements. Are there any children from 1 to 12 years old in this household? (n=1,374)

  Percent  
Yes 32  
No 67 [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO V1]

(v1)U2. In the past 12 months, that is, since (month) 2001, has any child in this household taken any kind of dietary supplement? [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN THAT WE ARE NOT TALKING ABOUT THINGS LIKE VITAMIN A IN CARROTS OR VITAMIN C ADDED TO ORANGE JUICES.] (n=401)

  Percent  
Yes 31  
No 69 [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO V1]

(v1)U3. Did the child or children take any multi-vitamin or multi-mineral? (n=145)

  Percent
Yes 94
No 6
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 0

(v1)U4. Did the child or children take any dietary supplement other than a multi-vitamin or multi-mineral? (n=145)

  Percent
Yes 29
No 71
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0
[DON'T READ] RF 0

(v1)U5. Were any of the dietary supplements taken to prevent or treat a specific health problem or condition? (n=145)

  Percent  
Yes 25 [SKIP TO V1]
No 74 [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] RF 0 [SKIP TO V1]

(version 2)

(v2)U6. Now, I have a few more questions about dietary supplements. Is any member in your household aged 13 to 17 years old? (n=1,369)

  Percent  
Yes 20  
No 79 [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0 [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO V1]

(v2)U7. In the past 12 months, that is, since (month) 2001, has any teenager taken a dietary supplement? Please do not include the vitamins, minerals, or herbs that come in foods or drinks. [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN THAT WE ARE NOT TALKING ABOUT THINGS LIKE VITAMIN A IN CARROTS OR VITAMIN C IN ORANGE JUICES.] (n=236)

  Percent  
Yes 20  
No 80 [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS * [SKIP TO V1]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO V1]

(v2)U8. Did the teenager or teenagers take any multi-vitamin or multi-mineral? (n=61)

  Percent
Yes 83
No 15
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 3
[DON'T READ] RF 0

(v2)U9. Did the teenager or teenagers take any dietary supplement other than a multi-vitamin or multi-mineral? (n=61)

  Percent
Yes 43
No 54
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 3
[DON'T READ] RF 0

(v2)U10. Were any of the dietary supplements taken to prevent or treat a specific health problem or condition? (n=61)

  Percent
Yes 36
No 62
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 3
[DON'T READ] RF 0

(All respondents)

Section V. Demographics and Health Status

Finally, I have a few more questions for statistical purposes.

V1. Are there any telephone numbers in addition to (the telephone number being called) in your home that you receive calls on? [EXCLUDING NUMBERS USED ONLY FOR FAX OR COMPUTER, OR CELLULAR PHONE NUMBERS.] (n=2,743)

  Percent  
Yes 9  
No 89 [SKIP TO V3]
[DON'T READ] RF * [SKIP TO V3]
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 2 [SKIP TO V3]

V2. Is this/Are these number(s) for (n=401)

  Percent
Home use 52
Business and home use 26
Business use only  20
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

V3. How many people live in your household who are 18 years or older? (n=2,743)

  Percent
1 14
2 52
3 20
4 9
5 - 12 4
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 2

V4. And how many people 17 or younger live in your household? (n=2,694; not asked=43)

  Percent
1 56
2 17
3 14
4 7
5 - 9 *
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 3

V5. What year were you born? (n=2,743)

  Percent
19 ________ (RANGE: 1900-1984) 96
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 4

[AGE = 2002 - V5.]

  Percent
18 - 29 18
30 - 39 18
40 - 49 22
50 - 59 19
60 - 69 12
70 + 12

V6. What is the last grade or year of school that you have completed? [DO NOT READ LIST.] (n=2,743)

  Percent
0-11 YEARS  16
12 YEARS/HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE 31
1-3 YEARS OF COLLEGE 26
4 YEARS OF COLLEGE/COLLEGE GRADUATE 14
POSTGRADUATE/MASTERS/DOCTORATE/LAW/MD 10
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 3

V7. Are you of Hispanic or Latino origin? (n=2,743)

  Percent
YES 11
NO 86
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 3

V8. What is your race? I am going to read you several categories of race. You may choose as many as they apply. Are you [ACCEPT MULTIPLE ANSWERS] (n=2,743)

  Percent
White 75
Black or African American 11
Asian 2
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander *
American Indian or Alaskan Native 4
(Volunteered) Hispanic 5
Other [SPECIFY] 1
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 4

GENDER. [INTERVIEWER: IF SEX AT INTRODUCTION IS ''NOT SURE," PLEASE CODE SEX IF POSSIBLE. DO NOT ASK.] (n=2,743)

  Percent
Male 48
Female 52
Not Sure *

[IF FEMALE AND BORN AFTER 1951, GO TO V9; OTHERWISE, SKIP TO V11.]

In order to better understand the opinions of women who are expecting or have small children, we need to ask a couple of questions.

V9. Do you think you are pregnant now? (n=900)

  Percent
YES 3
NO 96
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF *

V10. Are you now breastfeeding a child? (n=900)

  Percent
YES 2
NO 97
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0
[DON'T READ] RF *

V11. Have you ever been told by a doctor or other healthcare professional that you have any of the following health conditions? I don't need to know which condition, just whether you have any of them. [READ: "high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, obesity or overweight, cancer, liver disease, arthritis, or osteoporosis."] (n=2,743)

  Percent
YES 45
NO 52
[DON'T READ] DK/NS *
[DON'T READ] RF 3

V12. I am going to read you a list of categories of income. Please stop me when I read the category that includes your total household income before taxes for last year. (n=2,743)

  Percent
Less than $10,000 7
From $10,000 up to $20,000 10
From $20,000 up to $35,000 15
From $35,000 up to $50,000 16
From $50,000 up to $75,000 16
From $75,000 up to $100,000 10
$100,000 or more 9
[DON'T READ] DK/NS 0
[DON'T READ] RF 16

[READ: THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION. THOSE ARE ALL THE QUESTIONS I HAVE.]

APPENDIX. LIST OF SUPPLEMENTS

Vitamin Products

  • Antioxidant vitamin(s)
  • Vitamin A or beta-carotene
  • Vitamin B complex
  • Vitamin B1 or thiamine
  • Vitamin B2 or riboflavin
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Niacin or Vitamin B3
  • Folic acid, folate, or Vitamin B9
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin H or biotin
  • Vitamin K or phytonadione
  • Multi-vitamin, multi-vitamin/multi-mineral, or mega-vitamin
  • One-a-day

Mineral Products

  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Choline
  • Chromium
  • Cobalt
  • Copper
  • Fluoride
  • Germanium
  • Iodine
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Multi-mineral or multi-vitamin/multi-mineral
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Selenium
  • Zinc

Herbal or Botanical Products

  • Black cohosh
  • Cayenne or capsicum
  • Echinacea
  • Ephedra or Ma-Huang
  • Evening primrose oil
  • Feverfew
  • Garlic
  • Ginger
  • Ginkgo or ginkgo biloba
  • Ginseng
  • Goldenseal
  • Herbal/botanical combinations
  • Kava kava
  • Milk thistle
  • Red yeast
  • Saw palmetto
  • St. John's wort
  • Valerian
  • Wild yam
  • yohimbe

Other Supplement Products

  • Amino acid(s)
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • L-Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylalaine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
  • Androstenedione or Andro
  • Antioxidant(s), or antioxidant amino acid(s)
    Acidophilus, bacteria, or other probiotics supplements
  • Alpha-Lipoic acid
  • Bee pollen, propolis, or royal jelly
  • Blue green algae, wheat grass, or other green food supplements
  • Coenzyme Q10 or CoQ10
  • Creatine
  • DHEA
  • Fish oil or Omega 3 oil
  • 5 HTP
  • Flax seed oil
  • Glucosamine sulphate or glucosamine and chondroitin
  • Homeopathics
  • Lecithin
  • Lycopene
  • Melatonin
  • MSM or methylsulfonylmethane
  • Probiotics
  • Shark cartilage
  • Soy extract or isoflavones

Page Last Updated: 09/24/2015
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