• Decrease font size
  • Return font size to normal
  • Increase font size
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Food

  • Print
  • Share
  • E-mail

2008 Health and Diet Survey

TOPLINE FREQUENCIES (WEIGHTED)

Conrad J. Choinière, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA
conrad.choiniere@fda.hhs.gov

Amy Lando, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, FDA
amy.lando@fda.hhs.gov

 

Table of Contents

A     Eating Practices
B     Fat-Heart Disease Relationships
C     Food Label Use
D     Health attitudes, beliefs and physical activity (Version 1)
E     Specific diets and weight loss practices (Version 1)
F     Awareness of diet-health relationship (Version 1)
G     Dietary Supplement Use (Version 2)
H     Adverse experience with dietary supplements (Version 2)
K     Use of pet food labels
V     Demographics and health status
X     Appendix A

Results are based on a random-digit-dialing telephone survey of 2,584 non-institutionalized adults (18+) in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Households were selected from a nationally representative single-stage sample of telephone numbers. The eligible respondent in a household was selected using the Rizzo method, a variant of the most recent birthday method. The survey was conducted by a contractor during September 6 – December 7, 2008. A response rate of 22.1 percent was obtained; the rate was computed as (completes) / (completes + quits + refusals + callbacks to complete + unavailables). Results have been weighted to adjust for number of phone lines in a household, number of adults in a household, and Census distributions of gender, race/ethnicity, and education in the 50 states and District of Columbia. The particular sample used in this survey is one of a large number of all possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the sample design. The sampling error measures the variation among the estimates from all possible samples. See Appendix A for sampling errors at 95 percent confidence level. Sampling error is only one of many potential sources of error in this kind of survey.

The number of respondents who answered a question, or sample size ("n"), is shown for each question. Percentages preceding answer text are the weighted percent of respondents who gave that answer. An asterisk (*) denotes a percentage less than one. Row or column percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding, multiple responses, or both.Text inside of brackets, [], are instructions for completing the survey and were not read to the respondents. Text in all CAPS were not read to the respondents but help describe the results or instructions.

 

A. EATING PRACTICES
I have a few questions about when and where you eat your meals.  By meals, I mean breakfast, lunch, and dinner.

A1. On average, how many days per week do you eat breakfast? (n=2,584)

0 DAYS………………………..... 8% [GO TO A3]
1 DAY……………………………….3%
2 DAYS …………………………… 9 %
3 DAYS …………………………… 6%
4 DAYS …………………………… 5%
5 DAYS …………………………… 10%
6 DAYS …………………………… 4%
7 DAYS …………………………… 54%
DK/NS ……......................*     [GO TO A3]
[NOT READ]RF …….…........*     [GO TO A3]

[IF A1 IS NOT EQUAL TO “0 DAYS”]

A2. How many of these breakfasts were not prepared at home?  Please include breakfasts from both dine-in and carry out restaurants, restaurants that deliver food to your home, cafeterias, fast-food places, food courts, food stands, gas stations, breakfasts prepared at a grocery store, and breakfasts from vending machines. How many of your breakfasts were not prepared at home? (n=2,400)

0 …………………………… 65%    
1 …………………………… 15%
2 …………………………… 8%
3 …………………………… 4%
4 …………………………… 2%
5 …………………………… 3%
6 …………………………… 1%
7 …………………………… 2%
DK/NS ..................*
RF ……….................0%

A3. How about lunch?  On average, how many days per week do you eat lunch? (n=2,584)

0 DAYS …………………………… 5%       [GO TO A5]
1 DAY  ……………………………  1%
2 DAYS …………………………… 3%
3 DAYS …………………………… 4%
4 DAYS …………………………… 5%
5 DAYS …………………………… 9%
6 DAYS …………………………… 7%
7 DAYS …………………………… 66%
DK/NS …………..................*          [GO TO A5]
RF …………………................*          [GO TO A5]

[IF A3 IS NOT EQUAL TO “0 DAYS”]

A4.
  How many of these lunches were not prepared at home?  (IF NEEDED, “Please include lunches from both dine-in and carry out restaurants, restaurants that deliver food to your home, cafeterias, fast-food places, food courts, food stands, gas stations, lunches prepared at a grocery store, and lunches from vending machines.”) (n=2,445)

0  …………………………… 38%   
1   …………………………… 14%
2   …………………………… 16%
3   …………………………… 11%
4   …………………………… 7%
5   ……………………….……10%
6  …………………………. …2%
7  …………………………..…2%
DK/NS ..................…*
RF ………..............…..0%

A5.  How about dinner?  On average, how many days per week do you eat dinner? (n=2,584)

0 DAYS …………………………… 1%       [GO TO A7]
1 DAY   …………………………… *
2 DAYS …………………………… 1%
3 DAYS …………………………… 2%
4 DAYS …………………………… 2%
5 DAYS …………………………… 4%
6 DAYS …………………………… 4%
7 DAYS …………………………… 86%
DK/NS ….................……...*         [GO TO A7]
RF ……………................…..*         [GO TO A7]

[IF A5 IS NOT Equal to “0 DAYS”]

A6. How many of these dinners were not prepared at home?  (IF NEEDED, “Please include dinners from both dine-in and carry out restaurants, restaurants that deliver food to your home, cafeterias, fast-food places, food courts, food stands, gas stations, dinners prepared at a grocery store, and dinners from vending machines.”) (n=2,540)

0  …………………………….. 36%    [GO TO A3]
1    …………………………… 26%
2    …………………………… 20%
3    …………………………… 10%
4    …………………………… 4%
5    …………………………… 2%
6    …………………………… 1%
7    …………………………… 1%
DK/NS ..................….*
RF ………................….*

A9.  Restaurants sometimes display nutrition and calorie information about their items.  This information may be shown on the menu or on napkins and placemats.   Have you seen nutrition information in restaurants? (n=2,584)

YES   ………………………….…64%
NO   ……………………………. 34%   [GO TO A11]
DK/NS.........................2%     [GO TO A11]
RF..…………...................*        [GO TO A11]

A10. When it is available, how often do you use this information when deciding what to eat at restaurants? Would you say often, sometimes, rarely, or never? (n=1,472)

OFTEN…………………………... 27%
SOMETIMES………………….. 25%
RARELY  ………………………...22%
NEVER    ………………………..26%
DK/NS..…................…….*
RF..…………....................0%

A11. Do you make all, most, some, or none of the decisions about what groceries your household buys?  (n=2,584)

All of the decisions   ……..……………………....…39%
most of the decisions   ………………………..…...22%
some of the decisions  …………………………......34%
None of the decisions   ………………………….....5%
Don’t know (DK)/Not sure (NS)..................*
Refused (RF)   ………………….......................0%

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

B.  FAT-HEART DISEASE RELATIONSHIPS

B1. Next, I am going to ask you about three different kinds of fat in foods we eat.  As I read each one, please tell me whether you have ever heard of it.  [RANDOM START. RECORD START.] (n=2,584)

 YesNoDK/NSRF
trans fat or trans fatty acid92%8%*0%
saturated fat     97%3%*0%
omega 3 fatty acid 85%15%*0%

[IF NO/DK/NS/RF TO ALL ITEMS, SKIP TO B3.  OTHERWISE, ASK B2 FOR EACH “YES” ITEM; KEEP THE SAME ORDER AS IN B1.]

B2[Respondents who said they had heard of a fat were asked] You just told me you had heard of [NAME OF FAT].  As far as you know, does [NAME OF FAT] raise the risk of heart disease, lower the risk of heart disease, or have no effect on the risk of heart disease, or don’t you know?  [READ ‘YOU JUST TOLD ME YOU HAD HEARD OF ….. AS FAR AS YOU KNOW’ AT THE FIRST ITEM ONLY.]   (n=2,360)

 RaisesLowersNo EffectDK/NSRF
trans fat or trans fatty acid67%5%2%26%0%
saturated fat     75%2%2%21%0%
omega 3 fatty acid 5%61%4%30%0%

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

C. FOOD LABEL USE

C1. I'd like you to think about the labels on many food products that list ingredients and provide nutrition and other information.  When you buy a product for the first time, how often do you read this information?  Would you say  [READ] (n=2,584)

Often    ……………………………………54%
Sometimes,    ………………………...23%
Rarely, or  ……………………………….13%
Never?    ………………………………….11%    [SKIP TO C5b]
DK/NS    ……..……................….*        [SKIP TO D1]
RF    ………………......................0%      [SKIP TO D1]

C2. People tell us they use food product labels in many different ways.  When you look at food labels, either in the store or at home, how often, if at all, do you use the labels in the following ways?  Would you say you often, sometimes, rarely or never use the label [READ AND ROTATE LIST]  (n=2,352)

 OFTENSOMETIMESRARELYNEVERDK/NSRF
To help you decide which brand of a particular food item to buy41%32%14%12%1%*
To figure out how much of the food product you or your family should eat35%30%18%16%1%0%
To compare different food items with each other 46%29%15%9%1%*
To see if something said in advertising or on the package is actually true 31%30%20%16%3%*
To get a general idea of the nutritional content of the food 55%30%10%16%3%*
To see how high or low the food is in things like calories, salt, vitamins, or fat66%24%6%3%**
To help you in meal planning 31%31%19%18%**
To see if there is an ingredient that you or someone in your family should avoid48%18%14%20%**

C3. In the last two weeks, can you remember an instance where your decision to buy or use a food product was changed because you read the nutrition label?  (n=2,352)

YES   ……………………………49%
NO   …………………………….48%
DK/NS .......................3%
RF   …........................*

C4. When you look at the nutrition label on a food product, which information do you use, the gram or milligram amounts, the percent daily value amounts, or both? (n=2,352)

THE GRAM OR MILLIGRAM AMOUNTS….....25%
THE PERCENT DAILY VALUE AMOUNTS…..16%
BOTH......…………………………..............…....50%
NEITHER………………………........................9%
DK/NS……..........….................…...........1%
RF………............…................……...........*

[IF C1=“OFTEN” OR “SOMETIMES”,  GO TO C6]
[IF C1 = “RARELY”, GO TO C5a]  
[IF C1 = “NEVER”, GO TO C5b]

C5a. Earlier you said that you rarely use the food label when buying a product for the first time.  Do you intend to start using the food label more in the future?  Please choose the option that best describes your intention. (n=262)

Yes, I intend to start using the food label more in the next 30 days………..18%
Yes, I intend to start using the food label more in the next 6 months.…....28%
No, I do not intend to start using the food label in the next 6 months…....49%
DK/NS   …………………................…………………............................…………...5%
RF   …………………………...............…………................................………...... *

C5b.  Do you intend to start using the food label in the future?  Please choose the option that best describes your intention.  (n=223)

Yes, I intend to start using the food label more in the next 30 days………..8%
Yes, I intend to start using the food label more in the next 6 months……..16%
No, I do not intend to start using the food label in the next 6 months……..69%
DK/NS   ………………………………………................……………………………………….....6%
RF   …………………………………..................................................……….......*

[IF C1=“NEVER”]

C5c. People have different reasons for not using the nutrition information on the food label.  Please say whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with each of the following reasons for not using the food label: (n=223)

 Strongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeNeither agree nor disagreeDK/NSRF
I’m just not that interested in the nutrition information on the food label41%26%12%11%1%10%*
The information on the food label is hard for me to understand29%20%22%21%2%6%*
It takes too much time to read the food label43%17%16%20%4%**
I prefer getting nutrition information from other sources besides the food label23%25%19%26%5%2%*
I don’t need to use the food label since I already know what foods to eat33%31%13%13%1%9%*

[GO TO C10]

C6. Now, I would like for you to think about information about calories which is also found on the food label.  Would you say you often, sometimes, rarely or never use calorie information?  (n=2,352)

OFTEN    ……………………………..46%
SOMETIMES    …………………...31%
RARELY  ……………………………..25%
NEVER    ……………………………..9%
DK/NS    ….................……...*
RF    ……….................……...0%

C7. Now, I would like for you to think about information about serving sizes which is also found on the food label.  Would you say you often, sometimes, rarely or never use serving size information? (n=2,352)

OFTEN    …………………………….34%
SOMETIMES    ……………………30%
RARELY  ……………………………..19%
NEVER    …………………………….17%
DK/NS    …….................…..*
RF    ……………....................*

C9. To the best of your knowledge, are serving sizes determined by manufacturers or by government rules?  (n=2,352)

BY MANUFACTURERS………….......47%

BY GOVERNMENT RULES?……......29%
DK/NS…………………....................24%
RF……………...……................…....*

C10. Food packages sometimes have statements on the front of the package that describe the amount of certain nutrients in the product, such as “low fat,” “high fiber” or “cholesterol-free.” When it is available, how often do you use this information on certain nutrients when deciding to buy a food product?  Would you say often, sometimes, rarely, or never? (n=2,575)

OFTEN    …………………………........38%
SOMETIMES    …………………….....34%
RARELY  ………………………….........16%
NEVER    ……………………………......11%
DK/NS    …............................*
RF    …………...........................0%

C11. About how many of the food labels which use statements like "low fat," "high fiber" or "cholesterol-free" to describe the amount of certain nutrients, do you believe are accurate? Just about all of them, most of them, only some of them, or almost none of them? (n=2,575)

JUST ABOUT ALL OF THEM…………....8% 
MOST OF THEM………………………….....33% 
ONLY SOME OF THEM…………………....49% 
NONE OF THEM………………….……….....7% 
DK/NS    ……………...................…....3%
RF    ……………..............................*

C12.  Food packages sometimes have symbols or icons on the front of the package that describe the product as being a healthier option and meeting certain nutrient requirements.  Have you seen products with this type of healthy symbol or icon? (n=2,575)

YES   ……………………………...72%
NO   ……………………………. ..23%        [GO TO C14]
DK/NS   ….................……5%          [GO TO C14]
RF   ……….................…...0%          [GO TO C14]

C13. When it is available, how often do you use healthy symbols or icons when deciding to buy a food?  Would you say often, sometimes, rarely or never? (n=1,714)

OFTEN    …………………………..22%
SOMETIMES    ………………….45%
RARELY  …………………………..19%
NEVER    …………………………..13%
DK/NS    …….................….*
RF    ………................……..*

[CONTINUE IF B1a=“YES”, OTHERWISE VERSION 1 RESPONDENTS GO TO SECTION D, VERSION 2 RESPONDENTS GO TO SECTION  G]

C14. Food packages sometimes have statements on the front of the package that describe the product as having “0 grams of trans fat.”  When it is available, would you say you use these statements about trans fat often, sometimes, rarely or never? (n=2,356)

OFTEN    ……………………………..31%
SOMETIMES    …………………….36%
RARELY  ……………………………...19%
NEVER    ……………….…………...13%      [GO TO SECTION D or SECTION G]
DK/NS    ………....................*          [GO TO SECTION D or SECTION G]
RF    …………….....................*         [GO TO SECTION D or SECTION G]

C15. About how many of the food labels which use these claims abotu trans fats do you belive are accurate? Just about all of them, most of them, only some of them, or almost none of them? (n=2,043)

ALL OF THEM……………………………....15% 
MOST OF THEM…………………………...41% 
SOME OF THEM.……………………….….39% 
NONE OF THEM,……………………….....3% 
DK/NS    …………...….................…3%
RF    ……………...........................*

VERSION 1 RESPONDENTS CONTINUE TO SECTION D; VERSION 2 RESPONDENTS GO TO SECTION G

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

D.  HEALTH ATTITUDES, BELIEFS and PHYSICAL ACTIVITY –VERSION 1

D1.  I am going to read some statements about health, food, and exercise.  As I read each statement, please tell me how much you agree or disagree with it. The first statement is… “[ROTATE LIST, RANDOM START]…” Do you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree, or strongly disagree with it? …The next statement is “…” [REPEAT RESPONSE OPTIONS WHEN NECESSARY.]…The next statement is…  (n=1,309)

 Strongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeNeither agree nor disagreeDK/NSRF
There are so many recommendations about healthy ways to eat, it is hard for me to know what to believe.32%36%18%12%1%*0%
If I eat a healthy diet I can greatly reduce my chance of getting heart disease68%24%4%2%1%1%*
If I eat a healthy diet I can greatly reduce my chance of getting cancer.31%36%15%13%3%2%*
I am confident that I know how to choose healthy foods.48%41%7%3%1%**
I generally know which menu items in a restaurant have more fat and which have less fat.34%38%11%11%2%5%0%

D2.  About how many days per week do you engage in moderate or vigorous activity (such as brisk walking, jogging, biking, aerobics, or yard work) in addition to your normal daily routine? (n=1309)

0 DAYS ………………….…………...12%  [GO TO SECTION E]
1 DAY   ……………………………....7%
2 DAYS ……………………………....11%
3 DAYS ……………………………....26%
4 DAYS ……………………………....11%
5 DAYS ……………………………....13%
6 DAYS ……………………………....6%
7 DAYS ……………………………....14%
DK/NS …….…..................…..1%   [GO TO SECTION E]
RF ………….….................…...*     [GO TO SECTION E]

D3. How long do you usually engage in moderate or vigorous activities on these days? Would you say 30 minutes, 30 to 60 minutes, or more than 60 minutes?  (n=1,107)

LESS THAN 30 MINUTES…………….13% 
30 TO 60 MINUTES…………..……….56% 
MORE THAN 60 MINUTES.………...31% 
DK/NS ……….................……...….* 
RF ………………................…........*

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

E. SPECIFIC DIETS AND WEIGHT LOSS PRACTICES ---VERSION 1

E1.  Do you consider yourself to be overweight, underweight, or about the right weight? [IF THE RESPONDENT MENTIONS OTHERS’ OPINIONS, E.G., “MY DOCTOR SAYS I’M OVERWEIGHT,” READ: “WHAT WE REALLY WANT TO KNOW IS HOW YOU YOURSELF THINK ABOUT YOUR WEIGHT.”] (n=1,309)

OVERWEIGHT………………………..44%
UNDERWEIGHT…………………....5%      [GO TO E4]
ABOUT THE RIGHT WEIGHT...51%
PREGNANT…................….....*
DK/NS………................…......*
RF……………................….......*

E2. In the past 12 months, did a doctor or other health professional advise you to lose weight? (n=1,257)

YES   ……………………………........20%
NO   …………………………….........79%
PREGNANT…........................*
DK/NS   ………......................*
RF   ………….........................*

E3.  During the past 12 months, have you tried to lose weight? (n=1,257)

YES   …………………………….......54%
NO   …………………………….........46%
PREGNANT…........................*
DK/NS   ………......................*
RF   ………….........................0

E4. Do you try to keep track on a daily basis of how much sodium, fat, or other nutrients, including vitamins or minerals, you eat? (n=1,309)

YES   ……………………………...35%
NO   ……………………………....59%  [GO TO SECTION F]
SOMETIMES……………………..6%   [GO TO SECTION F]
DK/NS   …................…...1%    [GO TO SECTION F]
RF   ………................…....*      [GO TO SECTION F]

E5. How do you keep track of how much of these nutrients you eat each day?  Do you… [ROTATE LIST, RANDOM START] (n=485)

 YesNoSometimesDK/NSRF
Record amounts eaten at each meal or each day18%77%4%*0%
Follow a specific diet or eating plan46%50%4%0%0%
Read the nutrition label73%12%12%3%*
Practice strict portion control47%41%12%*0%

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

F. DIET-DISEASE AWARENESS ---VERSION 1

F1. Have you heard anything about cancer being related to things people eat or drink? (n=1,307)

YES………………………………..73%
NO………………………………...25% [GO TO  F5]
DK/NS   …………..............2%  [GO TO  F5]
RF   ………………..............*     [GO TO  F5]

F2. What things that people eat or drink might make them more likely to get cancer? [PROBE ONLY ONCE]  (n=1,047)

ADDITIVES/CHEMICALS…......................………….……… 8% 
ALCHOLOL ......................................................... 19%
ARTFICIAL COLORS/DYES.......................................3% 
ARTIFICIAL SWEETNER/ASPARTAME/NUTRASWEET.....10% 
CAFFEINE/COFFEE/TEA..........................................5% 
CHARCOAL/BARBACUED FOOD/BURNT FOOD...............5% 
EQUAL / SWEET 'N' LOW........................................4% 
FATS.................................................................27% 
FRIED FOOD(S)....................................................4% 
JUNK FOOD(S).....................................................1% 
MEATS/SPECIFIC MEATS.......................................14% 
PRESERVATIVES...................................................5% 
PROCESSED FOODS/REFINED FOODS........................7% 
SACCHARIN.........................................................1% 
SATURATED FAT..................................................5% 
SMOKING............................................................9% 
TRANS FAT OR TRANS FATTY ACIDS........................4% 
OTHER [SPECIFY] ______________  .......................13%

F3. Have you heard about any things people could eat or drink that might help prevent cancer?  (n=1,047)

YES   …………………………….76%
NO   ……………………………..23%  [GO TO F5]
DK/NS   …................….1%    [GO TO F5]
RF   ………...............……*       [GO TO F5]

F4. What things could people eat or drink that might help prevent cancer?  [NOT READ LIST]   [PROBE ONLY ONCE]  (n=819)

ANTIOXIDANTS.........................................................16%
BETA-CAROTENE/VITAMIN A........................................3%
DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS..............................................4%
FIBER/ROUGHAGE/WHOLE GRAIN CEREALS/BRAN...................15%
FISH/FISH OIL/OMEGA 3 OIL.........................................19%
FRUITS/SPECIFIC FRUIT...............................................42%
FRUIT JUICE(S)/VEGETABLE JUICE(S)..............................12%
POULTRY/CHICKEN....................................................3%
VEGETABLES/SPECFIC VEGETABLE...........................49%
VITAMIN C/ASCORBIC ACID..........................................3%
VITAMIN E.............................................................2%
OTHER [SPECIFY] _______________   ……….............… 15%

F5. Have you heard anything about heart disease or heart attacks being related to things people eat or drink? (n=1,307)

YES   ……………………………...91%
NO   ……………………………....9%     [GO TO SECTION K]
DK/NS   …................…...1%     [GO TO SECTION K]
RF   ………...............…....*       [GO TO SECTION K]

F6. What things that people eat or drink might be related to heart disease or heart attacks? [NOT READ LIST]   [PROBE ONLY ONCE]  (n=1,196)


ALCOHOL..............................................................18%
CAFFEIINE/COFFEE/TEA...........................................2%
CALORIES/EATING TOO MUCH/OVERWEIGHT................6%
CHOLESTEROL.......................................................17% DAIRY PRODUCTS/MILK/CHEESE................................4%
EGGS...................................................................2%
FATS...................................................................62% FRIED FOODS/GREASY FOODS/OILY FOODS................19% JUNK FOOD(S).......................................................2%
MEAT/RED MEAT/SPECIFIC MEAT..............................20%
SALT/SALTY FOODS/SODIUM...................................20%
SATURATED FAT....................................................19%
SMOKING..............................................................6% SUGAR/SWEET FOODS............................................10%
TRANS FAT OR TRANS FATTY ACIDS.........................15%
OTHER [SPECIFY]  ___________  ……………...................10%

F7. Have you heard about any things people could eat or drink that might help prevent heart disease or heart attacks? (n=1,196)

YES   ……………………………......81%
NO   …………………………….......17%      [GO TO SECTION K]
DK/NS   ………....................2%        [GO TO SECTION K]
RF   ……...............……........*          [GO TO SECTION K]

F8. What things could people eat or drink that might help prevent heart disease or heart attacks? [NOT READ LIST]   [PROBE ONLY ONCE]  (n=1,008)

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS......................................2%
FIBER/ROUGHAGE/WHOLE GRAIN CEREALS/BRAN......24%
FISH...............................................................12%
FISH OIL/OMEGA 3 OIL.......................................16%
FRUITS/SPECIFIC FRUIT......................................32%
OLIVE OIL/MONOUNSATURATED FAT/OILS................3%
POULTRY/CHICKEN.............................................4%
RED WINE/WINE.................................................16%
VEGETABLES/SPECFIC VEGETABLE.........................34%
VEGETABLE OILS/POLYUNSATURATED FAT/OILS.......6%
OTHER [SPECIFY] ______________   …………............20%

GO TO SECTION K

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

G. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS -----VERSION 2

I would like to ask you a few questions about products called dietary supplements. Dietary supplements are powders, liquids, or capsules that are not foods or medicines. People may take these supplements to get nutrients that they can’t get from their diets alone.  These include multi-vitamins, vitamin c, iron, calcium, Echinacea, St. John's Wort, amino acids or protein drinks, and fish oil.

G1. I am going to read a number of statements about these products.  Please indicate whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with each statement. [ROTATE LIST, RANDOM START] (n=1,276)

 Strongly agreeSomewhat agreeSomewhat disagreeStrongly disagreeNeither agree nor disagreeDK/NSRF
Taking dietary supplements could improve my health.33%45%10%8%2%3%*
A good reason for a person to take a dietary supplement is to prevent illnesses.27%41%17%11%1%3%*
A good reason for a person to take a dietary supplement is to treat illnesses.14%31%24%26%1%4%0%
The government tests dietary supplements for safety.20%39%18%15%2%6%0%
Dietary supplements cost too much.28%38%18%6%3%7%*
I am concerned about the safety of dietary supplements.34%35%18%8%3%3%*

G2. Have you taken a multi-vitamin or multi-mineral supplement in the past 12 months, that is, since [month] 2007? [IF NEEDED, EXPLAIN THESE PRODUCTS ARE THINGS LIKE ONE-A-DAY, MEGA-VITAMIN, CENTRUM A-TO-ZINC, AND OTHER PRODUCTS THAT CONTAIN A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND MAY ALSO CONTAIN OTHER THINGS.] (n=1,276)

YES   …………………………….66%
NO   ……………………………..33%   [GO TO G3]
DK/NS   ….................…*        [GO TO G3]
RF   ……….................….*       [GO TO G3]

G2a. How frequently do you take [it/them]? Would you say… (n=904)

Daily,……………………………………55%
On a regular basis, but not every day,……18%
Occasionally, or………………………...............13%
Even less often?…………..………..........……..14%
DK/NS………………..............................…..0%
RF…………..………..............................…...0%

G3. And in the past 12 months, have you taken a specialized or single-ingredient vitamin or mineral supplement such as Vitamin C, Vitamin E, iron, or calcium?
[IF ANSWER IS NOT CLEARLY A SUPPLEMENT AND SOUNDS LIKE IT MAY BE AN INGREDIENT IN FOOD, ASK “IS THAT IN YOUR FOOD OR IS IT TAKEN SEPARATELY AS A SUPPLEMENT?”] (n=1,276)

[IF NEEDED USE SUPPLEMENT REFERENCE LIST.]

YES   ……………………………........50%
NO   …………………………….........49% [GO TO G4]
DK/NS   ………......................1% [GO TO G4]
RF   ………….........................* [GO TO G4]

G3a. How frequently do you take [it/them]? Would you say… (n=763)

Daily,……………………………………....................51%
On a regular basis, but not every day……....18%
Occasionally, or………………..............……………21%
Even less often?…………..……...........…………..9%
DK/NS………………...............................……..*
RF…………..………..............................……...0%

G4. Have you taken any kind of herbs, botanicals, or other dietary supplements in the past 12 months, that is, since (month) 2007?  We are talking about things such as garlic pills, echinacea, ginkgo, glucosamine, St. John's wort, amino acids, or fish oil.
[IF ANSWER IS NOT CLEARLY A SUPPLEMENT AND SOUNDS LIKE IT MAY BE AN INGREDIENT IN FOOD, ASK “IS THAT IN YOUR FOOD OR IS IT TAKEN SEPARATELY AS A SUPPLEMENT?”] (n=1,276)

[IF NEEDED USE SUPPLEMENT REFERENCE LIST.]

YES   ………………………......……34%
NO   ……………………………........65%   [GO TO INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE G6a-c]
DK/NS   ……….....................1%     [GO TO INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE G6a-c]
RF   …………........................*        [GO TO INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE G6a-c]

G4a. How frequently do you take [it/them]? Would you say…(n=485)

Daily,……………………………………43%
On a regular basis, but not every day…….23%
Occasionally, or………………………............…18%
Even less often?…………..…….........………..15%
DK/NS…………...........................…..……..*
RF…………..….................…............……...0%

[IF G2=“NO” AND G3=“NO” AND G4=“NO” , GO TO SECTION K]

FOR EACH YES FOR G2-G4 ASK:

G6a. Did a doctor or other health care professional recommend that you take a multivitamin or multi-mineral supplement? (n=904)

YES   ……………………………42%
NO   …………………………….57%
DK/NS .................…....*
RF   ……......................*

G6b. Did a doctor or other health care professional recommend that you take a specialized or single-ingredient vitamin or mineral supplement? (n=763)

YES   ……………………………42%
NO   …………………………….57%
DK/NS  ................. ....*
RF   …........................*

G6c. Did a doctor or other health care professional recommend that you take botanicals or other dietary supplements?  (n=485)

YES   ……………………………30%
NO   …………………………….70%
DK/NS  ......................*
RF   ……......................*

G7. On a slightly different subject, have you taken any prescription drugs in the past 12 months? (n=1,029)

YES  ..…………………………....72%
NO    ………………………….....28          [SKIP TO G10]
DK/NS  ….................…...*            [SKIP TO G10]
RF   ……….................…...0%         [SKIP TO G10]

G8. While you took the prescription drug, did you also take a dietary supplement? (n=829)

YES   ………………………....59%
NO    …………………….…...39%       [SKIP TO G10]
DK/NS  …...................2%         [SKIP TO G10]
RF   ………..................*            [SKIP TO G10]

G9. Did you discuss taking both products with your doctor or other health care professional? (n=563)

YES   ……………………….….76%
NO    ………………………....24%
DK/NS  …...................*           
RF   …........…........……0%

G10. In the past 12 months, have you taken a dietary supplement to treat or prevent a health problem or condition instead of taking a prescription drug? (n=1,029)

YES …………………………......18%
NO ………………………….......81%     [GO TO G12]
DK/NS…….....................*         [GO TO G12]
RF……..........................0%       [GO TO G12]

G11.    Did you discuss the substitution with your doctor or healthcare professional? [IF NECESSARY, EXPLAIN "HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONAL ARE PEOPLE LIKE A MEDICAL DOCTOR, A PHYSICIAN’S ASSISTANT, A DENTIST, A PSYCHIATRIST, A PHARMISIST, OR A REGISTERED NURSE.]

YES   …………………………..59%
NO    …………………………..41%
DK/NS  .................…..*
RF   …….....................0%

If G4=“YES” then ask about herb and botanicals
If G4 IS NOT EQUAL TO “YES” and G3=“YES” then ask about single ingredient vitamins
If G4 AND G3 ARE NOT EQUAL TO “YES”  and G2 =“YES” then ask about multivitamins.

G12.   Please tell me whether you yourself get a lot, a little, or no information about the [herbs, botanicals, or other dietary supplements/single ingredient vitamin or mineral/ multivitamin] that you take from each of the following.  [ROTATE LIST, RANDOM START]

 A LotA LittleNo InformationDK/NSRF
a medical doctor, physician's assistant, registered nurse, or dietitian29%35%34%1%*
an alternative medicine practitioner like an herbal or chiropractic therapist  [ALSO INCLUDES: PRACTITIONER/THERAPIST OF ACUPUNCTURE, BIOFEEDBACK, CHELATION THERAPY, ENERGY HEALING/REIKI, FOLK MEDICINE, HYPNOSIS,  HOMEOPATHY, MASSAGE, NATUROPATHY, NUTRITION THERAPY, OSTEOPATHY.]7%9%82%1%*
family or friends15%47%38%**
a sales person at a store5%27%68%*0%
newspapers, magazines, books, or medical articles27%40%33%**
television or radio12%41%47%**
the Internet16%27%56%*0%
product labels30%45%25%**

[IF G2 OR G3 OR G4= “YES”]

Return to the Table of Contents

 

H. ADVERSE EXPERIENCE WITH DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

H1. In the past 12 months, that is, since [MONTH] 2007, have you experienced any health problems that you thought might be related to any dietary supplements you took? (n=1,029)

YES    …………………………..3%
NO     …………………………..97%   [GO TO SECTION K]
DK/NS   ….................…*        [GO TO SECTION K]
RF    ……….................…*        [GO TO SECTION K]

H2. 

Symptoms% of all mentions
HEART PROBLEMS/CHEST PAIN8%
ABDOMINAL PAIN8%
GASTROINTESTINAL PROBLEMS8%
NAUSEA/UPSET STOMACH8%
BLOOD PRESSURE PROBLEMS8%
SHORTNESS OF BREATH8%
HEADACHE5%
DIZZINESS/FAINTING5%
ANXIETY/NERVOUSNESS5%
FATIGUE5%
ACID REFLUX/HEARTBURN5%
IRRITATED SKIN3%
DIARRHEA3%
MUSCLE/JOINT ACHES AND PAIN3%
OTHER SYMPTOMS (UNSPECIFIED)21%
  
 % of all respondents
DK/NS12%
[NOT READ} RF2%

 

 

H3. What supplements did you think were related to your problem?  [ACCEPT UP TO THREE ANSWERS.] (n=30)        

 % of all mentions
MULTI-VITAMINS12%
CALCIUM 12%
VITAMIN B 12%
VINTAMIN C 8%
ST. JOHN'S WORT8%
UNSPECIFIED VITAMINS/MINERALS 4%
IRON 4%
GINKGO BILOBA 4%
OTHER SUPPLEMENTS36%
  
 %  of all respondents
DK/NS13%
RF*

H4. What did you do about your problem?  Did you… [READ AND ROTATE LIST.] (n=30)

 YesNoDK/NSRF
Stop taking the supplements88%12%**
See a doctor47%53%**
Complain to the manufacturer or the store where you bought the supplements14%86%**
Go to an emergency room5%95%**
Report to any health authorities22%78%**

 
[IF H4e=“YES”  CONTINUE TO H5; OTHERWISE, GO TO SECTION V]

H5. Did you report your problem to [READ AND ROTATE LIST.] (n=11)                 

 YesNoDK/NSRF
the Food and Drug Administration51%49%0%0%
the CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention51%49%0%0%
a health department or poison control center49%51%0%0%
your doctor100%0%0%0%

GO TO SECTION V

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

K. USE OF PET FOOD LABELS

These next questions are about pets you may have in your home.

K1a. Do you have a dog in your home? (n=2,554)

YES   …………………………….42%
NO   ……………………………..58%       [GO TO K2a]
DK/NS……................…..0%        [GO TO K2a]
RF   …........................0%        [GO TO K2a]

K1b.  How many? (n=871)

1 …………………………….......59%
2 …………………………….......27%
3 or more …………….........14%
DK/NS …......................0%
RF ……….......................0%

K2a. Do you have a cat in your home? (n=2,554)

YES   …………………………….26%
NO   ……………………………..74%   [IF K1a=2,8,9 GO TO SECTION V;ELSE GO TO K3]
DK/NS…................……..0%     [IF K1a=2,8,9 GO TO SECTION V; ELSE GO TO K3]
RF   ………................…..0%    [IF K1a=2,8,9 GO TO SECTION V;ELSE GO TO K3]

K2b.  How many? (n=588)

1 ……………………………….....53%
2 ……………………………….....24%
3 or more ………………….....23%
DK/NS …......................0%       [IF K1a=2,8,9 GO TO SECTION V]
RF ……….................…....0%       [IF K1a=2,8,9 GO TO SECTION V]

K3. About how much of the decisions do you make about your household’s pet food purchases? Would you say… (n=1,208)

All of them ……………………..54%
Some of them, or…………….28%
None of them…………………..18%  [GO TO SECTION V]
DK/NS……................………0%    [GO TO SECTION V]
RF…………..................…….9%   [GO TO SECTION V]

K4. Do you feed your {dog/dogs/cat/cats/dog and cat/dogs and cat/dog and cats/dogs and cats}… (YES/NO for each) [IF NEEDED:  “Commercial food is any food that you can buy without a prescription from a veterinarian.  It includes food you buy in grocery stores, pet food stores, and food you can buy online.”] [IF NEEDED:  “Packaged raw pet food is raw food you buy in the grocery store that is packaged especially for pets.”] (n=1,049)

 YesNoDK/NSRF
Commercial canned food30%70%0%0%
Prescription canned food2%98%*0%
Commercial dry food94%6%*0%
Prescription dry food7%93%*0%
Packaged raw pet food5%95%*0%
Homemade food prepared specifically for your pet18%82%*0%
Commercial Treats79%21%*0%

K5. After feeding your {dog/dogs/cat/cats/dog and cat/dogs and cat/dog and cats/dogs and cats}, how often do you wash your hands with soap and water?  Would you say… (n=1,049)

All of the time, ..…………………….50%
Most of the time, ……………………22%
Some of the time, or ………………14%
Rarely? ……………………………….....14%
DK/NS…................……………....1%
RF……………...................……....0%

[IF K4a=“YES” or K4b=“YES”  

K5a. When you don’t give an entire can to your pet at one feeding, do you refrigerate the unused portion? (n=390)

YES..……………………………………………………...............70%
NO..……………………………………………………................10%
SOMETIMES…………………………………………...............1%
ALWAYS USE ENTIRE CAN AT A FEEDING..…........18%
DON’T KNOW..….................………………......….......*
REFUSED..………….................………………..............*

[IF K4e=“YES”]

K5b. When you don’t give an entire package of raw pet food to your pet at one feeding, do you refrigerate the unused portion? (n=66)

YES..…………………………………………………………...............53%                         
NO..………………………………………………………….................29%
SOMETIMES………………………………………………...............2%
ALWAYS USE ENTIRE PORTION AT A FEEDING..……....7%
DON’T KNOW..…………................………………..............9%
REFUSED..……………….............………………..................0%

K6. Now think about the first time you purchase a pet food product. When you look at pet food labels for the first time, either in the store or at home, how often, if at all, do you use the labels in the following ways?  Would you say you often, sometimes, rarely or never use the pet food label [READ AND ROTATE LIST] (n=1,049)

 OFTENSOMETIMESRARELYNEVERDK/NSRF
to figure out how much of the pet food you should feed your {dog/dogs/cat/cats/dog and cat/dogs and cat/dog and cats/dogs and cats} at a single serving?30%15%17%38%**
to see how high or low the pet food is in things like calories, protein, fat, etc.?31%18%16%35%*0%
to determine if a product meets your pets’ nutritional needs?37%26%10%26%1%0%
to compare different pet food items with each other?38%18%12%31%*0%
to see if something said in advertising or on the package is actually true?22%22%16%39%1%0%
to see if there is an ingredient that your pet should avoid?35%14%11%39%1%0%

K7. Please tell me how much information you get about your pet’s nutritional needs from each of the following.  Would you say that you get a lot, a little, or no information about your pets’ nutrition needs from……[RANDOM START, ROTATE LIST] (n=1,049)

 A LotA LittleNo InformationDK/NSRF
Breeders and trainers10%17%73%**
Veterinarians47%32%21%*0%
Pet food labels25%44%31%*0%
Internet10%20%70%*0%
Friends and family9%42%49%*0%
Books or magazines on pet care15%37%48%*0%
Advertisements for pet food8%38%54%*0%


Return to the Table of Contents

 

V. DEMOGRAPHICS AND HEALTH STATUS  --ALL

I have a few questions for statistical purposes.

V2. Are there any telephone numbers in addition to [the telephone number being called] in your home that you receive calls on?  Please exclude numbers used only for fax or computer, or cellular phone numbers. (n=2,584)

Yes   ………………………………………..4%
No   ………………………………………...96%     [GO TO V5]
RF   ……………….…................…..*         [GO TO V5]
DK/NS   ………….................…….*         [GO TO V5]

V3. Is this/Are these number(s) for … (n=157)

Home use   ………………………………...46%
Business and home use  …………....19%
Business use only   …………………...34%
DK/NS   ……................…………....*
RF ……………................……….......*

V5. How many children under 18 years of age, including infants and newborns, live in your household? (n=2,584)

0…………………………………………56%
1…………………………………………18%
2…………………………………………14%
3…………………………………………7%
4…………………………………………3%
5…………………………………………1%
6…………………………………………*
7…………………………………………*
DK/NS    …….................….*
RF   ………….................……*

V6. What is the last grade or year of school that you have completed? [DO NOT READ LIST.] (n=2,584)

0-11 YEARS    ……………………………………………………........16%
12 YEARS/HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATE   ………………………..30%
1-3 YEARS OF COLLEGE   ………………………………………....29%
4 YEARS OF COLLEGE/COLLEGE GRADUATE  ……………..14%
POSTGRADUATE/MASTERS/DOCTORATE/LAW/MD   ….11%
DK/NS ....................…………………………………...………....*
RF   …….................………………………………………...........*


V7. Are you of Hispanic or Latino origin? (n=2,584)

YES   ………………………………..13%
NO   ……………………………………86%
DK/NS   …........................*
RF   ……….........................*

V8. What is your race? Please select one or more. [ACCEPT MULTIPLE ANSWERS.]
(n=2,584)

 Selected
White74%
Black or African American12%
Asian2%
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*
American Indian or Alaska Native2%
Other10%
DK/NS*
RF1%

V9.What year were you born?

19 ________   (RANGE: 1900-1990)
[recoded in age ranges]

Age 18-29 …………………………..20%
Age 30-39…………………………...19%
Age 40-59…………………………...36%
Age 60 and older …………….....24%

DK/NS   ……………..…………….....*

RF   …………………....…………......2%

 [IF NEEDED, We need this information about height and weight because this survey is about nutrition and health.] (n=2,584)

V10. How tall are you without shoes? [WHEN THE RESPONDENT REPORTS FRACTIONS, ROUND UP TO THE NEXT WHOLE NUMBER. FOR EXAMPLE, 3.5 INCHES SHOULD BE CODED AS 4 INCHES. DON’T PROBE.]
[Answer recoded]

Less than 4 ft ……………*
4 to less than 5 ft………...2%
5 to less than 6 ft………...75%
6 to less than 7 ft………...23%
Greater than 7 ft………....*
DK/NS…………………..........1%
REF……………………...........1%

V11.  How much do you weigh without shoes? [WHEN THE RESPONDENT REPORTS FRACTIONS ROUND UP TO THE NEXT WHOLE NUMBER. FOR EXAMPLE, 122.5 POUNDS SHOULD BE CODED AS 123 POUNDS. DON’T PROBE.]

[recoded in weight ranges]

Less than 100 lbs……….1%
100 – 149 lbs………………26%
150-199 lbs………………..40%
200 – 249lbs……………….21%
Greater than 250 lbs……7%
DK/NS……………………..... 2%
REF……………………….......3%

V12. Compared to other people your age, would you say your overall health is…
(n=2,584)

Much better than average,…………….......…..10%
Better than average,…………………….............35%
About the same as other people’s health.....43%
Worse than average, or…...………….........…...8%
Much worse than average?………………..........3%
DK/NS……………................……...................2%
RF…………………................…......................*

V13. Have you ever been told by a doctor or other healthcare professional that you have any of the following health conditions?  I don’t need to know which condition, just whether you have ANY of them -- high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, heart disease, obesity, overweight, or cancer.  (n=2,584)

Yes   ………………………….. 49%
No    …………………………...51%
DK/NS  ......*
RF…………....*

V14. I am going to read you a list of categories of income. Please stop me when I read the category that includes your total household income before taxes for year 2007.  (n=2,584)

Less than twenty-five thousand dollars ………………………..............20%
From twenty-five to less than fifty thousand dollars …………........24%
From fifty to less than seventy-five thousand dollars…………........18%
From seventy-five to less than one-hundred thousand dollars …..12%
One hundred thousand dollars or more ………………………................13%
DK/NS …………………................…………………...............................5%
RF ……………………................……………………................................9%

Thank you.  Those are all the questions I have at this time.

 

Return to the Table of Contents

 

APPENDIX A 

SAMPLING ERRORS AT 95 PERCENT CONFIDENCE LEVEL

Illustrative interpretation: This survey shows that, based on a sample of 2,584 respondents, 49.8 percent of American adults have taken a specialized vitamin or mineral supplement in the previous 12 months (Question G3). Suppose 20 different samples were taken with the same sample size, the same sampling and interviewing procedures, and the same questionnaire.  Then, one would expect that, in 19 of the 20 samples, the responses would fall between 49.8 ± 2.0 percent (2.0 from the far right column in the last row).

     Response %  
Sample Size10(90)20(80)30(70)40(60)50(50)
1005.97.89.09.69.8
2004.25.56.46.86.9
3003.44.55.25.55.7
4002.93.94.54.84.9
5002.63.54.04.34.3
6002.43.23.73.94.0
7002.23.03.43.63.7
8002.12.83.23.43.5
1,0001.92.52.83.03.1
2,0001.31.82.02.22.2
2,5001.21.61.82.02.0

 

Return to the Table of Contents