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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Animal & Veterinary

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Animal Husbandry and Disease Control: Aquaculture

INTRODUCTION AQUACULTURE IN THE U.S. HAS GROWN TREMENDOUSLY DURING THE PAST 40 YEARS. MUCH OF THIS GROWTH HAS BEEN THE RESULT OF EXPANSION OF CHANNEL CATFISH CULTURE ACROSS THE SOUTHERN STATES. HOWEVER, INCREASE IN TROUT, SALMON, TILAPIA AND STRIPED BASS CULTURE HAS ALSO CONTRIBUTED TO THIS PHENOMENAL GROWTH. IN SPITE OF THE GROWTH OF AQUACULTURE THE INDUSTRY IS SMALL COMPARED TO BEEF, POULTRY AND SWINE BUT IN THE SOUTH, CATFISH CULTURE IS THE PRIMARY INDUSTRY IN MANY OF THE POOREST, IMPOVERISHED COUNTIES.

ALONG WITH THE GROWTH OF AQUACULTURE, WELL KNOWN INFECTIOUS DISEASES HAVE BECOME MORE PROBLEMATIC AND INTENSIFICATION HAS ALLOWED NEW DISEASES TO EMERGE. AS A RESULT, INFECTIOUS DISEASES REMAIN ONE OF THE TOP THREE LIMITING FACTORS OF AQUACULTURE.


SOURCE OF SEAFOOD IN THE U. S.

AQUACULTURE20%
WILD CATCH30 %
IMPORTS50%

 

AQUACULTURE GROUPS

  • DOOD FISH
    • CATFISH
    • SALMONIDS
    • OTHER (TILAPIA, STRIPED BASS, ETC.)
  • BAIT FISH
  • ORNAMENTAL FISH
  • CRUSTACEANS (CRAWFISH AND SHRIMP)
  • OYSTERS

 

AOUACULTURE PRODUCTION IN U.S. WT. MIL. LBS. PROCESSED 1999)

CATFISH525
TROUT56.7
SALMON39.7
CRAWFISH49.3
OYSTERS62
OTHER50
BAIT FISH-


LOSSES IN AQUACULTURE

DISEASES45.4%
PREDATION37.4%
LOW DISO. OXY.12.1%
OTHER5.1%


MOST SIGNIFICANT DISEASES: CHANNEL CATFISH >ENTERIC SEPTICEMIA

  • COLUMNARIS
  • PROLIFERATIVE GILL DISEASE
  • WINTER KILL (SAPROLEGNIA)
  • ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS
  • CHANNEL CATFISH VIRUS


MOST SIGNIFICANT DISEASES: SALMONIDS

  • FURUNCULOSIS
  • COLD WATER DISEASE
  • BACTERIAL KIDNEY DISEASE
  • ENTERIC REDMOUTH
  • COLD WATER VIBRIOSIS
  • INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS

 

AQUACULTURE APPROACH TO DISEASE HEALTH MANAGEMENT:

  • PREMISE MOST CLINICAL DISEASES OF FISH RESULT FROM MANAGEMENT OR ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS; PATHOGENS ARE SELDOM PRIMARY AETIOLOGIES ALONE

 

[Image]

John A. Plumb, 1996

The integral effect of "Host". "Husbandry", "Environment", "Nutrition", "Pathogen" and "Physiological Status" to "Fish Health Status". Each factor not only affects the fish health status, each subpart may affect the stability of an other factor.

 

DISEASE PREVENTION (PROACTIVE)

  • PROPER HANDLING
  • POND/RACEWAY HYGIENE
  • WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT
    • WATER FLOW
    • AERATION
    • ALGAE/PLANT CONTROL
    • ALKALINITY/HARDNESS
  • MODERATION IN STOCKING DENSITY
  • FEED MANAGEMENT/NUTRITION
  • DISEASE RESISTANT STOCKS
  • SPECIFIC DISEASE FREE STOCKS
  • PROPHYLACTIC TREATMENT
  • VACCINATION

 

CHEMOTHERAPY (REACTACTIVE)

(NOT USED INDISCRIMINATELY)

 

 

EXAMPLE: TREATMENT OF ENTERIC SEPTICEMIA OF CATFISH (ESC) ON 571 CATFISH FARMS

TREATMENT% OPERATIONS
TAKE OFF FEED72.6
FEED ROMET 30*41.4
NO TREATMENT14.6
OTHER ACTIONS4.2

 

* PRIMARILY JUVENILES

 

CATFISH FEED WITH ANTIBIOTICS

YEARPERCENTAGE
19941.5
19951.7
19961.4
19971.3
19980.9
19990.9
20000.6

 

METHODS OF CHEMOTHERAPY

  • DIP SECONDS
  • FLUSH MINUTES
  • PROLONGED MINUTES/HOURS
  • INDEFINITE DAYS
  • FEED ADDITIVE DAYS
  • INJECTION SINGLE

 

FDA REGISTERED DRUGS

  1.  FORMALIN
    • BATH TREATMENT
    • EXTERNAL PARASITES
    • FUNGICIDE ON EGGS
    • ALL FISH
  2. TERRAMYCIN (OXYTETRACYCLINE)
    • FEED ADDITIVE
    • SYSTEMIC BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
    • CATFISH & SALMONIDS
    • TAG FISH BY IMMERSION OR FEED
  3. ROMET 30
    • FEED ADDITIVE
    • SYSTEMIC BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
    • CATFISH

 

EPA REGISTERED CHEMICALS FOR PLANT CONTROL/WATER QUALITY

  1. COPPER SULFATE
    • ALGAE CONTROL
    • INAD IN PLACE FOR CONTROL OF ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS ON CATFISH AND OTHER EXTERNAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS ON ALL FISH
  2. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE
    • ORGANIC OXIDIZING AGENT
    • INAD FOR EXTERNAL BACTERIA, PARASITES, FUNGI ON ALL FISH


OTHER DRUGS UNDER CONSIDERATION WITH INADS (LICENSING QUEST.)

  1. ORAL ANTIBIOTICS
    • ENROFLOXACIN: FURUNCULOSIS IN SALMONIDS
    • FLORFENICOL: FURUNCULOSIS IN SALMONIDS (RECENTLY APPROVED IN CANADA)
    • AMOXICILLIN: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE NEEDS ADDRESSING
  2. INJECTABLE
    • ERYTHROMYCIN: SALMON PRIOR TO SPAWNING; INHIBIT TRANSMISSION OF BACTERIAL KIDNEY DISEASE

 

OTHER DRUGS CONT.

  1. BATH/IMMERSION TREATMENT
    • FUMAGILLIN: MICROSPORIDIA IN MUSCLE, EYE, INTERNAL ORGANS
    • CHLORAMINE T: EXTERNAL BACTERIA (FLAVOBACTERIA) ON GILLS/SKIN (USED EXTENSIVELY IN EUROPE)
    • HYDROGEN PEROXIDE: LOW REGULATORY PRIORITY FOR FUNGUS CONTROL ON EGGS/FISH

 

ANTIBIOTICS IN U.S. AQUACULTURE

  • MORE RESTRICTIVE THAN IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD
  • FOR CLINICAL DISEASE TREATMENT; NOT PROPHYLACTICALLY
  • CATFISH: 0.6% FEEDS CONTAIN ANTIBIO.
  • SALMONIDS: 37,000 LB OF 20% ACTIVE OXYTETRACYCLINE/YR
  • TILAPIA/STRIPED BASS: LIMITED
  • MARKING FISH WITH OXYTETRACYCLINE BY IMMERSION OR IN FEED IS LIMITED

 

ANTIBIOTICS IN U.S. CONT.

  • ABUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN AQUACULTURE IS NOT COMMON
  • USE OF ANTIBIOTICS HAS DECLINED IN AQUACULTURE BECAUSE:
    1. FDA REGULATION LIMITS THEIR USE
    2. CONCERNS FOR PATHOGEN RESISTANCE
    3. LACK OF DEPENDABLE EFFICACY
    4. DISEASE PREVENTION THROUGH HEALTH MANAGEMENT IS BETTER APPROACH TO INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    5. IMPLEMENTATION OF VACCINES WILL BECOME MORE IMPORTANT

 

CONCLUSIONS

  1. U.S. AQUACULTURE PROVIDES 10% TO SEA FOOD MARKET
  2. MAJOR PORTION COMES FROM WILD CATCH, IMPORTS
  3. HEALTH MANAGEMENT HAS BECOME MORE IMPORTANT IN COMBATING INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN U.S. AQUACULTURE
  4. USE OF ANTIBIOTICS