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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Animal & Veterinary

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Peer Reviewed Publications

J. A. Crump, F. M. Medalla, K. W. Joyce, A. L. Krueger, R. M. Hoekstra, J. M. Whichard, and E. J. Barzilay. Antimicrobial resistance among invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates in the United States: National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, 1996 to 2007. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 55 (3):1148-1154, 2011.

J. A. Davis, C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. B. Barrett, J. H. Brousse, J. Gustafson, and M. Kucher. Anatomical distribution and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from healthy companion animals. J Appl.Microbiol. 110 (2):597-604, 2011.

J. P. Folster, G. Pecic, E. Taylor, and J. Whichard. Characterization of isolates from a multi-drug resistant outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O145 infections in the United States. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother., 2011.

J. P. Folster, G. Pecic, A. Bowen, R. Rickert, A. Carattoli, and J. M. Whichard. Decreased Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin among Shigella Isolates in the United States, 2006 to 2009. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 55 (4):1758-1760, 2011.

J. P. Folster, G. Pecic, A. McCullough, R. Rickert, and J. M. Whichard. Characterization of bla(CMY)-Encoding Plasmids Among Salmonella Isolated in the United States in 2007. Foodborne Pathog.Dis., 2011.

J. G. Frye, R. L. Lindsey, R. J. Meinersmann, M. E. Berrang, C. R. Jackson, M. D. Englen, J. B. Turpin, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Related Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected in Different Bacterial Species Co-isolated from Swine Fecal Samples. Foodborne Pathog.Dis., 2011.

L. M. Glenn, R. L. Lindsey, J. F. Frank, R. J. Meinersmann, M. D. Englen, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and J. G. Frye. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes detected in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from food animals. Microb.Drug Resist. 17 (3):407-418, 2011.

L. M. Glenn, R. L. Lindsey, J. F. Frank, R. J. Meinersmann, M. D. Englen, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and J. G. Frye. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Detected in Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Food Animals. Microb.Drug Resist., 2011.

C. R. Jackson, J. E. Lombard, D. A. Dargatz, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Prevalence, species distribution and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from US dairy cattle. Lett.Appl.Microbiol 52 (1):41-48, 2011.

A. L. Krueger, J. Folster, F. Medalla, K. Joyce, M. B. Perri, L. Johnson, M. Zervos, J. M. Whichard, and E. J. Barzilay. Commensal Escherichia coli isolate resistant to eight classes of antimicrobial agents in the United States. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 8 (2):329-332, 2011.

R. L. Lindsey, J. G. Frye, S. N. Thitaram, R. J. Meinersmann, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and M. D. Englen. Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli by Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles, Plasmid Replicon Typing, and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis. Microb.Drug Resist., 2011.

R. L. Lindsey, J. G. Frye, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and R. J. Meinersmann. Microarray-based analysis of IncA/C plasmid-associated genes from multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 77 (19):6991-6999, 2011.

F. Medalla, M. Sjolund-Karlsson, S. Shin, E. Harvey, K. Joyce, L. Theobald, B. N. Nygren, G. Pecic, K. Gay, J. Austin, A. Stuart, E. Blanton, E. D. Mintz, J. M. Whichard, and E. J. Barzilay. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi, United States, 1999-2008. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 17 (6):1095-1098, 2011.

M. Sjolund-Karlsson, K. Joyce, K. Blickenstaff, T. Ball, J. Haro, F. M. Medalla, P. Fedorka-Cray, S. Zhao, J. A. Crump, and J. M. Whichard. Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica isolates from the United States. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 55 (9):3985-3989, 2011.

M. Sjolund-Karlsson, R. Howie, A. Krueger, R. Rickert, G. Pecic, K. Lupoli, J. P. Folster, and J. M. Whichard. CTX-M-producing non-Typhi Salmonella spp. isolated from humans, United States. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 17 (1):97-99, 2011.

M. Sjolund-Karlsson, K. Joyce, K. Blickenstaff, T. Ball, J. Haro, F. M. Medalla, P. Fedorka-Cray, S. Zhao, J. A. Crump, and J. M. Whichard. Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica isolates from the United States. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 55 (9):3985-3989, 2011.

X. Xia, J. Meng, S. Zhao, S. Bodeis-Jones, S. A. Gaines, S. L. Ayers, and P. F. McDermott. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli from Retail Meats. J Food Prot. 74 (1):38-44, 2011.

N. A. Cox, L. J. Richardson, J. A. Cason, R. J. Buhr, Y. Vizzier-Thaxton, D. P. Smith, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. P. Romanenghi, L. V. Pereira, and M. P. Doyle. Comparison of neck skin excision and whole carcass rinse sampling methods for microbiological evaluation of broiler carcasses before and after immersion chilling. J Food Prot. 73 (5):976-980, 2010.

M. A. Davis, J. Y. Lim, Y. Soyer, H. Harbottle, Y. F. Chang, D. New, L. H. Orfe, T. E. Besser, and D. R. Call. Development and validation of a resistance and virulence gene microarray targeting Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. J Microbiol Methods 82 (1):36-41, 2010.

J. P. Folster, G. Pecic, A. Krueger, R. Rickert, K. Burger, A. Carattoli, and J. M. Whichard. Identification and characterization of CTX-M-producing Shigella isolates in the United States. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 54 (5):2269-2270, 2010.

J. P. Folster, G. Pecic, S. Bolcen, L. Theobald, K. Hise, A. Carattoli, S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, and J. M. Whichard. Characterization of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from humans in the United States. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 7 (2):181-187, 2010.

J. G. Frye, R. L. Lindsey, G. Rondeau, S. Porwollik, F. Long, M. McClelland, C. R. Jackson, M. D. Englen, R. J. Meinersmann, M. E. Berrang, J. A. Davis, J. B. Barrett, J. B. Turpin, S. N. Thitaram, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Development of a DNA microarray to detect antimicrobial resistance genes identified in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Microb.Drug Resist. 16 (1):9-19, 2010.

P. Gerner-Smidt and J. M. Whichard. Foodborne disease trends and reports. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 7 (6):609-611, 2010.

A. L. Green, D. A. Dargatz, B. A. Wagner, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. R. Ladely, and C. A. Kopral. Analysis of risk factors associated with Salmonella spp. isolated from U.S. feedlot cattle. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 7 (7):825-833, 2010.

R. L. Howie, J. P. Folster, A. Bowen, E. J. Barzilay, and J. M. Whichard. Reduced Azithromycin Susceptibility in Shigella sonnei, United States. Microb.Drug Resist., 2010.

R. L. Lindsey, J. G. Frye, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, T. J. Welch, and R. J. Meinersmann. An oligonucleotide microarray to characterize multidrug resistant plasmids. J Microbiol Methods 81 (2):96-100, 2010.

N. M. M'ikanatha, C. H. Sandt, A. R. Localio, D. Tewari, S. C. Rankin, J. M. Whichard, S. F. Altekruse, E. Lautenbach, J. P. Folster, A. Russo, T. M. Chiller, S. M. Reynolds, and P. F. McDermott. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates from retail chicken meat compared with human clinical isolates. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 7 (8):929-934, 2010.

E. O'Regan, T. Quinn, J. G. Frye, J. M. Pages, S. Porwollik, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, M. McClelland, and S. Fanning. Fitness costs and stability of a high-level ciprofloxacin resistance phenotype in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis: reduced infectivity associated with decreased expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 genes. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 54 (1):367-374, 2010.

M. Sjolund-Karlsson, R. Howie, R. Rickert, A. Krueger, T. T. Tran, S. Zhao, T. Ball, J. Haro, G. Pecic, K. Joyce, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. M. Whichard, and P. F. McDermott. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolates, USA. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 16 (11):1789-1791, 2010.

M. Sjolund-Karlsson, R. Rickert, C. Matar, G. Pecic, R. L. Howie, K. Joyce, F. Medalla, E. J. Barzilay, and J. M. Whichard. Salmonella Isolates with Decreased Susceptibility to Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporins in the United States. Foodborne Pathog.Dis., 2010.

S. Thakur, S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, H. Harbottle, J. Abbott, L. English, W. A. Gebreyes, and D. G. White. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and genotypic profile comparison of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from humans and retail meats. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 7 (7):835-844, 2010.

J. M. Whichard, F. Medalla, R. M. Hoekstra, P. F. McDermott, K. Joyce, T. Chiller, T. J. Barrett, and D. G. White. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes for predicting multidrug-resistant Salmonella recovered from retail meats and humans in the United States. J Food Prot. 73 (3):445-451, 2010.

X. Xia, J. Meng, P. F. McDermott, S. Ayers, K. Blickenstaff, T. T. Tran, J. Abbott, J. Zheng, and S. Zhao. Presence and characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and other potentially diarrheagenic E. coli strains in retail meats. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 76 (6):1709-1717, 2010.

S. Zhao, S. R. Young, E. Tong, J. W. Abbott, N. Womack, S. L. Friedman, and P. F. McDermott. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from retail meat in the United States between 2002 and 2007. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 76 (24):7949-7956, 2010.

J. P. Folster, R. Rickert, E. J. Barzilay, and J. M. Whichard. Identification of the aminoglycoside resistance determinants armA and rmtC among non-Typhi Salmonella isolates from humans in the United States. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 53 (10):4563-4564, 2009.

W. F. Fricke, P. F. McDermott, M. K. Mammel, S. Zhao, T. J. Johnson, D. A. Rasko, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, A. Pedroso, J. M. Whichard, J. E. Leclerc, D. G. White, T. A. Cebula, and J. Ravel. Antimicrobial resistance-conferring plasmids with similarity to virulence plasmids from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates from poultry. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 75 (18):5963-5971, 2009.

W. F. Fricke, T. J. Welch, P. F. McDermott, M. K. Mammel, J. E. Leclerc, D. G. White, T. A. Cebula, and J. Ravel. Comparative genomics of the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family. J Bacteriol. 191 (15):4750-4757, 2009.

R. S. Hendriksen, A. M. Seyfarth, A. B. Jensen, J. Whichard, S. Karlsmose, K. Joyce, M. Mikoleit, S. M. DeLong, F. X. Weill, A. Aidara-Kane, D. M. Lo Fo Wong, F. J. Angulo, H. C. Wegener, and F. M. Aarestrup. Results of use of WHO Global Salm-Surv external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates from 2000 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol. 47 (1):79-85, 2009.

J. R. Johnson, J. S. McCabe, D. G. White, B. Johnston, M. A. Kuskowski, and P. McDermott. Molecular Analysis of Escherichia coli from retail meats (2002-2004) from the United States National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Clin Infect.Dis. 49 (2):195-201, 2009.

S. R. Ladely, R. J. Meinersmann, M. D. Englen, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and M. A. Harrison. 23S rRNA gene mutations contributing to macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 6 (1):91-98, 2009.

R. L. Lindsey, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. G. Frye, and R. J. Meinersmann. Inc A/C plasmids are prevalent in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 75 (7):1908-1915, 2009.

P. Petrov, R. S. Hendriksen, T. Kantardjiev, G. Asseva, G. Sorensen, P. Fields, M. Mikoleit, J. Whichard, J. R. McQuiston, M. Torpdahl, F. M. Aarestrup, and F. J. Angulo. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- strains from Bulgaria, Denmark, and the United States. Eur.J Clin.Microbiol Infect.Dis. 28 (5):473-479, 2009.

L. G. Pittenger, M. D. Englen, C. T. Parker, J. G. Frye, B. Quinones, S. T. Horn, I. Son, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and M. A. Harrison. Genotyping Campylobacter jejuni by comparative genome indexing: an evaluation with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and flaA SVR sequencing. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 6 (3):337-349, 2009.

M. Sjolund-Karlsson, J. P. Folster, G. Pecic, K. Joyce, F. Medalla, R. Rickert, and J. M. Whichard. Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolates from humans in the United States. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 53 (5):2142-2144, 2009.

S. Thakur, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, S. Zhao, B. Kroft, W. Gebreyes, J. Abbott, P. Cullen, L. English, P. Carter, and H. Harbottle. Genotyping of Campylobacter coli isolated from humans and retail meats using multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Appl.Microbiol. 106 (5):1722-1733, 2009.

T. J. Welch, J. Evenhuis, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, H. Harbottle, R. A. Miller, M. Griffin, and D. Wise. IncA/C plasmid-mediated florfenicol resistance in the catfish pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 53 (2):845-846, 2009.

X. Xia, S. Zhao, A. Smith, J. McEvoy, J. Meng, and A. A. Bhagwat. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from retail foods based on serotyping, pulse field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic resistance and other phenotypic properties. Int.J Food Microbiol. 129 (1):93-98, 2009.

B. Yang, J. Zheng, E. W. Brown, S. Zhao, and J. Meng. Characterisation of antimicrobial resistance-associated integrons and mismatch repair gene mutations in Salmonella serotypes. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 33 (2):120-124, 2009.

S. Zhao, K. Blickenstaff, A. Glenn, S. L. Ayers, S. L. Friedman, J. W. Abbott, and P. F. McDermott. beta-Lactam resistance in salmonella strains isolated from retail meats in the United States by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System between 2002 and 2006. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 75 (24):7624-7630, 2009.

J. Zheng, S. Cui, and J. Meng. Effect of transcriptional activators RamA and SoxS on expression of multidrug efflux pumps AcrAB and AcrEF in fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 63 (1):95-102, 2009.

J. A. Crump, K. Kretsinger, K. Gay, R. M. Hoekstra, D. J. Vugia, S. Hurd, S. D. Segler, M. Megginson, L. J. Luedeman, B. Shiferaw, S. S. Hanna, K. W. Joyce, E. D. Mintz, and F. J. Angulo. Clinical response and outcome of infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones: a United States foodnet multicenter retrospective cohort study. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 52 (4):1278-1284, 2008.

A. Douris, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and C. R. Jackson. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Agona slaughter isolates from the animal arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System-Enteric Bacteria (NARMS): 1997 through 2003. Microb.Drug Resist. 14 (1):55-63, 2008.

S. Egorova, M. Timinouni, M. Demartin, S. A. Granier, J. M. Whichard, V. Sangal, L. Fabre, A. Delaune, M. Pardos, Y. Millemann, E. Espie, M. Achtman, P. A. Grimont, and F. X. Weill. Ceftriaxone-resistant salmonella enterica serotype Newport, France. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 14 (6):954-957, 2008.

J. G. Frye, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. R. Jackson, and M. Rose. Analysis of Salmonella enterica with reduced susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone isolated from U.S. cattle during 2000-2004. Microb.Drug Resist. 14 (4):251-258, 2008.

S. K. Greene, A. M. Stuart, F. M. Medalla, J. M. Whichard, R. M. Hoekstra, and T. M. Chiller. Distribution of multidrug-resistant human isolates of MDR-ACSSuT Salmonella Typhimurium and MDR-AmpC Salmonella Newport in the United States, 2003-2005. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 5 (5):669-680, 2008.

S. K. Gupta, F. Medalla, M. W. Omondi, J. M. Whichard, P. I. Fields, P. Gerner-Smidt, N. J. Patel, K. L. Cooper, T. M. Chiller, and E. D. Mintz. Laboratory-based surveillance of paratyphoid fever in the United States: travel and antimicrobial resistance. Clin Infect.Dis. 46 (11):1656-1663, 2008.

C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. B. Barrett, L. M. Hiott, and T. A. Woodley. First report of vatB and vgaB from Enterococcus gallinarum in the USA. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 31 (2):175-176, 2008.

P. Kaldhone, R. Nayak, A. M. Lynne, D. E. David, P. F. McDermott, C. M. Logue, and S. L. Foley. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg from turkey-associated sources. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 74 (16):5038-5046, 2008.

J. I. Lundin, D. A. Dargatz, B. A. Wagner, J. E. Lombard, A. E. Hill, S. R. Ladely, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Antimicrobial drug resistance of fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from United States dairy cows. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 5 (1):7-19, 2008.

A. M. Lynne, B. S. Rhodes-Clark, K. Bliven, S. Zhao, and S. L. Foley. Antimicrobial resistance genes associated with Salmonella enterica serovar newport isolates from food animals. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 52 (1):353-356, 2008.

P. F. McDermott, L. M. McMurry, I. Podglajen, J. L. Dzink-Fox, T. Schneiders, M. P. Draper, and S. B. Levy. The marC gene of Escherichia coli is not involved in multiple antibiotic resistance. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 52 (1):382-383, 2008.

J. Rubin, R. D. Walker, K. Blickenstaff, S. Bodeis-Jones, and S. Zhao. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine infections. Vet.Microbiol. 131 (1-2):164-172, 2008.

M. Sjolund, J. Yam, J. Schwenk, K. Joyce, F. Medalla, E. Barzilay, and J. M. Whichard. Human Salmonella infection yielding CTX-M beta-lactamase, United States. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 14 (12):1957-1959, 2008.

B. A. Wagner, B. E. Straw, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and D. A. Dargatz. Effect of antimicrobial dosage regimen on Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from feeder swine. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 74 (6):1731-1739, 2008.

D. F. Woods, F. J. Reen, D. Gilroy, J. Buckley, J. G. Frye, and E. F. Boyd. Rapid multiplex PCR and real-time TaqMan PCR assays for detection of Salmonella enterica and the highly virulent serovars Choleraesuis and Paratyphi C. J Clin Microbiol. 46 (12):4018-4022, 2008.

M. Xi, J. Zheng, S. Zhao, E. W. Brown, and J. Meng. An enhanced discriminatory pulsed-field gel electrophoresis scheme for subtyping Salmonella serotypes Heidelberg, Kentucky, SaintPaul, and Hadar. J Food Prot. 71 (10):2067-2072, 2008.

M. B. Zaidi, J. J. Calva, M. T. Estrada-Garcia, V. Leon, G. Vazquez, G. Figueroa, E. Lopez, J. Contreras, J. Abbott, S. Zhao, P. McDermott, and L. Tollefson. Integrated food chain surveillance system for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 14 (3):429-435, 2008.

S. Zhao, D. G. White, S. L. Friedman, A. Glenn, K. Blickenstaff, S. L. Ayers, J. W. Abbott, E. Hall-Robinson, and P. F. McDermott. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates from retail meats, including poultry, from 2002 to 2006. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 74 (21):6656-6662, 2008.

J. Zheng, S. Cui, L. D. Teel, S. Zhao, R. Singh, A. D. O'Brien, and J. Meng. Identification and characterization of Shiga toxin type 2 variants in Escherichia coli isolates from animals, food, and humans. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 74 (18):5645-5652, 2008.

J. Zheng, J. Meng, S. Zhao, R. Singh, and W. Song. Campylobacter-induced interleukin-8 secretion in polarized human intestinal epithelial cells requires Campylobacter-secreted cytolethal distending toxin- and Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Infect.Immun. 76 (10):4498-4508, 2008.

A. Zioga, J. M. Whichard, K. J. Joyce, E. Tzelepi, L. S. Tzouvelekis, and V. Miriagou. Evidence for chromosomal and plasmid location of CMY-2 cephalosporinase gene in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 61 (6):1389-1390, 2008.

F. M. Aarestrup, R. S. Hendriksen, J. Lockett, K. Gay, K. Teates, P. F. McDermott, D. G. White, H. Hasman, G. Sorensen, A. Bangtrakulnonth, S. Pornreongwong, C. Pulsrikarn, F. J. Angulo, and P. Gerner-Smidt. International spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Schwarzengrund in food products. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 13 (5):726-731, 2007.

S. Chen, S. Cui, P. F. McDermott, S. Zhao, D. G. White, I. Paulsen, and J. Meng. Contribution of target gene mutations and efflux to decreased susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 51 (2):535-542, 2007.

A. Douris, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and C. R. Jackson. Detection of plasmids and class 1 integrons in Salmonella enterica serovar agona isolated from NARMS slaughter samples collected in the years 1997-2003. Microb.Drug Resist. 13 (3):212-219, 2007.

M. D. Englen, A. E. Hill, D. A. Dargatz, S. R. Ladely, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in US dairy cattle. J Appl.Microbiol. 102 (6):1570-1577, 2007.

I. Feder, J. T. Gray, R. A. Pearce, P. M. Fratamico, E. Bush, A. Porto-Fett, F. M. Wallace, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and J. B. Luchansky. Testing of swine feces obtained through the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Swine 2000 study for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Food Prot. 70 (6):1489-1492, 2007.

J. G. Frye and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Prevalence, distribution and characterisation of ceftiofur resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from animals in the USA from 1999 to 2003. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 30 (2):134-142, 2007.

J. Guard-Bouldin, C. A. Morales, J. G. Frye, R. K. Gast, and M. Musgrove. Detection of Salmonella enterica subpopulations by phenotype microarray antibiotic resistance patterns. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 73 (23):7753-7756, 2007.

C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. B. Barrett, L. M. Hiott, and T. A. Woodley. Prevalence of streptogramin resistance in enterococci from animals: identification of vatD from animal sources in the USA. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 30 (1):60-66, 2007.

C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, N. Wineland, J. D. Tankson, J. B. Barrett, A. Douris, C. P. Gresham, C. Jackson-Hall, B. M. McGlinchey, and M. V. Price. Introduction to United States Department of Agriculture VetNet: status of Salmonella and Campylobacter databases from 2004 through 2005. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 4 (2):241-248, 2007.

J. M. Nelson, T. M. Chiller, J. H. Powers, and F. J. Angulo. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story. Clin Infect.Dis. 44 (7):977-980, 2007.

S. Simjee, P. F. McDermott, D. G. White, C. Hofacre, R. D. Berghaus, P. J. Carter, L. Stewart, T. Liu, M. Maier, and J. J. Maurer. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of antimicrobial-resistance genes among Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates recovered from poultry litter. Avian Dis. 51 (4):884-892, 2007.

J. E. Stevenson, K. Gay, T. J. Barrett, F. Medalla, T. M. Chiller, and F. J. Angulo. Increase in nalidixic acid resistance among non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolates in the United States from 1996 to 2003. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 51 (1):195-197, 2007.

T. J. Welch, W. F. Fricke, P. F. McDermott, D. G. White, M. L. Rosso, D. A. Rasko, M. K. Mammel, M. Eppinger, M. J. Rosovitz, D. Wagner, L. Rahalison, J. E. Leclerc, J. M. Hinshaw, L. E. Lindler, T. A. Cebula, E. Carniel, and J. Ravel. Multiple antimicrobial resistance in plague: an emerging public health risk. PLoS One 2 (3):e309, 2007.

J. M. Whichard, K. Gay, J. E. Stevenson, K. J. Joyce, K. L. Cooper, M. Omondi, F. Medalla, G. A. Jacoby, and T. J. Barrett. Human Salmonella and concurrent decreased susceptibility to quinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 13 (11):1681-1688, 2007.

P. L. White, A. L. Naugle, C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, B. E. Rose, K. M. Pritchard, P. Levine, P. K. Saini, C. M. Schroeder, M. S. Dreyfuss, R. Tan, K. G. Holt, J. Harman, and S. Buchanan. Salmonella Enteritidis in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003. J Food Prot. 70 (3):582-591, 2007.

M. B. Zaidi, V. Leon, C. Canche, C. Perez, S. Zhao, S. K. Hubert, J. Abbott, K. Blickenstaff, and P. F. McDermott. Rapid and widespread dissemination of multidrug-resistant blaCMY-2 Salmonella Typhimurium in Mexico. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 60 (2):398-401, 2007.

S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, D. G. White, S. Qaiyumi, S. L. Friedman, J. W. Abbott, A. Glenn, S. L. Ayers, K. W. Post, W. H. Fales, R. B. Wilson, C. Reggiardo, and R. D. Walker. Characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella recovered from diseased animals. Vet.Microbiol. 123 (1-3):122-132, 2007.

J. Zheng, C. E. Keys, S. Zhao, J. Meng, and E. W. Brown. Enhanced subtyping scheme for Salmonella enteritidis. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 13 (12):1932-1935, 2007.

G. Arlet, T. J. Barrett, P. Butaye, A. Cloeckaert, M. R. Mulvey, and D. G. White. Salmonella resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins: prevalence and epidemiology. Microbes Infect. 8 (7):1945-1954, 2006.

P. B. Bahnson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. R. Ladely, and N. E. Mateus-Pinilla. Herd-level risk factors for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in U.S. market pigs. Prev.Vet.Med 76 (3-4):249-262, 2006.

P. Butaye, G. B. Michael, S. Schwarz, T. J. Barrett, A. Brisabois, and D. G. White. The clonal spread of multidrug-resistant non-typhi Salmonella serotypes. Microbes Infect. 8 (7):1891-1897, 2006.

A. Carattoli, V. Miriagou, A. Bertini, A. Loli, C. Colinon, L. Villa, J. M. Whichard, and G. M. Rossolini. Replicon typing of plasmids encoding resistance to newer beta-lactams. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 12 (7):1145-1148, 2006.

S. M. Donabedian, M. B. Perri, D. Vager, E. Hershberger, P. Malani, S. Simjee, J. Chow, E. N. Vergis, R. R. Muder, K. Gay, F. J. Angulo, P. Bartlett, and M. J. Zervos. Quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolates from humans, farm animals, and grocery store meat in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 44 (9):3361-3365, 2006.

S. L. Foley, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, R. D. Walker, B. Rhodes, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. Simjee, and S. Zhao. Comparison of subtyping methods for differentiating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates obtained from food animal sources. J Clin Microbiol. 44 (10):3569-3577, 2006.

J. G. Frye, T. Jesse, F. Long, G. Rondeau, S. Porwollik, M. McClelland, C. R. Jackson, M. Englen, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. DNA microarray detection of antimicrobial resistance genes in diverse bacteria. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 27 (2):138-151, 2006.

K. Gay, A. Robicsek, J. Strahilevitz, C. H. Park, G. Jacoby, T. J. Barrett, F. Medalla, T. M. Chiller, and D. C. Hooper. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in non-Typhi serotypes of Salmonella enterica. Clin Infect.Dis. 43 (3):297-304, 2006.

B. Ge, W. Girard, S. Zhao, S. Friedman, S. A. Gaines, and J. Meng. Genotyping of Campylobacter spp. from retail meats by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. J Appl.Microbiol. 100 (1):175-184, 2006.

H. Harbottle, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, R. D. Walker, and S. Zhao. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial susceptibility typing for characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 44 (7):2449-2457, 2006.

T. W. Jesse, M. D. Englen, L. G. Pittenger-Alley, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Two distinct mutations in gyrA lead to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from chickens and beef cattle. J Appl.Microbiol. 100 (4):682-688, 2006.

T. W. Jesse, L. G. Pittenger-Alley, and M. D. Englen. Sequence analysis of two cryptic plasmids from an agricultural isolate of Campylobacter coli. Plasmid 55 (1):64-69, 2006.

S. Kim, J. G. Frye, J. Hu, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, R. Gautom, and D. S. Boyle. Multiplex PCR-based method for identification of common clinical serotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. J Clin Microbiol. 44 (10):3608-3615, 2006.

T. Luangtongkum, T. Y. Morishita, A. J. Ison, S. Huang, P. F. McDermott, and Q. Zhang. Effect of conventional and organic production practices on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in poultry. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 72 (5):3600-3607, 2006.

W. G. Miller, M. D. Englen, S. Kathariou, I. V. Wesley, G. Wang, L. Pittenger-Alley, R. M. Siletz, W. Muraoka, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and R. E. Mandrell. Identification of host-associated alleles by multilocus sequence typing of Campylobacter coli strains from food animals. Microbiology 152 (Pt 1):245-255, 2006.

X. Qin, Y. Razia, J. R. Johnson, J. R. Stapp, D. R. Boster, T. Tsosie, D. L. Smith, C. R. Braden, K. Gay, F. J. Angulo, and P. I. Tarr. Ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the fecal microflora of children. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 50 (10):3325-3329, 2006.

S. Simjee, Y. Zhang, P. F. McDermott, S. M. Donabedian, M. J. Zervos, and J. Meng. Heterogeneity of vat(E)-carrying plasmids in Enterococcus faecium recovered from human and animal sources. Int.J Antimicrob.Agents 28 (3):200-205, 2006.

S. Sivapalasingam, J. M. Nelson, K. Joyce, M. Hoekstra, F. J. Angulo, and E. D. Mintz. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 50 (1):49-54, 2006.

B. Swaminathan, T. J. Barrett, and P. Fields. Surveillance for human Salmonella infections in the United States. J AOAC.Int. 89 (2):553-559, 2006.

J. K. Varma, R. Marcus, S. A. Stenzel, S. S. Hanna, S. Gettner, B. J. Anderson, T. Hayes, B. Shiferaw, T. L. Crume, K. Joyce, K. E. Fullerton, A. C. Voetsch, and F. J. Angulo. Highly resistant Salmonella Newport-MDRAmpC transmitted through the domestic US food supply: a FoodNet case-control study of sporadic Salmonella Newport infections, 2002-2003. J Infect.Dis. 194 (2):222-230, 2006.

M. B. Zaidi, P. F. McDermott, P. Fedorka-Cray, V. Leon, C. Canche, S. K. Hubert, J. Abbott, M. Leon, S. Zhao, M. Headrick, and L. Tollefson. Nontyphoidal Salmonella from human clinical cases, asymptomatic children, and raw retail meats in Yucatan, Mexico. Clin Infect.Dis. 42 (1):21-28, 2006.

S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, S. Friedman, S. Qaiyumi, J. Abbott, C. Kiessling, S. Ayers, R. Singh, S. Hubert, J. Sofos, and D. G. White. Characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella isolated from imported foods. J Food Prot. 69 (3):500-507, 2006.

S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, S. Friedman, J. Abbott, S. Ayers, A. Glenn, E. Hall-Robinson, S. K. Hubert, H. Harbottle, R. D. Walker, T. M. Chiller, and D. G. White. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness among Salmonella from retail foods of animal origin: NARMS retail meat surveillance. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 3 (1):106-117, 2006.

J. Zheng, J. Meng, S. Zhao, R. Singh, and W. Song. Adherence to and invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from retail meat products. J Food Prot. 69 (4):768-774, 2006.

D. M. Blau, B. J. McCluskey, S. R. Ladely, D. A. Dargatz, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, K. E. Ferris, and M. L. Headrick. Salmonella in dairy operations in the United States: prevalence and antimicrobial drug susceptibility. J Food Prot. 68 (4):696-702, 2005.

S. Chen, S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, C. M. Schroeder, D. G. White, and J. Meng. A DNA microarray for identification of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella serovars and Escherichia coli. Mol.Cell Probes 19 (3):195-201, 2005.

M. D. Englen, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. R. Ladely, and D. A. Dargatz. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Campylobacter from feedlot cattle*. J Appl.Microbiol. 99 (2):285-291, 2005.

T. L. Fisk, B. E. Lundberg, J. L. Guest, S. Ray, T. J. Barrett, B. Holland, K. Stamey, F. J. Angulo, and M. M. Farley. Invasive infection with multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium definitive type 104 among HIV-infected adults. Clin Infect.Dis. 40 (7):1016-1021, 2005.

B. Ge, P. F. McDermott, D. G. White, and J. Meng. Role of efflux pumps and topoisomerase mutations in fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 49 (8):3347-3354, 2005.

E. L. Hannah, F. J. Angulo, J. R. Johnson, B. Haddadin, J. Williamson, and M. H. Samore. Drug-resistant Escherichia coli, Rural Idaho. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 11 (10):1614-1617, 2005.

C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. B. Barrett, and S. R. Ladely. High-level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci isolated from swine. Epidemiol Infect. 133 (2):367-371, 2005.

C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, M. C. Jackson-Hall, and L. M. Hiott. Effect of media, temperature and culture conditions on the species population and antibiotic resistance of enterococci from broiler chickens. Lett.Appl.Microbiol 41 (3):262-268, 2005.

P. F. McDermott, S. M. Bodeis-Jones, T. R. Fritsche, R. N. Jones, and R. D. Walker. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni and the determination of quality control ranges for fourteen antimicrobial agents. J Clin Microbiol. 43 (12):6136-6138, 2005.

P. F. McDermott, P. Cullen, S. K. Hubert, S. D. McDermott, M. Bartholomew, S. Simjee, and D. D. Wagner. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility of native Enterococcus faecium in chickens fed virginiamycin. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 71 (9):4986-4991, 2005.

S. C. Rankin, J. M. Whichard, K. Joyce, L. Stephens, K. O'shea, H. Aceto, D. S. Munro, and C. E. Benson. Detection of a bla(SHV) extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase in Salmonella enterica serovar Newport MDR-AmpC. J Clin Microbiol. 43 (11):5792-5793, 2005.

R. Singh, C. M. Schroeder, J. Meng, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, D. D. Wagner, H. Yang, S. Simjee, C. Debroy, R. D. Walker, and S. Zhao. Identification of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli recovered from humans and food animals. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 56 (1):216-219, 2005.

J. K. Varma, K. D. Greene, J. Ovitt, T. J. Barrett, F. Medalla, and F. J. Angulo. Hospitalization and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella outbreaks, 1984-2002. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 11 (6):943-946, 2005.

J. K. Varma, K. Molbak, T. J. Barrett, J. L. Beebe, T. F. Jones, T. Rabatsky-Ehr, K. E. Smith, D. J. Vugia, H. G. Chang, and F. J. Angulo. Antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella is associated with excess bloodstream infections and hospitalizations. J Infect.Dis. 191 (4):554-561, 2005.

J. M. Whichard, K. Joyce, P. D. Fey, J. M. Nelson, F. J. Angulo, and T. J. Barrett. Beta-lactam resistance and Enterobacteriaceae, United States. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 11 (9):1464-1466, 2005.

J. G. Wright, L. A. Tengelsen, K. E. Smith, J. B. Bender, R. K. Frank, J. H. Grendon, D. H. Rice, A. M. Thiessen, C. J. Gilbertson, S. Sivapalasingam, T. J. Barrett, T. E. Besser, D. D. Hancock, and F. J. Angulo. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in four animal facilities. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 11 (8):1235-1241, 2005.

S. Zhao, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. Friedman, P. F. McDermott, R. D. Walker, S. Qaiyumi, S. L. Foley, S. K. Hubert, S. Ayers, L. English, D. A. Dargatz, B. Salamone, and D. G. White. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium of animal origin obtained from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 2 (2):169-181, 2005.

S. Zhao, J. J. Maurer, S. Hubert, J. F. De Villena, P. F. McDermott, J. Meng, S. Ayers, L. English, and D. G. White. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characterization of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates. Vet.Microbiol. 107 (3-4):215-224, 2005.

F. J. Angulo, N. L. Baker, S. J. Olsen, A. Anderson, and T. J. Barrett. Antimicrobial use in agriculture: controlling the transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans. Semin Pediatr.Infect.Dis. 15 (2):78-85, 2004.

F. J. Angulo, J. A. Nunnery, and H. D. Bair. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic enteric pathogens. Rev.Sci Tech. 23 (2):485-496, 2004.

F. J. Angulo, V. N. Nargund, and T. C. Chiller. Evidence of an association between use of anti-microbial agents in food animals and anti-microbial resistance among bacteria isolated from humans and the human health consequences of such resistance. J Vet.Med B Infect.Dis.Vet.Public Health 51 (8-9):374-379, 2004.

S. Chen, S. Zhao, D. G. White, C. M. Schroeder, R. Lu, H. Yang, P. F. McDermott, S. Ayers, and J. Meng. Characterization of multiple-antimicrobial-resistant salmonella serovars isolated from retail meats. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 70 (1):1-7, 2004.

B. Doublet, A. Carattoli, J. M. Whichard, D. G. White, S. Baucheron, E. Chaslus-Dancla, and A. Cloeckaert. Plasmid-mediated florfenicol and ceftriaxone resistance encoded by the floR and bla(CMY-2) genes in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport isolated in the United States. FEMS Microbiol.Lett 233 (2):301-305, 2004.

S. L. Foley, S. Simjee, J. Meng, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, and S. Zhao. Evaluation of molecular typing methods for Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle, food, and humans. J Food Prot. 67 (4):651-657, 2004.

M. K. Glynn, V. Reddy, L. Hutwagner, T. Rabatsky-Ehr, B. Shiferaw, D. J. Vugia, S. Segler, J. Bender, T. J. Barrett, and F. J. Angulo. Prior antimicrobial agent use increases the risk of sporadic infections with multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium: a FoodNet case-control study, 1996-1997. Clin Infect.Dis. 38 Suppl 3:S227-S236, 2004.

J. T. Gray, L. L. Hungerford, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and M. L. Headrick. Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolates of animal origin. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 48 (8):3179-3181, 2004.

A. Gupta, J. M. Nelson, T. J. Barrett, R. V. Tauxe, S. P. Rossiter, C. R. Friedman, K. W. Joyce, K. E. Smith, T. F. Jones, M. A. Hawkins, B. Shiferaw, J. L. Beebe, D. J. Vugia, T. Rabatsky-Ehr, J. A. Benson, T. P. Root, and F. J. Angulo. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter strains, United States, 1997-2001. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 10 (6):1102-1109, 2004.

C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. B. Barrett, and S. R. Ladely. Effects of tylosin use on erythromycin resistance in enterococci isolated from swine. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 70 (7):4205-4210, 2004.

C. R. Jackson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, J. B. Barrett, and S. R. Ladely. Genetic relatedness of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci isolated from poultry carcasses. Avian Dis. 48 (1):100-107, 2004.

P. F. McDermott, S. M. Bodeis, F. M. Aarestrup, S. Brown, M. Traczewski, P. Fedorka-Cray, M. Wallace, I. A. Critchley, C. Thornsberry, S. Graff, R. Flamm, J. Beyer, D. Shortridge, L. J. Piddock, V. Ricci, M. M. Johnson, R. N. Jones, B. Reller, S. Mirrett, J. Aldrobi, R. Rennie, C. Brosnikoff, L. Turnbull, G. Stein, S. Schooley, R. A. Hanson, and R. D. Walker. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for campylobacter with quality-control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem. Microb.Drug Resist. 10 (2):124-131, 2004.

J. M. Nelson, K. E. Smith, D. J. Vugia, T. Rabatsky-Ehr, S. D. Segler, H. D. Kassenborg, S. M. Zansky, K. Joyce, N. Marano, R. M. Hoekstra, and F. J. Angulo. Prolonged diarrhea due to ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacter infection. J Infect.Dis. 190 (6):1150-1157, 2004.

T. Rabatsky-Ehr, J. Whichard, S. Rossiter, B. Holland, K. Stamey, M. L. Headrick, T. J. Barrett, and F. J. Angulo. Multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, United States, 1997-1998. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 10 (5):795-801, 2004.

D. G. White, S. Zhao, R. Singh, and P. F. McDermott. Antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative foodborne bacterial pathogens associated with foods of animal origin. Foodborne Pathog.Dis. 1 (3):137-152, 2004.

H. Yang, S. Chen, D. G. White, S. Zhao, P. McDermott, R. Walker, and J. Meng. Characterization of multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens and swine in China. J Clin Microbiol. 42 (8):3483-3489, 2004.

A. D. Anderson, J. M. Nelson, S. Rossiter, and F. J. Angulo. Public health consequences of use of antimicrobial agents in food animals in the United States. Microb.Drug Resist. 9 (4):373-379, 2003.

J. A. Crump, T. J. Barrett, J. T. Nelson, and F. J. Angulo. Reevaluating fluoroquinolone breakpoints for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and for non-Typhi salmonellae. Clin Infect.Dis. 37 (1):75-81, 2003.

D. A. Dargatz, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. R. Ladely, C. A. Kopral, K. E. Ferris, and M. L. Headrick. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. isolates from US cattle in feedlots in 1999 and 2000. J Appl.Microbiol. 95 (4):753-761, 2003.

B. Ge, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, W. Girard, S. Zhao, S. Hubert, and J. Meng. Antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter species from retail raw meats. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (5):3005-3007, 2003.

A. Gupta, J. Fontana, C. Crowe, B. Bolstorff, A. Stout, S. Van Duyne, M. P. Hoekstra, J. M. Whichard, T. J. Barrett, and F. J. Angulo. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the United States. J Infect.Dis. 188 (11):1707-1716, 2003.

J. R. Hayes, L. L. English, P. J. Carter, T. Proescholdt, K. Y. Lee, D. D. Wagner, and D. G. White. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococcus species isolated from retail meats. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 69 (12):7153-7160, 2003.

P. F. McDermott, R. D. Walker, and D. G. White. Antimicrobials: modes of action and mechanisms of resistance. Int J Toxicol 22 (2):135-143, 2003.

C. M. Schroeder, D. G. White, B. Ge, Y. Zhang, P. F. McDermott, S. Ayers, S. Zhao, and J. Meng. Isolation of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from retail meats purchased in Greater Washington, DC, USA. Int.J Food Microbiol. 85 (1-2):197-202, 2003.

D. G. White, S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, S. Ayers, S. Friedman, J. Sherwood, M. Breider-Foley, and L. K. Nolan. Characterization of integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from diseased swine. Can.J Vet.Res 67 (1):39-47, 2003.

D. G. White, S. Ayers, J. J. Maurer, S. G. Thayer, and C. Hofacre. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from commercial broilers in northeastern Georgia. Avian Dis. 47 (1):203-210, 2003.

D. G. White, A. Datta, P. McDermott, S. Friedman, S. Qaiyumi, S. Ayers, L. English, S. McDermott, D. D. Wagner, and S. Zhao. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relatedness of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal-derived dog treats in the USA. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 52 (5):860-863, 2003.

S. Zhao, A. R. Datta, S. Ayers, S. Friedman, R. D. Walker, and D. G. White. Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars isolated from imported foods. Int.J Food Microbiol. 84 (1):87-92, 2003.

S. Zhao, S. Qaiyumi, S. Friedman, R. Singh, S. L. Foley, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, T. Donkar, C. Bolin, S. Munro, E. J. Baron, and R. D. Walker. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype newport isolated from humans and food animals. J Clin Microbiol. 41 (12):5366-5371, 2003.

K. M. Bischoff, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, S. Zhao, S. Gaines, J. J. Maurer, and D. J. Nisbet. Characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in neonatal swine. J Clin Microbiol. 40 (2):389-394, 2002.

D. A. Dargatz, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. R. Ladely, K. E. Ferris, A. L. Green, and M. L. Headrick. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella isolates from cattle in feedlots. J Am Vet.Med Assoc. 221 (2):268-272, 2002.

P. J. Fedorka-Cray, M. D. Englen, J. T. Gray, C. Hudson, and M. L. Headrick. Programs for monitoring antimicrobial resistance. Anim.Biotechnol. 13 (1):43-55, 2002.

B. Ge, S. Bodeis, R. D. Walker, D. G. White, S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, and J. Meng. Comparison of the Etest and agar dilution for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 50 (4):487-494, 2002.

M. D. Lee, S. Sanchez, M. Zimmer, U. Idris, M. E. Berrang, and P. F. McDermott. Class 1 integron-associated tobramycin-gentamicin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from the broiler chicken house environment. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 46 (11):3660-3664, 2002.

P. F. McDermott, S. M. Bodeis, L. L. English, D. G. White, R. D. Walker, S. Zhao, S. Simjee, and D. D. Wagner. Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni evolves rapidly in chickens treated with fluoroquinolones. J Infect.Dis. 185 (6):837-840, 2002.

P. F. McDermott, S. Zhao, D. D. Wagner, S. Simjee, R. D. Walker, and D. G. White. The food safety perspective of antibiotic resistance. Anim.Biotechnol. 13 (1):71-84, 2002.

S. A. McEwen and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. Antimicrobial use and resistance in animals. Clin Infect.Dis. 34 Suppl 3:S93-S106, 2002.

E. M. Ribot, R. K. Wierzba, F. J. Angulo, and T. J. Barrett. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 isolated from humans, United States, 1985, 1990, and 1995. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 8 (4):387-391, 2002.

C. M. Schroeder, C. Zhao, C. Debroy, J. Torcolini, S. Zhao, D. G. White, D. D. Wagner, P. F. McDermott, R. D. Walker, and J. Meng. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from humans, cattle, swine, and food. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 68 (2):576-581, 2002.

C. M. Schroeder, J. Meng, S. Zhao, C. Debroy, J. Torcolini, C. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, D. D. Wagner, R. D. Walker, and D. G. White. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O26, O103, O111, O128, and O145 from animals and humans. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 8 (12):1409-1414, 2002.

S. Simjee, D. G. White, J. Meng, D. D. Wagner, S. Qaiyumi, S. Zhao, J. R. Hayes, and P. F. McDermott. Prevalence of streptogramin resistance genes among Enterococcus isolates recovered from retail meats in the Greater Washington DC area. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 50 (6):877-882, 2002.

S. Simjee, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, D. D. Wagner, M. J. Zervos, S. M. Donabedian, L. L. English, J. R. Hayes, and R. D. Walker. Characterization of Tn1546 in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from canine urinary tract infections: evidence of gene exchange between human and animal enterococci. J Clin Microbiol. 40 (12):4659-4665, 2002.

S. Simjee, D. G. White, D. D. Wagner, J. Meng, S. Qaiyumi, S. Zhao, and P. F. McDermott. Identification of vat(E) in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from retail poultry and its transferability to Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 46 (12):3823-3828, 2002.

D. G. White, S. Zhao, S. Simjee, D. D. Wagner, and P. F. McDermott. Antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens. Microbes Infect. 4 (4):405-412, 2002.

D. G. White, S. Zhao, P. F. McDermott, S. Ayers, S. Gaines, S. Friedman, D. D. Wagner, J. Meng, D. Needle, M. Davis, and C. Debroy. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli O111 isolates of animal and human origin. Microb.Drug Resist. 8 (2):139-146, 2002.

T. Zhao, M. P. Doyle, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, P. Zhao, and S. Ladely. Occurrence of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104A in retail ground beef. J Food Prot. 65 (2):403-407, 2002.

L. C. McDonald, S. Rossiter, C. Mackinson, Y. Y. Wang, S. Johnson, M. Sullivan, R. Sokolow, E. DeBess, L. Gilbert, J. A. Benson, B. Hill, and F. J. Angulo. Quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on chicken and in human stool specimens. N Engl.J Med 345 (16):1155-1160, 2001.

S. Simjee, P. F. McDermott, D. D. Wagner, and D. G. White. Variation within the vat(E) allele of Enterococcus faecium isolates from retail poultry samples. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 45 (10):2931-2932, 2001.

D. G. White and P. F. McDermott. Biocides, drug resistance and microbial evolution. Curr.Opin.Microbiol 4 (3):313-317, 2001.

D. G. White, S. Zhao, R. Sudler, S. Ayers, S. Friedman, S. Chen, P. F. McDermott, S. McDermott, D. D. Wagner, and J. Meng. The isolation of antibiotic-resistant salmonella from retail ground meats. N Engl.J Med 345 (16):1147-1154, 2001.

S. Zhao, D. G. White, B. Ge, S. Ayers, S. Friedman, L. English, D. Wagner, S. Gaines, and J. Meng. Identification and characterization of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 67 (4):1558-1564, 2001.

S. Zhao, D. G. White, P. F. McDermott, S. Friedman, L. English, S. Ayers, J. Meng, J. J. Maurer, R. Holland, and R. D. Walker. Identification and expression of cephamycinase bla(CMY) genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from food animals and ground meat. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 45 (12):3647-3650, 2001.

F. J. Angulo and P. M. Griffin. Changes in antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 6 (4):436-438, 2000.

F. J. Angulo, K. R. Johnson, R. V. Tauxe, and M. L. Cohen. Origins and consequences of antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella: implications for the use of fluoroquinolones in food animals. Microb.Drug Resist. 6 (1):77-83, 2000.

D. A. Dargatz, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. R. Ladely, and K. E. Ferris. Survey of Salmonella serotypes shed in feces of beef cows and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. J Food Prot. 63 (12):1648-1653, 2000.

E. F. Dunne, P. D. Fey, P. Kludt, R. Reporter, F. Mostashari, P. Shillam, J. Wicklund, C. Miller, B. Holland, K. Stamey, T. J. Barrett, J. K. Rasheed, F. C. Tenover, E. M. Ribot, and F. J. Angulo. Emergence of domestically acquired ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections associated with AmpC beta-lactamase. JAMA 284 (24):3151-3156, 2000.

N. N. Marano, S. Rossiter, K. Stamey, K. Joyce, T. J. Barrett, L. K. Tollefson, and F. J. Angulo. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for enteric bacteria, 1996-1999: surveillance for action. J Am Vet.Med Assoc. 217 (12):1829-1830, 2000.

D. G. White, C. Hudson, J. J. Maurer, S. Ayers, S. Zhao, M. D. Lee, L. Bolton, T. Foley, and J. Sherwood. Characterization of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli associated with bovine diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol. 38 (12):4593-4598, 2000.

J. E. Akkina, A. T. Hogue, F. J. Angulo, R. Johnson, K. E. Petersen, P. K. Saini, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and W. D. Schlosser. Epidemiologic aspects, control, and importance of multiple-drug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in the United States. J Am Vet.Med Assoc. 214 (6):790-798, 1999.

S. A. Carlson, L. F. Bolton, C. E. Briggs, H. S. Hurd, V. K. Sharma, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and B. D. Jones. Detection of multiresistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 using multiplex and fluorogenic PCR. Mol.Cell Probes 13 (3):213-222, 1999.

L. Tollefson, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, and F. J. Angulo. Public health aspects of antibiotic resistance monitoring in the USA. Acta Vet.Scand Suppl. 92:67-75, 1999.

M. D. Apley, S. A. Brown, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, S. Ferenc, J. K. House, J. E. Riviere, L. B. Rice, C. Thornsberry, and J. Waddell. Role of veterinary therapeutics in bacterial resistance development: animal and public health perspectives. J Am Vet.Med Assoc. 212 (8):1209-1213, 1998.

P. J. Fedorka-Cray, D. A. Dargatz, S. J. Wells, N. E. Wineland, M. A. Miller, L. Tollefson, and K. E. Petersen. Impact of antimicrobic use in veterinary medicine. J Am Vet.Med Assoc. 213 (12):1739-1741, 1998.

M. K. Glynn, C. Bopp, W. Dewitt, P. Dabney, M. Mokhtar, and F. J. Angulo. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. N Engl.J Med 338 (19):1333-1338, 1998.

E. J. Threlfall, F. J. Angulo, and P. G. Wall. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Vet.Rec. 142 (10):255, 1998.

L. Tollefson, F. J. Angulo, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. National surveillance for antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteric pathogens. Vet.Clin.North Am Food Anim.Pract. 14 (1):141-150, 1998.

H. Herikstad, P. Hayes, M. Mokhtar, M. L. Fracaro, E. J. Threlfall, and F. J. Angulo. Emerging quinolone-resistant Salmonella in the United States. Emerg.Infect.Dis. 3 (3):371-372, 1997.

H. Herikstad, P. S. Hayes, J. Hogan, P. Floyd, L. Snyder, and F. J. Angulo. Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella in the United States. Pediatr.Infect.Dis.J 16 (9):904-905, 1997.