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Safety & Health

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on
Chemical Contaminants


Linda A. Benjamin, PhD

Presented To:
Animal Feed Safety System 
Public Meeting
Gaithersburg, Maryland
May 22, 2007
 

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 1

Slide 2

Exposure to Contaminants in
Feeds and Feed Ingredients – Factors

  • Levels in raw and processed feed ingredients
       – Karen Ekelman
  • Level changes during processing of feed ingredients  
      – Linda Benjamin
  • Levels in finished feeds
      – Phares Okelo
  • Level changes during storage, transportation and feeding
      – Phares Okelo
  • Amount consumed by swine
      – Barry Hooberman
  • Amount consumed by humans
      – Barry Hooberman
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 2

Slide 3

AFSS Big Picture

Animal Health           Human Health


Animal Feed Safety System (AFSS) is a program aimed at protecting human and animal health by ensuring that animal feed is safe  

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 3

Slide 4

AFSS Big Picture

Ingredient     Animal Feed                 Animal Health      Human Health

Animal Feed Safety System (AFSS) is a program aimed at protecting human and animal
health by ensuring that animal feed is safe

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 4

Slide 5

AFSS Big Picture

Ingredient     Animal Feed                Animal Health      Human Health

 

Chemical
Contaminant 
 Manufacturing
Processes 

 

Safe Feed/
Safe Food  
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 5

Slide 6

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants

Need to Know:
  1. Contaminants
  2. Manufacturing Processes 
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 6

Slide 7

Chemical Contaminants

  • Mycotoxin
  • Aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, vomitoxin
  • Pesticides
  • OP: Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl
  • OC: Methoxychlor
  • Heavy Metals, Elements
  • Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, nickel, antimony, selenium, copper, zinc, chromium, iron
  • Halogenated Organic Compounds
  • Dioxins, PCB’s
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 7

Slide 8

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants

Need to Know:
  1. Contaminants
  2. Manufacturing Processes
     
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 8

Slide 9

 

Ingredient

Ingredient Origin

Manufacturing Process

Corn, groundCornGround or Chopped (entire corn kernel)
Soybean meal,
solvent extracted
SoybeanGrinding the flakes which remain after removal of most of the oil from soybeans by solvent extraction
Fish Meal,
select menhaden
FishClean, dried, ground tissue of undecomposed whole fish or fish cuttings.  May have part of oil extracted
Spray dried animal blood cellsWhole animal bloodSpray drying red and white blood cells
Dried wheyMilkDrying – water removal from whey
(whey – fluid from separating the coagulum from milk, cream or skimmed milk.  A portion of the milk fat may have been removed)
Choice white greaseAnimal, PorkRendering of pork tissues
FatAnimal, BeefRendering or extraction of beef tissue
DDGs Barley, cereal, corn, rye, sorghum, or wheat  Biomass obtained after grain exposed to yeast fermentation, distillation, drying and addition of solubles.
(solubles – product obtained after grain is exposed to yeast  fermentation, distillation, separation of thin stillage, condensing and drying of stillage)
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 9

Slide 10

Manufacturing Processes

  • Physical
    • Cleaning, grinding, chopping, solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, mixing
  • Thermal
    • Drying, grinding, rendering, fermentation, distillation, pelleting
  • Chemical
    • Fermentation (acids, ammonia, urea, etc.)
       
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 10

Slide 11

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants

Need to Know:
  1. Contaminants
  2. Manufacturing Processes
  3. Scoring System 
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 11

Slide 12

Scoring System

  • Effect of a process on a contaminant
    • Does a process increase (I), decrease (D) or have no
    • effect (NE) on contaminant?
    • What is the magnitude of that effect? 
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 12

Slide 13

Scoring System

  • Effect of a process on a contaminant
    • Does a process increase (I), decrease (D) or have no-effect (NE) on contaminant?
    • What is the magnitude of that effect?
    • How certain are you in your estimation?
  • Resources
    • Literature, databases, personal knowledge, etc.
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 13

Slide 14

Syracuse Environmental Fate Database

DATALOG is a bibliographic file containing 18 types of environmental fate data.

BIOLOG or the Microbial Degradation/Toxicity File, provides sources of microbial toxicity and
biodegradation data.

CHEMFATE is a data value file containing 25 categories of environmental fate and physical/chemical
property information on commercially important chemical compounds.

BIODEG contains experimental values relating to biodegradation subjects.

BIODEG SUMMARY provides summary evaluation and reliability codes for different test methods, as
well as summaries for biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
 

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 14

Slide 15

CHEMFATE Search Parameters

CAS#: 000121-75-5   Formula:C10H19O6PS2

Name: MALATHION

Print full reference list    Yes     No

Limit Search by selecting data types listed below.

NO SELECTIONS will cause ALL records for chemical to be retrieved
Number of records present for each data type is indicated next to the data type name.

 

1. ID-identification2. BIOC-Log Bioconerntration Factor
1. MELT-Melting Point0. HYDR-Hydrolysis
1. BOIL-Boiling Point0. OXID-Oxidation & Other Reactions
0. UV-Ultra Violet Absorption0. PHOT-Photolysis
0. PKA-Log Acid Dissociation Constant0. MICD-Microbial Degradation
2. LOGP-Log Octanol/Water Partition Coeff0. NSYD-Degration in Natural Systems
3. WSOL-Waler Solubility0. ECOS-Ecosystem
1. VP-Vapor Pressure0. AIRM-Air Monitoring
2. HENL-Henry's Law Constant0. WATM-Water Monitoring
0. EVAW-Evaporation from Water0. SOIM-Soil Monitoring
1. SOIA-Soil Adsorption Constant0. BIOM-Biota Monitoring
0. SCOL-Soil Column Transport0. FIEL-Field Studies  
0. SRF-Soil Thin Layer Chromatography  
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 15

Slide 16

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants

Now We Know:
  1. Contaminants
  2. Manufacturing Processes
  3. Scoring System 
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 16

Slide 17

Chemical Contaminants Expert Opinion Worksheet

 

 Physical ProcessThermal ProcessChemical
Process
 CleanGrindChop

Sol-vent

Extr-action

Mech-anical

Extr-action

MixingDryGrindRe-nderFerme-ntationDistill-ationPell-etingFerme-ntationAmm-oniation
Myco-toxins              
Aflatoxin              
Zeara-lenone              
Fum-onisin              
Deoxyni-valenol              
Ochr-aoxin              
               
Malathion              
Chlorpyrif-
osmethyl
              
Pirmiphos              
Methox-oychlor              
               
Heavy Metals              
Arsenic              
Lead              
Mercury              
Cadmium              
Nickel              
Antimony              
               
Halog-enated
Organic
Com-pounds
              
Dioxin              
PCB's              
Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 17

Slide 18

Chemical Contaminant Expert Opinion Worksheet 

 

Contaminant
 
Thermal Processes (T)        
Cooking/
Rendering 
Drying Distillation Pelleting Comments
 
PESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertainty
Aflatoxins         
Malathion         
Cadmium         
Dioxins         

Process Effect Score (PES):  - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

Certainty: 1-Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain
 

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 18

Slide 19

Chemical Contaminant Expert Opinion Worksheet

 

ContaminantThermal Processes (T)
Cooking/
Rendering
DryingDistillationPelleting
PESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertainty
Aflatoxins
 
40%
 
30-10%310-20%30-10%3
 
Malathion80%40-10%3
20-50%
3
10%
 
3
CadmiumNE4,5NE4,5NE4,5NE4, 5
DioxinsNE3,4NE4,5NE4,5NE4, 5

Process Effect Score (PES):  - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

Certainty: 1–Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 19

Slide 20

Chemical Contaminant Expert Opinion Worksheet

 

ContaminantThermal Processes (T)
Cooking/
Rendering
DryingDistillationPelleting
PESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertainty
Aflatoxins
 
40%
 
30-10%310-20%30-10%3
 
Malathion80%40-10%3
20-50%
3
10%
 
3
CadmiumNE4,5NE4,5NE4,5NE4, 5
DioxinsNE3,4NE4,5NE4,5NE4, 5

Process Effect Score (PES):  - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

Certainty: 1–Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 20

Slide 21

Chemical Contaminant Expert Opinion Worksheet

 

ContaminantThermal Processes (T)
Cooking/
Rendering
DryingDistillationPelleting
PESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertaintyPESCertainty
Aflatoxins
 
40%
 
30-10%310-20%30-10%3
 
Malathion80%40-10%3
20-50%
3
10%
 
3
CadmiumNE4,5NE4,5NE4,5NE4, 5
DioxinsNE3,4NE4,5NE4,5NE4, 5

Process Effect Score (PES):  - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

Certainty: 1–Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 21

Slide 22

 

 

Swine Diet Ingredients

 

Processes

Aflatoxins, ppb

Malathion, ppm

Cadmium, ppm

Dioxins, ppt TEQ

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

Corn, ground

 

Grind or chop

19.44%
47.15

NE

18.83%
0.516

No
PES

100%
0.039

NE

50%
0.0091

No
PES

Soybean Meal,
solvent extracted

Solvent extraction, grind
 

4.09%
8.219


30-70%

0.56%
0.106


30-70%

100%
0.039


30-70%


100%
0.0167

No
PES

Fish Meal,
select menhaden
 

Clean, dry, ground, mechanical extraction

1.85%
110


10-50%

0.93%
0.301


10-50%

50%
0.073


10-20%


100%
0.58

No
PES

Spray dried blood cells

Spray dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301


0-10%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.338

NE

Dried whey
 

Coagulate, separation,
dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301


0-10%

50%
0.073


? 0-10%

86%
0.02


0-10%

Choice white grease
&Fat
 

Render

1.85%
110


40-50%

0.93% 0.301


50
80%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.3379

NE

DDGs
 

Grind, ferment, distill, dry

19.44%
47.15


50-70%

18.83%
0.516


30-50%

100%
0.039


50-70%

50%
0.0091


? 50-70%

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 22

Slide 23

 

Swine Diet Ingredients

Processes

Aflatoxins, ppb

Malathion, ppm

Cadmium, ppm

Dioxins, ppt TEQ

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

Corn, ground
 

Grind or chop

19.44%
47.15

NE

18.83%
0.516

No
PES

100%
0.039

NE

50%
0.0091

No
PES

Soybean Meal,
solvent extracted

Solvent extraction, grind

4.09%
8.219


30-70%

0.56%
0.106


30-70%

100%
0.039


30-70%


100%
0.0167

No
PES

Fish Meal,
select menhaden

Clean, dry, ground, mechanical extraction

1.85%
110


10-50%

0.93%
0.301


10-50%

50%
0.073


10-20%


100%
0.58

No
PES

Spray dried blood cells

Spray dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301



0-10%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.338

NE

Dried whey

Coagulate, separation,
dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301


0-10%

50%
0.073


 0-10%

86%
0.02


0-10%

Choice white grease
&Fat

Render

1.85%
110


40-50%

0.93% 0.301


50
80%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.3379

NE

DDGs
 

Grind, ferment, distill, dry

19.44%
47.15


50-70%

18.83%
0.516


30-50%

100%
0.039


50-70%

50%
0.0091


 50-70%

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 23

Slide 24

 

Swine Diet Ingredients


 Processes

Aflatoxins, ppb

Malathion, ppm

Cadmium, ppm

Dioxins, ppt TEQ

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

Corn, ground

Grind or chop

19.44%
47.15

NE
 

18.83%
0.516

No
PES

100%
0.039

NE

50%
0.0091

No
PES

Soybean Meal,
solvent extracted

Solvent extraction, grind

4.09%
8.219


30-70%

0.56%
0.106


30-70%

100%
0.039


30-70%


100%
0.0167

No
PES

Fish Meal,
select menhaden

Clean, dry, ground, mechanical extraction

1.85%
110


10-50%

0.93%
0.301


10-50%

50%
0.073


10-20%


100%
0.58

No
PES

Spray dried blood cells

Spray dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301



0-10%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.338

NE

Dried whey

Coagulate, separation,
dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301


0-10%

50%
0.073


 0-10%

86%
0.02


0-10%

Choice white grease
&Fat

Render

1.85%
110


40-50%

0.93% 0.301


50
80%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.3379

NE

DDGs
 

Grind, ferment, distill, dry

19.44%
47.15


50-70%

18.83%
0.516


30-50%

100%
0.039


50-70%

50%
0.0091


 50-70%

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 24

Slide 25

 

Swine Diet Ingredients


 

Processes

Aflatoxins, ppb

Malathion, ppm

Cadmium, ppm

Dioxins, ppt TEQ

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

Corn, ground

Grind or chop

19.44%
47.15

NE

18.83%
0.516

No
PES

100%
0.039

NE

50%
0.0091

No
PES

Soybean Meal,
solvent extracted

Solvent extraction, grind

4.09%
8.219


30-70%

0.56%
0.106


30-70%

100%
0.039


30-70%


100%
0.0167

No
PES

Fish Meal,
select menhaden

Clean, dry, ground, mechanical extraction

1.85%
110


10-50%

0.93%
0.301


10-50%

50%
0.073


10-20%


100%
0.58

No
PES

Spray dried blood cells

Spray dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301



0-10%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.338

NE

Dried whey

Coagulate, separation,
dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301


0-10%

50%
0.073


 0-10%

86%
0.02


0-10%

Choice white grease
&Fat

Render

1.85%
110


40-50%

0.93% 0.301


50
80%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.3379

NE

DDGs

Grind, ferment, distill, dry

19.44%
47.15


50-70%

18.83%
0.516


30-50%

100%
0.039


50-70%

50%
0.0091


 50-70%

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 25

Slide 26

 

Swine Diet Ingredients


 

Processes

Aflatoxins, ppb

Malathion, ppm

Cadmium, ppm

Dioxins, ppt TEQ

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

FCP
% pos, mean

EOW
(PES)

Corn, ground

Grind or chop

19.44%
47.15

NE

18.83%
0.516

No
PES

100%
0.039

NE

50%
0.0091

No
PES

Soybean Meal,
solvent extracted

Solvent extraction, grind
 

4.09%
8.219


30-70%

0.56%
0.106


30-70%

100%
0.039


30-70%


100%
0.0167

No
PES

Fish Meal,
select menhaden

Clean, dry, ground, mechanical extraction

1.85%
110


10-50%

0.93%
0.301


10-50%

50%
0.073


10-20%


100%
0.58

No
PES

Spray dried blood cells

Spray dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301



0-10%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.338

NE

Dried whey

Coagulate, separation,
dry

1.85%
110


0-10%

0.93% 0.301


0-10%

50%
0.073


 0-10%

86%
0.02


0-10%

Choice white grease
&Fat

Render

1.85%
110


40-50%

0.93% 0.301


50
80%

50%
0.073

NE

100%
0.3379

NE

DDGs

Grind, ferment, distill, dry

19.44%
47.15


50-70%

18.83%
0.516


30-50%

100%
0.039


50-70%

50%
0.0091


 50-70%

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 26

Slide 27

Questions ? 

Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants - Slide 27