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Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Karen B. Ekelman, PhD

Initial Contaminant Levels in
Swine Feed Ingredients

Karen B. Ekelman, PhD


Presented To:
Animal Feed Safety System 
Public Meeting
Gaithersburg, Maryland
May 22, 2007 

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 1

Slide 2

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine
Feed Ingredients - Outline

  • Introduction
  • Feed Contaminants Program Data 
     -  Pesticides   -   Microbes
     -  Elements  -     Dioxins
     -  Mycotoxins -  PCBs
  • Initial contaminant levels in ingredients for starter, grower and finisher swine feeds
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 2

Slide 3

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients

1. Introduction 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 3

Slide 4

Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels

 

Cont. A 

Cont. B 

Cont. C 

Contaminants 

 

 

 

 

Ingredient 1

Ingredient 2 

Ingredient 3 

Feed Ingredients 

 

 

 

 

 

Mill: Mix, Heat, etc. 

 

Manufacturing
Processes 

 

 

 

 

 

Finished Feed 

 

 

 

 

  

 

Animals 

 

 

 

 

Humans 

Population(s)

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 4

Slide 5

Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels

  • Challenge #1: Lack of data!
    • For chemicals – Feed Contaminants Program, published data, expert opinion
      • Data are particularly limited for elements
    • For microbes – Feed Contaminants Program, published data, expert opinion
      • Little or no data on levels of microbes in many feed ingredients and feeds
      • Data on % of feeds and feed ingredients containing microbes are generally limited to Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7; much less data are available for other microbes of interest
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 5

Slide 6

Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels

  • Challenge #2:  Data are not always available for the ingredient!
    • For example - Soybean meal
      • Microbes – Plant products and byproducts
      • Mycotoxins – Soybeans and soybean byproducts
      • Pesticides – Soybeans and soybean byproducts
      • Dioxins, PCBs – Soybean meal
    • For example – Spray-dried blood cells vs. Choice white grease
      • Microbes – Animal products and byproducts
      • Mycotoxins – Animal products and byproducts
      • Pesticides – Animal products and byproducts
      • Dioxins, PCBs – Animal fats
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 6

Slide 7

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients

2. FDA CVM Feed Contaminants Program Data 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 7

Slide 8

Feed Contaminants Program (FCP)

 

  • Sampling and
    inspection
    program for
    non-drug,
    non-BSE-related hazardous
    contaminants in
    feed
    and feed ingredients
  • Current FCP was
    published in 2005
  • http://www.fda.gov/
    cvm/Documents
    /7371-003.pdf

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE MANUAL

 

SUBJECT:

FEED CONTAMINANTS PROGRAM

IMPLEMENTATION DATE:

December 13, 2005

COMPLETION DATE:

9/30/2010

DATA REPORTING
PRODUCT CODESPRODUCT ASSIGNMENT CODES (PACs)

Industry Codes

54,69,70,71,72

71003A - Pesticides/Industrial Chemicals

71003B - Elements

71003C - Mycotoxins

71003E - Microbes

71003G - Dioxins

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 8

Slide 9

Feed Contaminants Program (FCP)

  • Pesticides
    • Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, methoxychlor, diazinon
  • Elements
    • Cadmium, lead, mercury
  • Mycotoxins
    • Aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A
  • Microbes
    • Salmonella enterica, E. coli O157:H7
      Dioxins and PCBs

       
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 9

Slide 10

Feed Contaminants Program – Pesticides

  • FDA conducts routine, annual surveillance for levels of pesticides in animal feeds
    • Feed ingredients and mixed feeds
    • From 1989 - 2005, approximately 500 – 600 samples per year; since then, approximately 200 per year
    • Data for AFSS swine feed model example are from 2000 - 2006
    • Routine surveillance results are summarized each year by district and food commodity but not by individual pesticides; these annual reports will soon be available on CVM’s web page
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 10

Slide 11

Feed Contaminants Program – Pesticides

Domestic Surveillance Feed Samples With Pesticides, 1992 to 2002
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 11

Slide 12

Feed Contaminants Programs – Pesticides

Means Pesticides Levels For Domestic Feeds Samples, 1992 - 2003 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 12

Slide 13

Feed Contaminants Program – Elements (Heavy Metals)

  • Very limited surveillance of elements in feed and feed ingredients
  • Some samples are collected in response to investigations (e.g., 2003 pet food investigation)
  • Data used for the AFSS swine feed example are from 2000 – present (2007)
  • Some data are available for:
    • Cadmium  
    • Selenium  
    • Nickel
    • Lead   
    • Copper   
    • Iron
    • Arsenic  
    • Zinc   
    • Mercury
    • Chromium 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 13

Slide 14

Feed Contaminants Program – Mycotoxins

  • Routine, annual surveillance for levels of 5 mycotoxins in animal feeds
    • Aflatoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A
    • Approximately 200 – 250 samples of feed ingredients and mixed feeds per year since 1994
    • For AFSS swine feed example, will use data from 1994 - 2004
    • Results are summarized annually by district, food commodity and mycotoxin and will soon be available on CVM’s web page; a publication is also planned. 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 14

Slide 15

Feed Contaminants Program – Mycotoxins

  • Results: FY05 256 samples (229 domestic, 27 import)
    • 4 samples exceeded guidance, 7 samples were positive with no official guidance

MYCOTOXIN

ANALYZED

POSITIVE

ABOVE GUIDANCE

Aflatoxins

201

13

2 (> 20ppb)

Fumonisins

93

46

2 (> 5ppm)

Ochratoxin A

17

3

3
(No guidance levels)

Zearalenone

8

4

4
(No guidance levels)

Deoxynivalenol

6

2

0

Total  

325  

68 

11

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 15

Slide 16

Feed Contaminant Program - Mycotoxins

  • Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) collected as part of routine surveillance sampling, 1999 – 2004, and as part of a special assignment during FY 2007 where 40 total samples are scheduled for collection.

 

FEED INGREDIENT CATEGORY

YEAR(S)

 TOTAL SAMPLES

% AFLA. +

DDGS from corn

2007

11

0%

DDGS

1994 - 2004

37

0%

Corn and corn
by-products 

1994 - 2004  

1471  

19.44%  

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 16

Slide 17

Feed Contaminants Program – Microbes

  • Routine, annual surveillance of feed and feed ingredients for Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7
    • About 200 samples collected per year, 1999 – present; data used for swine feed model example are from 1999 – 2003
    • Plant- and animal-origin feed ingredients, mixed feeds, pet foods and pet treats
    • Results reported as positive or negative; # of microbes per gram of sample is not determined
    • Each Salmonella isolate is characterized by serotype, genetic fingerprint, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern
    • Results are summarized each year and will soon be available on CVM’s web page
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 17

Slide 18

Feed Contaminants Program – Microbes

  • Routine surveillance results are summarized each year and will soon be available on CVM’s web page

 

FEED

# SAMPLES - SALMONELLA

% POSITIVE

RANGE % POSITIVE

Pet Treats (1999 - 2004)

355 

24.79%

11% to 100%

Animal-origin Feeds and FIs (2001 - 2004) 

100

72.00%

67% to 80%

Plant-origin Feeds and FIs (2001 - 2004)

91

7.69%

5% to 11%

Mixed and Complete Feeds (2001 - 2004)   

235  

10.64%  

8% to 13%

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 18

Slide 19

Feed Contaminants Program – Microbes

  • Special surveillance assignments
    • Heat-treated and non-heat-treated swine feed (FY 05)
    • Direct-human-contact feeds (pet foods/treats) (FY 06)

 

SAMPLE DESCRIPTION

# SAMPLES

# POSITIVE FOR SALMONELLA

# POSITIVE FOR E. COLI O157:H7

Swine Feed

31

4

0

Heated Swine Feed

15

0

0  

Non-Heated Swine Feed 

16  

4  

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 19

Slide 20

Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs

  • Special assignments almost every year since 1998, approximately 1000 total samples
  • Goal has been to obtain information about the background levels in feeds and feed ingredients
  • Sample collection and analysis also in response to specific dioxin-related issues (ball clay, zinc oxide, etc.)
  • Expensive sample collection and analysis by the GC-MS “gold” standard method compared to biological methods (e.g., CALUX)
  • Results reported as PPT TEQs (parts per trillion toxicity equivalents) for 10 dioxin and 7 furan congeners; recently, results also reported for 3 dioxin-like PCB congeners
  • Congener patterns can help trace sources of contamination
  • Results will be posted on CVM’s web page; several publications are also planned.
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 20

Slide 21

Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs

  • 1998 – anti-caking agents (ball clay)
  • 2000 – animal fats, fish meal, meat and bone meal, deodorizer distillates, molasses
  • 2001 – milk products, wood products, minerals, complete  feed, vitamins, oilseed meals
  • 2002 – minerals, forage, grains
  • 2003 – minerals (in response to 2 contamination incidents)
  • 2004 – animal and plant fats and oils used in animal feeds
    and in clays used to bleach/filter these fats/oils
  • 2005 – rendered mammalian and poultry fats, yellow grease
    and filtering and bleaching agents
  • 2006 – anti-caking agents, feed ingredients or bedding containing wood or wood products, and feed ingredients contacting or containing soil
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 21

Slide 22

Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs

  • Results:  Levels of dioxins in grains, grain by-products, and forages were consistently low and significantly below the EU limit for these products (0.75 ppt TEQ)

 

PRODUCT

SAMPLES

RANGE (ppt TEQ)

Grains

n = 93

0.00  -  0.034

Grain by-products

n = 49

0.00  -  0.074

Forages 

n = 10  

0.00  -  0.046   

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 22

Slide 23

Feed Contaminants Program - Dioxins and PCBs

  • Results:  Levels of dioxins in fish meal and fish oil samples were low and below the EU limit for dioxins in these products (1.25 ppt TEQ D/F for fish meal, 6 ppt TEQ D/F for fish oil), except for menhaden fish meal and fish oil. 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 23

Slide 24

Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels

  • Data may be available for some or all of the following:
    • Specified ingredients
    • Starting materials for ingredients
      • Modifying contaminant levels for processing steps associated with a specific ingredient will be presented by Drs. Benjamin and Okelo
    • Complete feed (mixed feeds, feed supplements, etc.)
      • Information on how to use contaminant levels in feed to check or validate some aspects of the risk ranking model will be discussed by Dr. Hooberman 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 24

Slide 25

Ingredients: Initial Contaminant Levels

 

DIET INGRED.

INGREDIENT CATEGORY FOR CONTAMINANTS

SALMONELLA

METHOXYCHLOR

AFLATOXINS

DIOXINS

Corn
 

Plant products & byproducts

Corn

Corn & corn byproducts

Corn

Spray-dried whey

Animal products & byproducts

Animal products & byproducts

Animal products & byproducts

Milk & milk byproducts

Soybean meal  

Plants products & byproducts  

Soybeans & soybean
byproducts   

Soybean & soybean
byproducts 

Soybean
meal  

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 25

Slide 26

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients

3. Contaminant Levels in Ingredients for Starter, Grower and Finisher Swine Feeds 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 26

Slide 27

Point Estimates vs. Distribution Measures

  • Examples today use point estimates of data, usually the mean
  • Model will use all available data, not just means:
    • Median vs. mean; range
    • Sample distributions and estimated population distributions
      • May incorporate “static” representations of the distributions
      • May use some method of random, iterative sampling from the distribution (e.g. Monte Carlo)
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 27

Slide 28

Starter Swine Feed – Example

 

Ingredient

 

Salmonella (% positives)

Aflatoxins (PPB)

Dioxins (PPT TEQ D/F)

Category

% Pos

Category

% Pos

Mean

Category

% Pos

Mean

Corn
 

Plant products
& byproducts

7.69% (n=91)

Corn & corn byproducts

19.44%

47 (n=1471)

Corn

50%

0.0091
(n=26)

Soybean meal, 46.5%
 

Plant products
& byproducts

7.69% (n=91)

Soybeans & soybean byproducts

4.09%

8 (n=318)

Soybean meal

100%

0.0167 (n=10)

Select menhaden fish meal
 

Animal products
& byproducts

72% (n=100)

Animal products & byproducts

1.85%

110 (n=54)

Menhaden fish meal

100%

0.58 (n=22)

Choice white grease

Animal products
& byproducts

72% (n=100)

Animal products & byproducts

1.85%

110 (n=54)

Animal fats

100%

0.3379 (n=55)

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 28

Slide 29

Grower Swine Feed - Example

 

Ingredient

 

Salmonella (% positives)

Aflatoxins (PPB)

Lead (PPM)

Category

%

Category

% Pos

Mean

Category

% Pos

Mean

Fat (animal)

Animal products & by products

72% (n=100)

Animal products & byproducts

1.85%

110 (n=54)

Animal products & byproducts

100%

0.16 (n=2)

Limestone

 

All feeds & feed ingredients

16.55% (n=145)

Minerals, mineral premix

0%

0
(n=2)

Minerals, mineral premix

67%

2.2 (n=3)

Vitamin premix

All feeds & feed ingredients

16.55% (n=145)

Vitamin, vitamin premix

0%

0
(n=1)

Vitamins, vitamin premix

0%

0
(n=0)

Trace mineral premix

All feeds & feed ingredients

16.55% (n=145)

Minerals mineral premix

0%

0
(n=2)

Minerals, mineral premix

67%

2.2 (n=3)

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 29

Slide 30

Finisher Swine Feed - Example

 

Ingredient

Salmonella (% positives)

Chlorpyrifos-methyl (PPM)

Cadmium (PPM)

Category

%

Category

% Pos

Mean

Category

% Pos

Mean

DDGS

 

Plant products & byproducts

7.69%
(n=91)

Corn

2.16%

0.037 (n=972)

Plant products & byproducts

100%

0.04 (n=2)

Corn

 

Plant products & byproducts

7.69%
(n=91)

Corn

2.16%

0.037 (n=972)

Plant products & byproducts

100%

0.034
(n=2)

Limestone

 

All feeds & feed ingredients

16.55% (n=145)

Minerals, mineral premix

0%

0
(n=0)

Minerals, mineral premix

100%

1.1 (n=3)

Vitamin premix

All feeds & feed ingredients

16.55% (n=145)

Vitamins, vitamin premix

0%

0
(n=0)

Vitamins, vitamin premix

0%

0
(n=0)

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 30

Slide 31

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients – Next Steps

  • Adjust initial contaminant levels in swine feed ingredients derived from Feed Contaminants Program data for information available in the published scientific literature
    • Except for mycotoxins, little of the data available in the public literature is specifically for feed ingredients/feeds
  • Where data are not available, or where data from different sources do not agree, use expert opinion to fill in the gaps or resolve discrepancies
    • Problem – Expert opinion is not data
    • Can determine how sensitive the risk ranking model results are to assumptions used (e.g., expert opinion); this can help identify the most critical data needed to improve the model’s results 
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 31

Slide 32

Next Presentations – Estimated levels of contaminants in swine feed

  • Estimate levels of contaminants in feed ingredients for which no data are available (e.g. spray-dried blood), based on how processing of the starting material (e.g. animal products and byproducts) is know or predicted to affect the level of contaminants in the ingredient
  • Estimate levels of contaminants in swine feeds, based on ingredients used  and  on how feed processing is know or predicted to affect levels of contaminants.
     
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 32

Slide 33

Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients

  • Questions?
     
Initial Contaminant Levels in Swine Feed Ingredients - Slide 33