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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Animal & Veterinary

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Paper Trail - Citations for Journal Articles and Posters by CVM Scientists from December 2010 to April 1, 2011


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 Cover of Paper Trail April 2011


Peters S, Yancy HF, Bremer E, Monroe J, Paul D, Stubbs III JT, and Myers MJ. In vitro identification and verification of inflammatory biomarkers in swine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2011;139(1):67-72.

Currently there are no non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) approved for the control of inflammation in swine due to a lack of validated animal models and suitable biomarkers to assess drug efficacy. This study investigates the differential expression of genes altered in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation which may serve as indicators of NSAID efficacy.

Andersen WC, Turnipseed SB, Karbiwnyk CM, Evans E, Hasbrouck N, Mayer TD, Gieseker CM, Nochetto C, Stine C, and Reimschuessel R. Bioaccumulation of Melamine in Catfish Muscle Following Continuous, Low-Dose, Oral Administration. J Agric Food Chem Epub 2011 Feb 22.

This study describes the accumulation of melamine in fish filets after feeding a low dose of 0.1 milligram (mg) melamine per kilogram (kg) of body weight, which is comparable to a dose of 2.5 mg/kg in feed. Maximum accumulation was reached after 28 days of dosing (0.33 mg/kg), with no significant additional accumulation occurring after 42 days of dosing (0.29 mg/kg). These levels are below the “level of no concern” of 2.5 mg/kg for foods established by the World Health Organization and risk assessors worldwide.

Jacob CC, Reimschuessel R, Von Tungeln LS, Olson GR, Warbritton AR, Hattan DG, Beland FA, and Gamboa da Costa G. Dose-response assessment of nephrotoxicity from a seven-day combined-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in F344 rats. Toxicol Sci 2010;119(2):391-397. Epub Oct 2010.

This study examines the effect of combined melamine and cyanuric acid exposure in rats. Several different doses were given to rats and the effect on kidney function, blood values, and crystal formation in kidney tubules were examined. This study is designed to provide preliminary information for a longer-term rat exposure study which will be used to predict risk to humans following potential ingestion of these chemicals.

Harding, A. Life Science Technologies: Lab Devices Get Smaller, More Intuitive, Less Expensive. Science. 2011: 332(6025):113-115.

This article is a feature piece that explores and attempts to predict how the miniaturization of laboratory technology has had and will have a significant effect upon data collection, analysis, and the future of science. Dr. Eric Schulze (FDA CVM) is featured in the article as an expert in embryonic stem cell biology, lab technology, and general trends in science. Dr. Schulze’s opinions regarding the future of laboratory technology are highlighted, specifically how intuitive lab technology has become an invaluable teaching tool that encourages unusual or unexpected collaborations within diverse scientific disciplines.

Taylor-Edwards CC, Burrin DG, Holst JJ, McLeod KR, Harmon DL. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves. J Dairy Sci 2011;94(2):888-898.

Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a hormone secreted by intestinal endocrine cells in response to nutrients. Ruminant calves were given GLP-2 for 10 days, which increased small intestinal mucosal growth. Small intestinal blood flow increased with GLP-2, but the response was attenuated after the 10-day administration of GLP-2. This hormone may, in part, mediate physiological changes in the intestine that occur with diet and could benefit animals with intestinal disease.

Book Chapters

Puschner B and Reimschuessel R. Toxicosis Caused by Melamine and Cyanuric Acid in Dogs and Cats: Uncovering the Mystery and Subsequent Global Implications. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 2011;31(1):181-199. Epub 2010 Dec 6.

This chapter reviews the events which occurred during the 2007 melamine pet food recall. Described are the time line, epidemiology, clinical outcomes, and research which helped FDA understand the mechanism of toxicity of melamine-related compounds.


Swaim HL, Myers MJ, and Zhu M. In vitro Identification of Novel MicroRNA Biomarkers of Swine Inflammation. January 2011. 19th International Plant and Animal Genome Meeting.