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Paper Trail

Citations for Journal Articles and Posters by CVM Scientists in 2010

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 Cover of Paper Trail - December 2010

Boehmer JL, Ward JL, Peters RR, et al. Proteomic analysis of the temporal expression of bovine milk proteins during coliform mastitis and label-free relative quantification. J Dairy Sci 2010;93(2):593-603.

Expression of milk proteins present in milk from healthy cows and cows with experimentally-induced mastitis was analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and changes in identified proteins found using LC-MS/MS were evaluated and compared with changes measured using an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The results indicated that label-free LC-MS/MS methods are a viable method of determining changes in protein biomarkers in milk during mastitis without a reliance on antibodies.
Boehmer JL, DeGrasse JA, McFarland MA, et al. The Proteomic Advantage: Label-Free Quantification of Proteins Expressed in Bovine Milk during Experimentally Induced Coliform Mastitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2010;138:252-266.
A comprehensive review of both the progress and pitfalls associated with using proteomic strategies in the analyses of complex biological samples for biomarker discovery purposes. The focus of the review is the biological complexity of bovine milk, the need for more accurate biomarkers of inflammation for the evaluation of the efficacy of new veterinary therapeutics, and the current progress towards identifying low abundance proteins related to the host response to infection in bovine milk.
Davidson MK. PDA Task Force for Alternative Mycoplasma Test Methods. Technical Report No. 50. Alternatives Methods for Mycoplasma Testing. 2010. Parenteral Drug Association.
This is a global consensus document on alternative testing methods for Mycoplasma
Taylor-Edwards CC, Burrin DG, Matthews JC, et al. Expression of mRNA for proglucagon and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) receptor in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and the influence of energy intake. Dom Anim Endocrinol 2010;39:181-193.
This research is the first to show that a hormone called glucagon-like peptide-2 is present in the intestinal tract of cattle and its secretion is increased with increased food intake. This hormone is responsible for initiating growth of the intestinal tract, allowing for better absorption of nutrients in the diet. This hormone might be used for treating intestinal disease or preventing intestinal damage.
Fahmy R. Application of Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in Predicting the Solid State of Carbamazepine Solid Dispersions. November 2010. American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists.
Fahmy R. Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Drug using a Novel Polymeric Solubilizer (Soluplus®). November 2010. American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists.
Fahmy R. Quality by Design (QbD): Application of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a control strategy tool for measuring in-process and product quality attributes of Ciprofloxacin immediate release tablets produced via roller compaction. November 2010. American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists
Fahmy R. Correlation Study between Disintegration and Dissolution Tests for Ciprofloxacin Immediate Release Tablets. November 2010. American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists. 
Fahmy R. Enhancing Dissolution Rate of Carbamazepine via Solvent Casting with a Novel Polymeric Solubilizer (Soluplus®). November 2010. American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists.
Fahmy R. Optimization of Formulation and Process Conditions using Statistical Risk Analysis to Set Product Design Space. November 2010. American Association for Pharmaceutical Scientists. 
Heller DN. Issues in Mass Spectrometry Between Bench Chemists and Regulatory Laboratory Managers: Summary of the Roundtable on Mass Spectrometry. Journal of AOAC International 2010;93(5):1625-1632.
The authors summarized a roundtable discussion among about 45 regulatory chemists who use mass spectrometry to analyze food products for chemical residues. The discussion and recommendations focused on technical issues that affect how the data is used to support regulatory decisions. The authors sought to improve communication between chemists and regulators and to help set realistic expectations for a powerful analytical technique.
Idowu OR, Peggins JO, Cullison R, and von Bredow J. Comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in lactating dairy cows and beef steers following intravenous administration of enrofloxacin. Res Vet Sci 2010;89: 230-235.
The comparative pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were investigated in lactating cows and beef steers. The plasma elimination half-life of either enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin was shorter in cows than in steers. Within either bovine class, plasma elimination half-life of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin are comparable, while plasma protein binding was higher for enrofloxacin than for ciprofloxacin. ciprofloxacin was more concentrated in milk than enrofloxacin.
Jones YL, Oliver HF, Deeds JR, and Yancy HF. Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Pufferfish Products. J Food Protection 2010;73:1698-1702.
An assay was developed for the rapid detection of products containing tissues from potentially toxic pufferfish (family Tetraodontidae), as part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine and Center for Food Safety
and Applied Nutrition’s charter to protect human health. In this study, we developed a TaqMan assay derived from DNA barcode data for the specific detection of pufferfish. The method requires only 1 h of total run time, a significant improvement over current methods, which can require 24 to 96 h for completion. The probes were tested against 105 species of fish and were able to detect 20 species of pufferfish; no cross-reactivity was shown with 85 species of nonpufferfish, including 20 related species from the same order (Tetraodontiformes). These results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for the rapid and specific detection of pufferfish and that it could be a useful regulatory tool to protect human health.
Martinez MN and Silley P. Antimicrobial drug resistance. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2010;199:227-64.
This review article summarizes the mechanisms of microbial drug resistance, how this resistance development can be encouraged by inadequate drug concentrations, and potential alternative targets that may help minimize the selection of resistant microbial strains.
Martinez MN and Hunter RP. Current challenges facing the determination of product bioequivalence in veterinary medicine. J Vet Pharm Ther2010; 33(5):418-433.
This manuscript highlights many of the unresolved challenges currently impacting the evaluation of product bioequivalence in veterinary medicine, and provides a summary of the associated scientific complexities with each of these issues.
Martinez MN, Selen A, and Jelliffe R. Novel methods for developing clinically relevant product specifications. Controlled Release Society Newsletter 2010;27(2):34-37.
One of the challenges in developing in vitro and in vivo correlations for example, for parenteral extended release dosage forms is that the in vitro test conditions result in drug release occurring over a period of hours, and may even have an initial burst release, as compared to the in vivo release duration of weeks, months, or even years. This article describes the variability in drug pharmacokinetics (including variation in the in vivo drug release characteristics) that may influence drug exposure in the actual patient population, or how such variability can influence the therapeutic outcome across a targeted patient population.
Martinez MN, Rathbone MJ, Burgess D, and Huynh M. Breakout session summary from AAPS/CRS joint workshop on critical variables in the in vitro and in vivo performance of parenteral sustained release products. J Control Release 2010;142(1):2-7.
This review article summarizes pivotal points covered at the 2009 workshop exploring the use of in vitro methods to predict in vivo drug absorption for complex parenteral dosage forms.  
Martinez MN and Modric S. Patient variation in veterinary medicine – Part I – Influence of altered physiological states. J Vet Pharm Ther 2010;33(3):213-26.
In veterinary medicine, it is rare to find information on the covariates that can influence drug exposure characteristics. This manuscript provides a comprehensive overview of veterinary literature on various stressors (such as disease, inflammation, pregnancy, and lactation) that can substantially alter drug pharmacokinetics. It is through an appreciation of these potential influences that we can better identify situations when dose adjustments may be appropriate.
Martinez MN, Lindquist D, and Modric S.
Terminology challenges: defining modified release dosage forms in veterinary medicine. J Pharm Sci 2010;99(8):3281-90.
This commentary was published in order to stimulate further discussion and ultimately provide a consistent and uniform set of nomenclature recommendations for modified-release dosage forms for veterinary drugs. The article provided an overview of terms currently used for approved veterinary drug products in the U.S. and possible solutions for eliminating inconsistencies and confusion among formulation scientists, veterinarians, regulatory agencies, and the public.
Modric S and Martinez MN.
Patient variation in veterinary medicine – Part II – Influence of physiological variables. (In press: J Vet Pharm Ther)
Characterization of a drug’s pharmacokinetic properties is generally based upon data that are derived from studies that employ small groups of young healthy animals, often of a single breed.   In this second part of the series on patient variation, we reviewed covariates such as gender, heritable traits, age, body composition, and circadian rhythm. The impact of these factors with respect to predicting the relationship between dose and drug exposure characteristics within an animal population is illustrated through the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Ultimately, it is through an appreciation of these potential influences that we can better identify those situations when dose adjustments may be appropriate.
Momcilovic D. 2009. Prions and Prion Diseases. In V.K. Juneja and J.N. Sofos (ed.) Pathogens and Toxins in Food: Challenges and Interventions, ASM Press, Washington D.C.
Book chapter on prion and prion diseases with emphasis on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The chapter summarizes our understanding of prion diseases and presents a brief outline of our interventions preventing them, with particular emphasis on our regulations prohibiting use of certain mammalian protein in animal feed.
Ramírez MS, Piñeiro S, Centrón D, Argentinian Integron Study Group. Novel insights about class 2 integrons from experimental and genomic epidemiology. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010;54(2):699-706.
Integrons are DNA or genetic elements that acquire and exchange exogenous DNA known as gene cassettes. These cassettes may contain antimicrobial resistance genes and contribute to lateral gene transfer in bacteria. In this manuscript we described the clinical epidemiology and genetic architecture of class 2 integrons from 726 isolates in two bacterial populations. 
Haley TL, Grizzle J, Rotstein DS, et al. Determination of an Oral Aflatoxin Dose that Acutely Impairs Hepatic Function in Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia). J Avian Med Surg 2010; 24: 210-221.  
Aflatoxin B-1 is a common hepatotoxin in birds. The study goal was to establish an acute model for hepatotoxicosis and decreased hepatic function in white Carneaux pigeons receiving an oral bolus of mycotoxoin, Aflatoxin B-1. Evaluation included clinical pathology, scintigraphy, and histopathological evaluation of the liver. Histological evaluation and liver enzyme activity indicated hepatocellular damage, but scintigraphy and bile acid testing did not demonstrate decreased hepatic function.
Barco SG, D’Eri LR, Woodward BL, Winn JP, and Rotstein DS. Spectra ® fishing twine entanglement of a bottlenose dolphin: a case study and experimental modeling. Mar Pollution Bulletin 2010;60:1471-1481.
Spectra® twine is a relatively new microfilament braided twine that is marketed to replace nylon monofilament twine in rod and reel fisheries. A dolphin was entangled with the line resulting in significant debilitation beyond normal observations for other line entanglements in a similar period of time (20 days). Histological evaluation of the wounds and abrasion properties of the twines was conducted.   Spectra® twine was significantly more abrasive on bottlenose dolphin fluke tissue than a similar strength and diameter monofilament.
Hart LB, Wells RS, Adams JD, Rotstein DS, et al. Modeling lacaziosis lesion progression in common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncates using long-term photographic records. Dis Aquat Organ 2010;90(2):105-112.
Lacazia (formerly Loboa) loboi is a yet uncultured fungus observed in humans and dolphins with distinct gross and microscopic features. The fungus has been observed in dolphins in Florida primarily, though there is a single confirmed and a couple of suspect (Lobomycosis-like disease) in North Carolina. The present study used photographic data from long-term photo-identification and health assessment projects to model and quantify the progression of lacaziosis lesions in 3 common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA. The progression of lacaziosis lesions and lesion growth rates were modeled using a non-linear monomolecular growth model.
Rotstein DS, West K, Levine G, et al. Cryptococcus gattii vgi in a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from Hawaii. J Zoo Wildl Med 2010;41:181-183.
This case report details the first reported infection of C. gattii in a dolphin from Hawaii. C. gattii VGI yeast were observed in multiple organs with minimal inflammation. A comparison of this case to the C. gattii VGII outbreak in animals and humans in the Pacific Northwest was also a component of the manuscript.