Animal & Veterinary
FDA Veterinarian Newsletter May/June 2003 Volume XVIII, No 3
CVM is pleased to announce the following winners of the 2003 Science Forum poster awards. Dr. Linda Youngman, Director, Office of Research, made the announcement following the 9th Annual FDA Science Forum adding that, “although we are a relatively small Office and Center, we received significant accolades for our ongoing work. It is very gratifying that the research conducted by OR is so highly regarded by our scientific colleagues.”
SIGMA XI POSTER AWARDS 2003
POSTER & CATEGORY O-07. Systemic and Local Drug Delivery Inhibits Vascular Stenosis Following Angioplasty and Grafting: Safety and Effectiveness and Routes of Administration.
J.W. Karanian, N. Kipshidze, D. Wray-Cahen, S.L. Hilbert, A. Ashby, W.F. Pritchard – CDRH
Swine studies were designed to assess the safety and effectiveness of systemic versus local administration of drugs to inhibit vascular occlusion due to stenosis. Stenosis resulting from neointimal hyperplasia is a typical failure mode associated with balloon angioplasty, stenting and vascular grafting. Scientists have shown balloon anigioplasty of swine coronary arteries is followed by the development of stenosis (neointimal hyperplasia) by 30 days. Systemic estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) was shown to moderately reduce the angioplasty-induced coronary stenosis in swine. Recent reports analyzing the risks/benefits of ERT have focused on chronic systemic administration, not localized single dose delivery. However, scientists have shown that local delivery of an immunosuppressent drug markedly inhibits stenosis at the venous anastomosis of a vascular graft. They are currently studying the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of local drug delivery (e.g., steroid, immunosuppressent and cytostatic drug) as a method of reducing the neointimal hyperplasia that leads to vascular stenosis in our swine models. These results are consistent with the proposition that local drug delivery, via an intraluminal catheter or drug-eluting device, may provide a more safe and efficacious therapy for the treatment of occlusive vascular disease.
POSTER & CATEGORY F-15. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) of Foodborne Salmonella & Campylobacter.
R. Singh, S.L. Foley, D.G. White, S. Zhao, S. Simjee, P.F. McDermott, R.D. Walker – CVM
Approximately 76 million people suffer from foodborne illnesses in the U.S. annually at an average cost to the U.S. economy of $15 billion. Many pathogenic bacterial species have been implicated in foodborne diseases, with infections caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter species occurring at higher frequencies than those caused by other species. In this study scientists present MST as a means of determining the food animal of origin of Campylobacter and Salmonella. They have investigated serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for their capacities to distinguish Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates from pigs, cattle, turkey, and chickens. For Campylobacter, preliminary analysis of the data suggests that PFGE and MLST provide better discriminatory power than biochemical profiles or serotyping. For Salmonella, serotyping appears to be the best method for certain strains, namely S. Dublin and S. Choleraesuis isolates, in which over 99% are from cattle and swine, respectively. The results from this study could aid in determining the food animal species from which Salmonella or Campylobacter may have originated. Further, the methods can be used as an example for future MST studies of other foodborne pathogens. Data from these studies will aid the FDA’s ability in making science-based regulatory decisions about food safety.
CLEAR SCIENCE COMMUNICATION AWARDS 2003
POSTER & CATEGORY A-29. Validation of Methods to Confirm Chloramphenicol at 0.1 ppb in Shrimp, Crabmeat and Honey: Collaboration between FDA CVM, FDA ORA, Florida Dept of Agriculture and Consumer Affairs and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.
M.C. Carson, C. B. Nochetto, D.N. Heller, K. Ferbos, P.J. Kijak – CVM & ORA
Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a potent and cheap antibiotic that is associated with aplastic anemia and other toxic effects in humans. It is banned from use in food-producing animals in the U.S. Low levels of CAP were detected by analysts in Europe, Canada, and some U.S. States in imported shrimp, honey, and other commodities. Existing FDA methods could only detect 1-2 parts per billion CAP. In July 2002 the Commissioner committed the FDA to begin analyzing imported foods with methods capable of confirming CAP at 0.3 ppb, consistent with enforcement levels used in other countries, and also consistent with the claimed detection limits of marketed screening assays. FDA needed to quickly validate methods to confirm CAP at sub-part per billion concentrations. The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency had recently developed appropriate LC-MS-MS methods for shrimp and honey, respectively, which they shared with the FDA. CVM validated Florida’s method to confirm 0.1 ppb CAP in shrimp and crabmeat, and validated Canada’s method to confirm 0.1 ppb CAP in honey. CVM scientists adapted FDA’s shrimp method (LIB 4284) for analysis on a triple quadrupole, lowering its limit of confirmation from 1 ppb to 0.1 ppb, and validated the modified method.
CVM is proud of its staff members and congratulates all FDA award winners.