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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Animal & Veterinary

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MUMS - South American Perspective

Dr. Jorge Errecalde

DR. ERRECALDE:  First of all, I want to express my gratitude to the organizers of course, because if not I wouldn’t be here; and, secondly, I want to express my gratitude to them because this is -- I have to be hones, this is a new subject to me.  In a meeting conducted in Brazil a couple of months ago, less than two months ago, they offered me to participate in this workshop.  So I have face enough to come.  I came.
  (Laughter.)

The other thing you see is that this title is not the same than the title you have there in the paper, because I think in South America it is difficult to speak about perspectives.  I will speak about a sample of facts.  It is a sample.  Another thing, an interesting thing, is that I have been some 30 years teaching pharmacology, 20 years teaching and trying to train people on the rational use of drugs in veterinary medicine.  So I disagree with almost everything I will present now.
  (Laughter.)

So I must be very clear.  I must be very clear.
  (Slide.)

I said this subject was new for me.  I started trying to understand what is a major species, because a major species I supposed before was large animals, but now I understand very well what you mean, and definitely this is a problem here.  That is definitely major species for the Southern Hemisphere, at least this one.  I think Eric gave you a lot of examples important, too.
  (Slide.)

So then I started to understand how to classify these, and of course I found that minor species are MUMS because of a lot of things, and a classification should take into account all these factors.  However, probably the pubic would understand better a zoological classification. 
  (Slide.)

I attempted a zoological classification of various species.  Follows a very simple zoological classification.
  (Slide.)

So I speak about I found inferior animals.  I call it inferior animals.  These are --- animals of some importance in Latin America, and aquatic animals like ornamental and productive of fish and prawns. 
(Slide.)

Amphibians and reptiles, where you have a variety here, even snakes and even rodents.  You have pet snakes.
  (Slide.)

About birds, you have a variety here. 
  (Slide.)

I think you can classify finding a lot of physiological similarities here.  Rodents, there are some rodents that are pets here, some rodents that are productive especially in the last part of this transparency.
  (Slide.)

And small ruminants, South American camelids and deers.  You find the goat here.  I have not included sheep here, considered a major species.  These camelids, I will speak about them later, and deer.
  (Slide.)

Wild and zoo animals represent an extremely complex subject as you will see through this range of photographs here, and it is very complicated to speak about that.  In general wildlife and zoo veterinarians, know a lot about these animals, although it is one of the subjects in pharmacology that are so dynamic that you have to be catching up continuously.  Especially with pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic matters.  But anyway, these veterinarians are the ones who manage better the wild and zoo therapeutic story.
  (Slide.)

I selected a few species of importance, economical importance.  So honeybees is one of them, and there are three diseases, foulbrood, varroasis, and nosemosis.  In the two kind of foulbrood, American and European, we can eventually use antibiotics in the case of American; in light infections in the case of European, oxytetracycline, neomycin.  What the producers normally use is one gram of oxytetracycline in 100 grams sugar three times weekly per hive.

In varroasis there are different treatments.  Pyrethroids in impregnated wood strips, how much pyrethroid is in one strip nobody knows.  Coumaphos, amitraz, this is the first time that I know that amitraz could be smoked.  They put it in a smoker and they spread some fumes with amitraz possibly there.  Formic acid, ten-percent strips or applicators; rotenone and timol are used, too.  For nosemosis, fumagylin in patty or syrup.
  (Slide.)

The snails, this is another interesting thing.  Snails are a nice thing to eat because they grow naturally.  When they started to culture it, it started to spoil the story, and there are some infections, Pseudomonas, and sprinkled tetracyclines are recommended.  Of course Pseudomonas is not susceptible to tetracycline.  There are nematode infections, protozoa infections; and what are the treatments?  I found that they use two treatments; calcium carbonate sprinkled to harden shells, and they sprinkle oxytetracycline salts, at least some of them.  They sprinkle oxytetracycline.
  (Slide.)

Prawns, this is a very interesting chapter because the intensive farming of prawns.  You can imagine thousands of individuals in little volume, metabolizing everything there with a tremendous bacterial resistance down.  I found that there is a lot of antibiotic use there.  Against protozoa, acriflavin and copper sulphate are used.  Against ectoparasites, ivermectin and organophosphates.  But there is a big problem here.  That is the persistence of antimicrobials in sediment.  This an excellent culture medium, and all of you are aware of the risk of dissemination of resistence within this and other media.  This is a real opportunity for bacteria, real opportunity.
  (Slide.)

Infectious diseases of salmon, you have here a fat salmon full of food and oxytetracycline.
  (Laughter.)

And maybe worse.  I have a few diseases here, septicemia probably the worst.  There are three possibilities of using oxytetracycline; in injection, in food, or bath for several days.  Enrofloxacin, I found that is very used in minor species.  Enrofloxacin by injection in unique dose, but it is used in food animals also.  I found in a Spanish Web page to probably disorient producers that chloramphenicol could be used in food or in injection.  For furunculosis, amoxicillin, this dose in food for 10 days, and erythromycin.  It can be used in food for 20 days.
  (Slide.)

Then you will find here that I added a couple of slides to the presentation you have in the book because that was a draft one.  Now I will show you this 100 products of fish in Chile.  Chile is a leader in fish production in Latin America.  They produce it in the fjords, the coast.  You see that likely 100 products, I haven’t -- it is not necessary to calculate percentage here.  I am not good at mathematics.
  (Laughter.)

But you see that this is 64 percent of antibiotics, only 10 percent of vaccines, and the rest are the other drugs.  So there is an enormous prominence of antibiotics in the pharmacopeia.
  (Slide.)

Now you will see the distribution of the antibiotics, and as I told you it is very difficult to calculate percentage.  It is never 100 percent.  There is a great prevalence of quinolones; 64 percent are quinolones, 20 percent oxytetracycline, 10 percent macrolides, and the rest probably some others with low percentages.
  (Slide.)

Amphibians and reptiles, cayman, we have a few farms in South America, in Argentina in particular.  A couple of important diseases are mycoplasmosis where you have pneumonia, swollen joints.  Stress is important.  Tetracycline injection is used.  For chlamydia, in the acute case death, in the ocular case tetracyclines.  For salmonella, hygienic measures plus wide-spectrum antibiotics is what technicians recommend.  Non-specific septicemia, antibacterials in the early stage; and for coccidiosis, sulfonamides. 
  (Slide.)

In turtles and snakes, there is a prominence of gram-negative bacteria, and, as you probably know, there is a relation between metabolic rate and temperature in these kinds of animals.  Therefore in correct therapeutic plans we should consider temperature, and especially for withdrawal periods.  There are a few antibiotics used in these animals.  Carbenicillin I think is too, high dose, about every 48 hours at 25 degrees.  Doxycycline, 50 mg/kg every 72 hours at 20 degrees; amikacin, 5 mg/kg, every 48 hours at 30 degrees; enrofloxacin, 10 mg/kg every 24 to 48 hours at 30 degrees.  Metronidazole for anaerobes at 20 mg/kg every 48 hours; they didn’t say anything about temperature.
  (Slide.)

About birds, I consulted a couple of experts, one very well known in Argentina, and where we discussed these parasitic disease where levamisol used to be dosed orally for three days.  That has been only about pigeons and canaries.   In the case of capilariasis, ivermectin; known does injected is difficult to understand how you can inject a canary.  Sometimes they say that they put -- I don’t know the gauge, but in a thick gauge they put a drop of ivermectin and the punch the wing.  So that is a lethal dose of ivermectin.  That is the real dose.  That is what the practitioners do.  About tenia, praziquantel orally or subcutaneously, one does (10 mg/bird).  For Trichomonas, ronidazole or metronidazol, orally seven days treatment.  For coccidia you have oral sulfamethazine, and for lice, cipermethrin in spray.
  (Slide.)

This is another interesting transparency because we have here virus and bacteria of pigeons and canaries.  For paramixovirus there is a vaccine.  For adenovirus and herpes virus some practitioners use homeopathy.  I don’t know what the result of homeopathy in viruses, but they say that it works.  For paratifosis there is a trivalent vaccine that is working properly.  For Strepto and Staphylococcus in canary foot that is a common infection; chlortetracycline, 1.5 grams in 5 liters orally seven to 14 days.  For mycotic proventriculitis, ketoconazol orally.
  (Slide.)

Now with rheas, there are a few farms of rheas now, and it is growing in Argentina.  This is a growing business in South America.  There are few ratite pathologists. Enteritis, they say that antibiogram, is necessary and the treatment based in probiotics, and antimicrobials.  For rhino-tracheitis, for dust plus mycoplasma plus stress oxytetracycline.  I gastric verminosis, they use levamisole, fenbendazole, classical avermectins.  For ectoparasites, pyrethroids, amitraz, and avermectins.
  (Slide.)

For rodents, we have rabbits in this group.  That is a good example because there are several farms now after the last devaluation in Argentina.  It became productive again to breed rabbits.  There are skin problems here.  Mange is one; injectable ivermectin, 400 micron per kilo is what they are using.  For ringworm, iodines.  For internal parasites, injectable ivermectin.  In the respiratory system we have rhinitis, so enrofloxacin or oxytetracycline being the selected drugs in general.  In the reproductive system, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, maybe others, but you will note that in general enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline are very much used.  In the digestive system, enterotoxemias.  The technicians say, "Okay, we need antibiogram," and the same with colibacilosis.  In coccidiosis, robenidin in food is preventive, and therapeutically sulfonamides. 
  (Slide.)

With the chinchilla, this is a table that is distributed among producers.  Here are the drugs here and the different categories.  Ivermectin is used the same dose in categories, except when they treat the whole animals at one centimeter in five liters of water.  They use the commercial formulation one percent, but they put it in five liters.  Oxitocin only postpartum oxytetracycline, they use it in death when pneumonia symptoms appear.  Formaldehyde once a month, they spray everything and ventilate.  Enrofloxacin when death animals without diagnosis or depressed animals without diagnosis appear.  This is the indication.  Zeranol is an interesting thing.  They use half of a pellet implanted zeranol has some effect in the hair of the chinchilla and helps maturation.  But of course these animals become sterile after application.  The animal has to be killed two months after implanted with zeranol.
  (Slide.)

With the South American camelids, here you are.  The vicuna, the alpaca, guanaco, and the llama, and it is interesting but it is a theory of evolution.  Shortly ago I found that the alpaca is the evolution of the domesticated vicuna, and that the llama is the evolution of the domesticated guanaco.  It is pretty interesting.  Of course you can see a lot of difference here, but there are several different kinds of alpaca.  This is a very nice one ---.  This not a very nice vicuna.
  (Laughter.)

But that is a theory.  This is an interesting chapter because South American fauna is very rich in small mammals, but not very rich in large mammals, and these are the largest herbivorous mammals we have in South America, and then have been domesticated for a long time.  People have been living with these camelids since a long time.  The Incas exploited these kind of animals and they used to gather all the animals in a big region --- to obtain fiber and meat or whatever.  The second year, a different region, a third region to come back to the first region in the fourth year.  It was rather rational.  When the Spanish came of course it was a --- exploitation.  When the Spanish came, the exploitation turned into absolutely irrational, and they started to kill animals to obtain anything, and that was very negative for these animals.  This evolved now to very small familial exploitation.  A family or a group of people have little herds in the mountains, and they sell the fiber annually.  This fiber sells for good quality, especially the vicuna and alpaca.  Well, there is a proof of that.  The Inca chief using vicuna clothes, whereas the normal citizen uses guanaco clothes.  These are animals with not big food requirements.  They live in the mountains.  They are very rough.  The problems in winter with the snow when there is no food, and sometimes the government officers go on the hill and prescribe antibiotics and vitamins, but the real problem is food.
  (Slide.)

The National Service of Animal Health of Argentina requires a few things, not a few, to register a new drug for minor species.  It requires a monography covering all aspects required by the MERCOSUR regulations.  This is you will remember is Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil.  Chile is working very properly in registration, too.  Bibliography data covering aspects of safety and efficacy, and experimental evidence on efficacy, withdrawal time, stability, and innocuity are required too.
  (Slide.)

So to conclude here, I have a very original conclusion here.  This is an extremely complex subject.
  (Laughter.)

A few species should be prioritized.  I think that is a good possibility.  There is a lot of widespread scientific material, good-quality scientific material and bad-quality scientific material.  It is a matter of select, and registration should be based in scientific material already existent plus safety data.  So to finish, I want to show you a little --- about my country.  This is one of the Atlantic Coast towns, Mar Del Plata.  It is on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.  This is the fishermen port.  Now we look at the very south.  The Perito Moreno Glacier, you know it, and if you go back to the north to the mountains you find Los Alerces National Park in the middle.  In the northwest you can find desertic dry areas.  This is the Talampaya canyon.  This is in another national park.  Then you move to the east to the rivers.  There you have the Iguazu falls, and if you come back to the capital city you find Buenos Aries, the European city.  You have very interesting facts, very interesting things going on in all of these regions.  You have major and minor species.  You have metabolic disease, you have bacterial disease, you have parasitic disease, but definitely the most resistant and dangerous parasites you can find here in Buenos Aries.
  (Laughter and applause.)

DR. CRAIGMILL:  Thank you very much, Professor Errecalde.  That is a very good overview.  I did have one major question I wanted to ask about iguanas.  Do you know of any commercial iguana raising in South America or Central America?

DR. ERRECALDE:  Not a lot.  Not a lot.  No iguanas.  Maybe Tupinambis, but iguanas --- what we call Lagartos have been grown in Argentina.  There are two species of Largartos (tupinambis)that some people iguanas.  There are a few farms breading these located in the most dry area, I show you in the photos in the northwest of the country.  I don’t know anything about pharmacological treatment of that species.  The farmers construct fences and they collect eggs, and incubate eggs, and that is more or less the story about breading the iguanas.

DR. CRAIGMILL:  Thank you very much.  Our next and last speaker for the morning session is Dr. Phil Reeves.  I have known Phil, and I will have to do a little translating here, I’ve known Phil for Younks.  Younks is Australian for donkey’s years, which actually in English or American means a long time.  Phil is a veterinarian.  He also has a doctorate.  He is also a pharmacologist, which we are really happy about, again.  We have another one here on the program.  He works with their medicines agency, which also approves pesticides.  In Australia they are very sort of rational and looking at chemicals as chemicals instead of splitting them up.  So they do both pesticides and veterinary drugs all under the same roof.  Phil is a senior principal veterinary officer with -- they keep changing names on it.  I really liked their old acronym, because they used to be the NRA, and I could remember that.  That was the National Registration Authority.  What is the name of your current organization?

DR. REEVES:  The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority.

DR. CRAIGMILL: It doesn’t have the same ring, does it?
  (Laughter.)

DR. CRAIGMILL:  Anyway, Phil is a friend and also an excellent colleague.  Dr. Phil Reeves.