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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

About FDA

Sources

 

The Real Cost: Campaign Overview

  1. Based on data from 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey and 2011 youth population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2012. 
  4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, NSDUH: Table 4.10A Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to the Age of 18, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2011 and 2012. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013. 
  5. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The NSDUH Report: Recent Trends in Menthol Cigarette Use. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2011.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs—2007. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2007. 

 The Real Cost: Addiction

  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2012. "Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General” (Consumer Booklet). Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2012/consumer_booklet/pdfs/consumer.pdf
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2012. “Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General” (Fact Sheet). Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/factsheet.html
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2010. “A Report of the Surgeon General: How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease - What It Means To You” (Consumer Booklet). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health: Atlanta, GA.
  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2010. “How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease - The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health: Atlanta, GA. 
  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2010. “A Report of the Surgeon General: How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease. The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease” (Fact Sheet). Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/tobaccosmoke/factsheet.html
  6. Ursprung WW, and DiFranza JR. 2010. The loss of autonomy over smoking in relation to lifetime cigarette consumption. Addict. Behav. 35 (1).
  7. Doubeni CA, Reed G, and DiFranza JR. 2010. Early course of nicotine dependence in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics 125 (6).
  8. Cancer Research UK. 2009. "Some of the Chemicals in Cigarettes." Available from: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/healthyliving/smokingandtobacco/whatsinacigarette/wheredothesechemicalscomefrom.
  9. Fagan P, Moolchan ET, Hart A Jr, Rose A, Lawrence D, Shavers VL, Gibson JT. 2010. Nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors among menthol and non-menthol smokers with similar consumptive patterns. Addiction 105 Suppl 1.
  10. Hersey JC, Nonnemaker JM, Homsi G. 2010. Menthol cigarettes contribute to the appeal and addiction potential of smoking for youth. Nicotine Tob Res. 12 Suppl 2.
  11. Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Ebersole-Robinson M, Catley D, Mayo MS, Resnicow K. 2003. Does menthol attenuate the effect of bupropion among African American smokers? Addiction. 98(10).
  12. Collins CC, Moolchan ET. 2006. Shorter time to first cigarette of the day in menthol adolescent cigarette smokers. Addict Behav. 31(8).
  13. Bover MT, Foulds J, Steinberg MB, Richardson D, Marcella SW. 2008. Waking at night to smoke as a marker for tobacco dependence: patient characteristics and relationship to treatment outcome. Int J Clin Pract. 62(2).
  14. Gandhi KK, Foulds J, Steinberg MB, Lu SE, Williams JM. 2009. Lower quit rates among African American and Latino menthol cigarette smokers at a tobacco treatment clinic. Int J Clin Pract. 63(3).
  15.  Pletcher MJ, Hulley BJ, Houston T, Kiefe CI, Benowitz N, Sidney S. 2006. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Arch Intern Med. 166(17).
  16. Stahre M, Okuyemi KS, Joseph AM, Fu SS. 2010.Racial/ethnic differences in menthol cigarette smoking, population quit ratios and utilization of evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments. Addiction. 105 Suppl 1.
  17. Gundersen DA, Delnevo CD, Wackowski O. 2009. Exploring the relationship between race/ethnicity, menthol smoking, and cessation, in a nationally representative sample of adults. Prev Med. 49(6).
  18. Harris KJ, Okuyemi KS, Catley D, Mayo MS, Ge B, Ahluwalia JS. 2004. Predictors of smoking cessation among African-Americans enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of bupropion. Prev Med. 38(4).
  19. Wackowski O, Delnevo CD.2007. Menthol cigarettes and indicators of tobacco dependence among adolescents. Addict Behav. 32(9).
  20. Cohen S and Lichtenstein E. 1990. Perceived stress, quitting, and smoking relapse. Health Psychol. 9(4).
  21. Parrott A. 2004. Heightened stress and depression follow cigarette smoking.Psychol Rep. 94(1). 

 The Real Cost: Health Costs

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2013. Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, NSDUH: Table 4.10A Past Year Initiation of Substance Use among Persons Aged 12 or Older Who Initiated Use Prior to the Age of 18, by Gender: Numbers in Thousands, 2011 and 2012. Rockville (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2013.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2014. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2004. "The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Surgeon General's Report. What It Means to You” (Consumer Booklet). Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2004/pdfs/whatitmeanstoyou.pdf
  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2010. “A Report of the Surgeon General: How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease. The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease” (Fact Sheet). Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/tobaccosmoke/factsheet.html
  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2012. "Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General” (Consumer Booklet). Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2012/consumer_booklet/pdfs/consumer.pdf
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). 2012. “Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General” (Fact Sheet). Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/factsheet.html
  7. American Dental Association (ADA). 2013. "Smoking and Tobacco." Available from: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/s/smoking-and-tobacco
  8. Just M, Ribera M, Monso E, Lorenzo JC, and Ferrandiz C. 2007. Effect of smoking on skin elastic fibres: morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. Br. J. Dermatol. 156 (1): 85-91.
  9. Urbanska M, Ratajczak L, and Witkowska-Nagiewicz A. 2012b. [Analysis of knowledge about tobacco smoking influence on skin condition]. Przegl. Lek. 69 (10): 1055-1059.
  10. Ortiz A, and Grando SA. 2012. Smoking and the skin. Int. J. Dermatol. 51 (3): 250-262.
  11. Urbanska M, Nowak G, and Florek E. 2012a. [Cigarette smoking and its influence on skin aging]. Przegl. Lek. 69 (10): 1111-111
  12. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2009. A review of human carcinogens – Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salted fish. The Lancet Oncology. 10(11):1033-34.
  13. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2007. Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon, France.
  14. National Cancer Institute (NCI). 2010. "Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer." Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/smokeless